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UNITED  STATES  COMMISSION  OF  FISH  AND  FISHERIES 

K    E\    B-A-IRD,    COMMISSIONER 


THE   FISHERIES 


FISHERY   INDUSTRIES 


UNITED  STATES 


PREPARED  THROUGH  THE  CO-OPERATION  OF  THE  COMMISSIONER  OF  FISHERIES 
AND  THE  SUPERINTENDENT  OF  THE  TENTH  CENSUS 


BY 


GEORGE   BROWN   GOODE 

ASSISTANT  SECRETAET   OF   THE   SMITHSONIAN   INSTITUTION 

AND  A  STAFF  OF  ASSOCIATES 


SECTION    V 
HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES 

IN  TWO  VOLUMES,  WITH  AN  ATLAS  OF  TWO  HUNDRED  AND  FIFTY-FIVE  PLATES 

VOLUME   II 


WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT     PRINTING    OFFICE 

1887 


ASSOCIATE    AUTHOKS. 


J'>"L  A.  ALLEN Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge. 

TARI.ETON  H.  BEAN U.  S.  National  Museum,  Washington. 

JAMKS  TEMPLE.  BROWN U.  S.  National  Museum,  Washington. 

A.  HOWARD  CLARK U.  S.  National  Museum,  Washington. 

CAPTAIN  JOSEPH  \V.  COLLINS Gloucester,  Massachusetts. 

R.  EDWARD  EARLL U.  S.  Fish  Com  mission,  Washington. 

HKNIIY  \V.  ELLIOTT Cleveland,  Ohio. 

ERNEST  IMJERSOLL - New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

DAVID  S.  JORDAN Indiana  University,  Bloomington,  Indiana. 

LUDWIG  KTMLIEN Milwaukee,  Wisconsin. 

MARSHALL  MCDONALD    U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Washington. 

FREDERICK  MATHER N.  Y.  Fish  Commission,  Cold  Spring,  New  York. 

HARNET  PHILLIPS Brooklyn,  New  York. 

RICHARD  RATIUU-N U.  S.  National  Museum,  Washington. 

JOHN  A.  RYDEK    U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Washington. 

CHARLES  W.  SMILEY  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Washington. 

SILAS  STEARNS  Pensacola,  Florida. 

FREDERICK  W.  TRUE U.  S.  National  Museum,  Washington. 

WILLIAM  A.  WILCOX Gloucester,  Massachusetts. 

ill 


TABLE    OF    CONTENTS. 


VOLUME  I. 

Page. 

List  of  illustrations  (see  also  Atlas  of  plates) XI 

PART  I.— THE  HALIBUT  FISHERIES : 

1.  The  Fresh-Halibut  Fishery.    By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLIXS 3-89 

2.  The  Salt-Halibut  Fishery.    By  N.  P.  SCUDDER 90-119 

TART  II.— THE  COD,  HADDOCK,  AND  HAKE  FISHERIES: 

1.  The  Bank  Hand-Line  Cod  Fishery    By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLINS 123-133 

2.  The  Labrador  and  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  Cod  Fisheries.     By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLINS.  133-147 

3.  The  Bank  Trawl-Line  Cod  Fishery.     By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLINS 148-187 

4.  The  George's  Bank  Cod  Fishery.     By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLINS 187-198 

5.  The  Cod  Fishery  of  Alaska.    By  TARLETON  H.  BEAN 198-224 

G.  The  Gill-Net  Cod  Fishery.     By  J.  W.  COLLINS 225-233 

7.  The  Haddock  Fishery  of  New  England.    By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLINS 234-241 

8.  The  Hake  Fishery.     By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLINS 241-243 

PART  III.— THE  MACKEREL  FISHERY.    By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  J.  W.  COLLINS: 

1.  The  Mackerel  Purse-Seine  Fishery 247-272 

2.  The  Spring  Southern  Mackerel  Fishery 273-275 

3.  The  Mackerel  Hook  Fishery 275-294 

4.  The  Mackerel  Gill- Net  Fishery 294-298 

5.  Early  Methods  of  the  Mackerel  Fishery 298-300 

6.  Legislation  for  the  Protection  of  Mackerel 301-304 

7.  Statistics  of  the  Mackerel  Fishery 304-313 

PART  IV.— THE  S WORDFISH  FISHERY.    By  G.  BROWN  GOODE 315-326 

PAUT  V.— THE  MENHADEN  FISHERY.    By  G.  BROWN  GOODE  and  A.  HOWARD 

CLAEK 327-415 

PART  VI.— THE  HERRING  FISHERY  AND  THE  SARDINE  INDUSTRY.     By  R. 
EDWARD  EARLL: 

1.  The  Herring  Fishery  of  the  United  States 419-439 

2.  The  Frozen- Herring  Industry  439-458 

3.  The  Pickled-Herring  Trade  with  Magdaleu  Islands,  Auticusti,  Newfoundland,  and  Labrador 459-472 

4.  The  Smoked-Herring  Industry 473-488 

5.  The  Sardine  Industry 489-524 

v 


VI  TABLE   OF  CONTENTS. 

PART  VII.— THE  SHORE  FISHERIES  OF  SOUTHERN  DELAWARE.    By  J.  W. 

COLLINS  : 

Page. 

1.  The  Squetoagne  or  Trout  Fishery 527-S33 

2.  The  Spot  Fishery 533-538 

3.  The  Rock  and  Perch  Fishery 538-540 

4.  The  Sturgeon  Fishery  of  Delaware  Bay 540-541 

PART  VIII.— THE  SPANISH  MACKEREL  FISHERY.     By  E.  EDWARD  EARLL  ....  543-552 

PART  IX.— THE  MULLET  FISHERY.    By  R.  EDWARD  EARLL 553-582 

PART  X.— THE  RED-SNAPPER  AND  HAVANA  MARKET  FISHERIES.    By  SILAS 
STEARNS: 

1.  The  Red-Snapper  Fishery 585-592 

2.  The  Havana  Market  Fishery  of  Key  West,  Florida 592-594 

PART  XL— THE  POUND-NET  FISHERIES   OF   THE   ATLANTIC   STATES.     By 

FREDERICK  W.  TRUE 595-cio 

PART  XII.— THE  RIVER  FISHERIES  OF  THE  ATLANTIC  STATES: 

1.  The  Rivers  of  Eastern  Florida,  Georgia,  and  South  Carolina.     By  MARSHALL  MCDONALD 613-625 

2.  The  Rivers  and  Sounds  of  North  Carolina.     By  MARSHALL  MCDONALD 625-637 

3.  The  Fisheries  of  Chesapeake  Bay  and  its  Tributaries.     By  MARSHALL  MCDONALD 637-654 

4.  The  Fisheries  of  the  Delaware  River.     By  MARSHALL  MCDONALD 654-657 

5.  The  Fisheries  of  the  Hudson  River.     By  MARSHALL  MCDONALD : 658-659 

6.  The  Connecticut  and  Honsatouic  Rivers  and  Minor  Tributaries  of  Long  Island  Sound.     By  MAR- 

SHALL MCDONALD 659-667 

7.  Rivers  of  Massachusetts  and  New  Hampshire.     By  FREDERICK  W.  TRUE  and  W.  A.  WILCOX 667-673 

8.  The  River  Fisheries  of  Maine.     By  C.  G.  ATKINS 673-728 

PART  XIII.— THE   SALMON    FISHING   AND   CANNING    INTERESTS    OF   THE 

PACIFIC  COAST.    By  D.  S.  JORDAN  aud  C.  H.  GILBERT 729-753 

PART  XIV.— THE  FISHERIES  OF  THE  GREAT  LAKES.    By  LUDWIG  KUMLIEN..  755-769 

Index..  771-808 


VOLUME  II. 

List  of  illustrations  (see  also  Atlas  of  plates) six 

PART  XV.— THE  WHALE  FISHERY: 

1.  History  and  Present  Condition  of  the  Fishery.     By  A.  HOWARD  CLARK 3-218 

2.  Whalemen,  Vessels,  Apparatus,  and  Methods  of  the  Fishery.     By  JAMES  TEMPLEMAN  BROWN 218-U9I! 

PART  XVI.— THE   BLACKFISH  AND  PORPOISE   FISHERIES.     By  A.  HOWARD 

CLARK 295-310 

PART  XVII.— THE  PACIFIC  WALRUS  FISHERY.    By  A,  HOWARD  CLARK :m-3ia 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.  vii 
PART  XVIII.— THE  SEAL  AND  SEA-OTTER  INDUSTRIES: 

Page. 

1.  The  Fur-Seal  Industry  of  the  Pribylov  Islands,  Alaska.     By  HENRY  W.  ELLIOTT 320-393 

2.  The  Fur-Sea,!  Industry  of  Cape  Flattery,  Washington  Territory.     By  JAMES  G.  SWAN 393-400 

3.  The  Antarctic  Fur-Seal  and  Sea-H'ephant  Industries.     By  A.  HOWARD  CLARK 400-467 

4.  The  Sea-Liou  Hunt.    By  HENRY  W.  ELLIOTT 407-474 

5.  The  North  Atlantic  Seal  Fishery.     By  A.  HOWARD  CLARK  474-483 

G.  The  Sea-Otter  Fishery.     By  HENRY  W.  ELLIOTT 4H3-491 

PART  XIX.— THE  TURTLE  AND  TERRAPIN  FISHERIES.    By  FREDERICK  W. 

TRUE 493-504 

PART  XX.— THE  OYSTER,  SCALLOP,  CLAM,  MUSSEL,  AND  AB ALONE  INDUS- 
TRIES.   By  ERNEST  INGERSOLL  : 

1.  The  Oyster  Industry '. 507-565 

2.  The  Scallop  Fishery 505-581 

3.  The  Clam  Fisheries 581-615 

4.  The  Mussel  Fishery f>l.rj-tyx! 

5.  The  Abalone  Fishery tWi-Gdt; 

PART  XXL— THE    CRAB,    LOBSTER,   CRAYFISH,   ROCK-LOBSTER,   SHIUMP, 
AND  PRAWN  FISHERIES.    By  RICHARD  RATHBUN  : 

1.  The  Crab  Fisheries 629-658 

2.  The  Lobster  Fishery 658-794 

3.  The  Crayfish  Fishery 794-797 

4.  The  Rock-Lobster  Fishery 798-799 

5.  The  Shrimp  and  Prawn  Fisheries 799-M10 

PART  XXIL— THE  LEECH  INDUSTRY  AND  TREPANG  FISHERY.     By  RICHARD 

RATHBUN sn-sic 

PART  XXIII.— THE  SPONGE  FISHERY  AND  TRADE 817-841 

Index. 843-881 


LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

*     [Engraved  by  the  Photo-Engraving  Company  of  Now  York  City.] 


(Page  references  to  Volumes  I  and  II  of  text.) 

THE  FRESH  HALIBUT  FISHERY. 

VoL  Page. 

1.  Halibut  schooner  under  jib,  foresail,  and  double-reefed  mainsail;  nests  of  dories  on  deck  amid- 

ships; rigged  for  fall  and  winter  fishiug I, 

Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

2.  Halibut  schooner  in  summer  rig,  two  topmasts  up  and  all  sails  spread  ..  I, 

Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins.     (Engraved  by  Photo-Electrotype  Company.) 

3.  FIG.  1.  Sectional  plan  of  halibut  schooner.     (See  page  opposite  plate  for  explanation) I, 

FIG.  2.  Deck  plan  of  halibut  schooner.     (See  page  opposite  plate  for  explanation) 9 

Drawings  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

4.  Sectional  plan  of  well-smack  employed  in  the  fresh  halibut  fishery  ou  George's  Bank,  183G  to  1845. 

(See  page  opposite  plate  for  explanation) 

Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

5.  FIG.  1.  Bait  chopper 

FIG.  2.  Bait  slivering  knife 

FIG.  3.  Halibut  killer  and  gob  stick I, 

FIG.  4.  Woolen  hand  nipper 

FIG.  5.  Halibut  gaff I,                1' 

FIG.  0.  Trawl  buoy  and  black  ball I> 

FIG.  7.  Canvas  skate  for  section  of  trawl I> 

FIG.  8.  Dory  scoop 10 

Drawings  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

6.  FIG.  1.  Hurdy-gurdy  to  haul  trawls  in  deep  water I,     10,11,10 

FlG.  2.  Dory  showing  mode  of  attaching  and  using  the  hurdy-gurdy I,      10,  11,  10 

FIG.  3.  Trawl  roller  attached  to  dory  gunwale  for  hauling  trawls  in  shoal  water..  I,  10 

Drawings  by  Capt.  .1.  \V.  Collins. 

7.  Cutting  bait  and  baiting  trawls  on  halibut  schooner  at  anchor  ou  the  fishing  grounds. .  ...         I,  12 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

8.  Dories  and  crew  ou  the  way  to  haul  the  trawls;  the  schooner  at  anchor  under  riding  sail I,  13-10 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  "W.  Collins. 

9.  Halibut  dory  and  crew  hauling  the  trawl,  gaffing  and  clubbing  the  halibut I,  10 

Drawing  by  H.  VT.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

10.  Dory  and  crew  caught  to  leeward  in  a  storm  while  hauling  the  trawl ;  trawl-buoy  and  line  drifted 

astern  of  the  vessel  for  their  rescue I,  10,80 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

11.  Halibut  schooner  at  anchor  on  the  Grand  Bank  in  winter,  riding  out  a  gale I, 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

12.  Halibut  schooner  "lyiug-to:)  in  a  gale  on  the  Bank,  under  riding  sail  and  doublti-ivrfrd  foresail.         I, 

Drawing  by  El.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  \V.  Colliua. 

13.  Halibut  schooner  tripped  by  a  hi  ;i\  \  si  a 

Drawing  by  H.  TV.  Elliott  and  C:ij>t.  J.  W.  Collins. 

14.  Halibut  schooner  in  winter,  head-reaching  under  short  sail I, 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 


X  LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

Vol.  Page. 

15.  Old-atyle  halibut  schooner,  hand-line  fishing  from  deck,  1840  to  1850 I,          29-43 

Drawing  by  H.  \V.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

Hi.  Dressing  hadibut  on  deck  of  schooner  for  icing  in  the  hold I,  19 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

17.  FIG.  1.  Halibut  cutting  knife I,  19 

FIG.  2.  Scraping  knife  to  remove  muscle  and  flesh  from  backbone  after  cutting I,  19 

FIG.  3.   Squillgee  for  pushing  ice  iu  pen I,  19 

FIG.  4.  Oak  mallet  for  breaking  ice I,  19 

FIG.  5.  Oak  broom  for  scrubbing  halibut I,  19 

Drawings  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

18.  General  view  of  schooner  discharging  fare  of  fresh  halibut  at  Gloucester,  Mass I,  21 

Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

19.  Hoisting  halibut  from  hold  of  schooner  at  Gloucester,  Mass I,  21 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

20.  Weighing  and  selling  halibut  on  deck  of  George's  Bank  hand-Hue  cod  schoouer I,  22 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  T.  W.  Collins. 

21.  Handling  fresh  halibut  at  Gloucester,  Mass.;  weighing,  unheadiug,  and  packing  in  ice  for  ship- 

ment by  rail I,  22 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

22.  Packing  fresh  halibut  at  Gloucester,  Mass.;  preparing  ice  with  pick  and  grinding  machine  ;  nail- 

ing covers  on  the  boxes;  use  of  devil's  claw I,  22 

Drawings  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

THE  BANK  HAND-LINE  AND  TRAWL  COD  FISHERIES. 

23.  Old  style  Grand  Bank  cod  schooner ;  crew  at  rails  hand-line  fishing I,       125,126 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

24.  Hand-line  dory  cod  fishing  on  the  Grand  Bank I,  126 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

25.  Deck  plan  of  schooner  Centennial,  of  Gloucester I,  149 

Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 
20.  Dory  and  crew  setting  cod  trawls  on  the  Bank I,       152, 17G 

Drawing  by  ff.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

27.  Underrunniug  cod  trawls  ;  two  methods  of  setting  trawl  for  underrunning I,  177 

Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

28.  Newfoundland  fishermen  catching  squid  for  sale  as  cod  bait  to  United  States  vessels I,       152,184 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

29.  Dory  crew  of  cod  fishermen  catching  birds  for  bait I,  152 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

(For  illustration  of  cod  schooners  discharging  cargoes  see  Section  on  Preparation  of  Fishery  Prod- 
ucts.) 

THE  GEORGE'S  BANK  COD  FISHERY. 

30.  Gloucester  schooner  at  anchor  on  George's  Bank  in  winter ;  hand-Hue  fishing  for  cod ;  rigged  with- 

out topmasts  for  rough  weather I,       190-193 

From  painting  by  Paul  E.  Collins,  Boston,  Mass. 

31.  Cod  hand-line  gear I,  192 

FIG.  1.  Lead  sinker  with  brass  horse  and  swivels. 
FIG.  2.  George's  Bank  gear  with  sling-ding,  &c. 
FIG.  3.  Hand-Hue  gear  for  shoal  water. 
Drawings  by  Capt.  J.  \V.  Collins. 

32.  George's  Bank  crew  hand-line  fishing,  gaffing  fish  over  the  rail,  cutting  out  tongues 1,  194 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

33.  Dressing  cod  on  deck  of  fishing  schooner I,      156, 180, 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins.  195 

34.  Discharging  fare  of  George's  Bank  cod  at  Gloucester  wharf. .  .         I,  195 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1882. 

35.  Splitting  and  washing  George's  Bank  cod  at  Wonson's  wharf,  Gloucester,  Mass I,  195 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1882. 

THE  COD  FISHERY  OF  ALASKA. 

36.  Natives  in  boats  fi.shing  with  hand-lines I,  220 


LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V.  XI 

THE  GILL-NET  COD  FISHERY. 

VoL  Page. 

37.  Method  of  hauging  cod  gill-nets  in  Norway.     (Explanation  with  plate) I,  227,228 

From  Bulletin  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.     Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

:'.-'.  FIG.  1.  Method  of  attaching  glass  floats  to  top  of  nets I,  228 

FIG.  2.  Method  of  fastening  sinkers  to  foot  of  nets.     (Explanation  on  plate) I,  228 

From  Bulletin  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.     Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

:iS).  Norwegian  method  of  sotting  gill-nets  at  bottom.     (Explanation  on  plate) I,  228 

From  Bulletin  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.    Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collina. 

10.  Norwegian  methods  of  setting  nets  to  get  position  of  fish.     (Explanation  on  plate) I,  228 

From  Bulletin  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.    Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

41.  Norwegian  method  of  attaching  stone  anchors  and  huoy  lines  to  end  of  gangs  of  nets.    (Explana- 

tion on  plate) I,  228 

From  Bulletin  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.    Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

42.  Way  in  which  cod  gill-nets  are  set  at  the  bottom  on  the  east  coast  of  Newfoundland.     (Explana- 

tion on  plate)  I,  230 

From  Bulletin  TJ.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.    Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

43.  The  ordinary  way  in  which  cod  gill-nets  are  set  floating  at  Newfoundland.     (Explanation  on 

plate)   I,  230 

From  Bulletin  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.    Drawing  by  Capt  J.  W.  Collins. 

44.  Way  in  which  cod  gill-nets  are  set  for  underrunning  in  Ipswich  Bay,  Massachusetts.     (Explana- 

tion on  plate)    I,  232 

From  Bulletin  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Vol.  I.    Drawing  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

45.  Uudeminning  cod  gill-nets  in  Ipswich  Bay,  Massachusetts I,  232 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  ~W.  Collins. 

THE  INSHORE  COD  FISHERY. 


46.  Block  Island  boat  and  crew  hand-lining  for  cod 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

47.  Pink  stern  schooner  anil  boats  hand-line  tishing  off  Cape  Ann,  Massachusetts 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

THE  HADDOCK  FISHERY. 

48.  Baiting  trawls  on  deck  of  Gloucester  haddock  schooner  Mystic,  Captain  McKiuuou I,  237 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

4!'.  Baiting  trawls  at  night  in  hold  of  haddock  schooner I,  237 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1882. 

.">0.   Setting  haddock  trawls  from  schooner  under  sail;  set  at  right  angles  to  course  of  the  vessel I,  ij:1.-1 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  3.  W.  Collins. 

THE  HAKE  FISHERY. 

51.  Fishermen's  dories  on  the  rocks  at  Folly  Cove,  Cape  Ann,  Massachusetts I,  241 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

52.  Fishermen  in  dory  hauling  trawl ;  a  dogfish  caught I,  242 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

53.  Overhauling  trawls  in  fish-house  at  Rockport,  Mass I,  242 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

THE  MACKEREL  PURSE-SEINE  FISHERY. 

54.  Mackerel  schooner  under  full  sail,  bound  out I,  248 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collina. 
.V>.  The  cabin  of  mackerel  schooner  John  D.  Long  of  Gloucester,  Mass  I,  247 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

~.u'.  Deck  plan  of  mackerel  schooner.     (Explanation  on  plate) I,  248 

Drawing  by  (.'apt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

~>7.  Seine  boat ;  purse  davit  and  blocks ;  oar-rests;  purse  weight  and  purse  blocks;  bow  fittings....  I,  250 

5.-1.  Seine  boats  in  winter  quarters  at  Gloucester,  Mass I,  250 

From  photograph  by  T.  \V.  Smillie. 

."•'.'.   FIG.  1.  Diagram  showing  the  different,  sections  of  a  purse-seine I,  252 

FIG.  2.  Diagram  showing  the  form  of  a  purse-seine  when  spread  in  the  water I,  252 

Drawings  by  Capt.  J.  W.  Cull  in-. 


xii  LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

Vol.  Page. 

60.  Mackerel  schooner  cruising  in  Massachusetts  Bay;  lookout  at  foretop  on  the  watch  for  schools  ..        I,  255 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

61.  Lookouts  aloft  on  schooner  on  the  watch  for  mackerel I>  255 

Drawing  hy  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

62.  Mackerel  seine-boat  and  crew  "paying  out  the  seine" - I.  256 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

03.  Mackerel  seine-boat  and  crew  pursing  the  seine I,  256 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  "W.  Collins. 

04.  Mackerel  schooner  with  crew  at  work  bailing  mackerel  from  the  purse-seine I,  258 

Drawing  hy  H.  W.Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

65.  Mackerel  schooner  with  pocket  or  spiller  shipped  at  sea  . . . , I,  265 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt  J.  W.  Collins. 

66.  Mackerel  schooner  just  arrived  from  cruise  ;  crew  dressing  and  salting  the  fish I,  207 

From  photograph  bv  T.  W.  Smillie. 

67.  Culling.and  packing  mackerel  at  Portlaud,  Me I,  267 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

THE  MACKEREL  HOOK  FISHERY. 

68.  Surf-fishing  in  boats  for  mackerel I,  275 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 
09.  Mackerel  jigs  and  jig  molds.     (Explanation  on  plate)  I,  278 

70.  Jigging  mackerel  over  the  vessel's  rail I,  284 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt  J.  W.  Collins. 

71.  Gaffing  mackerel  over  the  vessel's  rail I,  279 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

72.  FIG.  1.  The  old  method  of  choppiug  mackerel  bait I,       279-283 

FIG.  2.  The  modern  mackerel  bait-mill I,       279-283 

Drawings  by  H.  "W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

73.  Throwing  bait  to  toll  mackerel  alongside  the  vessel I,  284 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 
7-1.  Deck  scene  on  mackerel  hand-line  schooner;  jigging  mackerel,  slatting  in  the  barrel,  throwing 

toll-bait I,  284 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

75.  Mackerel-packing  on  shipboard I,  2S7 

FIG.  1.  Splitting,  cleaning,  and  washing. 
FIG.  2.  Pitching,  salting,  and  plowing. 

Drawings  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

THE  MACKEREL  GILL-NET  FISHERY. 

76.  Mackerel  drag-nets  set  at  night  off  coast  of  Maine I,  2D4 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J  W.  Collins. 

77.  Cape  Cod  mackerel  drag-boat  lying  to  at  night I,  294 

From  sketch  by  J.  S.  Ryder. 

78.  Dory  fishermen  picking  mackerel  gill-nets I,  294 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. " 

THE  MACKEREL  FISHERY— EARLY  METHODS. 

79.  Old  style  Chebacco  boats  drailing  for  mackerel I,  299 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

80.  Angling  with  poles  for  mackerel  from  an  old  Noank,  Conn.,  sloop  — I,  299 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt  J.  W.  Collins. 

STATISTICS  OF  THE  MACKEREL  FISHERY. 

81.  Diagram  showing  the  catch  of  mackerel  by  citizens  of  Massachusetts  between  the  years  1804  and 

1881,  inclusive I,  312 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  IX,  18S1. 


LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V.  Xlll 

THE  SWORDFISH  FISHERY. 

Vol.          Page. 

82.  Sword  fishermen  in  position  for  action I,  318 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  VIII,  1880. 

83.  Methods  of  swordfish  capture  in  the  Mediterranean  Sea I,  318 

From  Report  TJ.  S.  Fisli  Commission,  Part  VIII,  1880. 

THE  MENHADEN  FISHERY. 

84.  Map  illustrating  geographical  distribution  and  periodical  movements  of  the  menhaden ;  also 

the  locations  of  the  fishing  grounds  and  oil  and  guano  factories  in  the  year  1878.     (No 

factories  now  in  Maine;  many  in  Chesapeake  Bay) I,       331,343 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  VI,  1878. 

85.  Menhaden  steamer  Joseph  Church  approaching  oil  and  guano  factory  at  Tiverton,  R.  I I,  334 

From  photograph  hy  T.  W.  Smillie. 

86.  Menhaden  steamer  William  Floyd  cruising  for  fish I,  334 

From  sketch  hy  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

87.  Lookouts  at  mast-head  of  menhaden  steamer  watching  for  schools  of  fish I,  338 

From  sketch  by  J.  S.  Ryder. 

88.  Fleet  of  menhaden 'steamers  en  route  to  fishing  grounds  on  south  side  of  Long  Island,  N.  Y I,  338 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

89.  Fleet  of  menhaden  steamers  on  the  fishing  grounds ;  seining  crews  at  work I,  338 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conkliij. 

90.  Crew  of  menhaden  steamer  surrounding  a  school  with  purse-seine I        337-339 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

1)1.  Pursing  the  seine  around  a  school  of  menhaden I,       337-331) 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

92.  Menhaden  crew  at  work ;  pursing  of  the  seine  nearly  completed I,  33'.) 

From  sketch  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1878. 

93.  School  of  menhaden  surrounded  with  purse-seine  and  fish  striking  the  net I,  339 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

94.  Bailing  menhaden  from  purse-seine  into  steamer's  hold I,       337,  340 

From  sketch  by  J.  S.  Ryder. 

95.  Menhaden  steamer  bailing  in  the  catch I,  340 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

96.  Haul-seine  fishing  for  menhaden  at  Long  Island,  1790  to  1850.     Setting  the  seine I,      341, :UK 

371 
From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

97.  Haul-seine  fishing  for  menhaden  at  Long  Island,  1790  to  1850.     Hauling  thes  eiue  on  the  heach 

by  horse-power I,      341,308, 

371 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

98.  Haul-seine  fishing  for  menhaden  at  Long  Island,  1790  to  1850.     Taking  out  the  fish I,      341,368, 

371 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

99.  Menhaden  purse  and  mate  boats  and  two  carry-away  hoats  starting  for  the  fishing  grounds I,       334,368 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

100.  Menhaden  purse  and  mate  boats I,       334,368 

FIG.  1.  Going  down  to  the  fish. 
FIG.  2.  Working  to  windward  of  the  fish. 
From  sketches  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

101.  Purse  and  mate  boats  encircling  a  school  of  menhaden  ;  carry  away  boats  in  waiting I,       334,368 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

102.  Menhaden  boats  and  crew  pursing  the  seine;  the  fish  striking  the  net I,       334,368 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

103.  Menhaden  sloops  cruising  for  fish.     One  of  the  sloops  is  for  the  crew  to  live  on  and  to  tow  the 

seine-boats;  the  others  to  carry  fish  to  the  factory I,       331,368, 

375, 376 
From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

104.  Menhaden  sloops  and  steamers  in  Gardiner's  Bay,  Long  Island I,  399 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

105.  Menhaden  carry-away  sloops  bailing  in  the  catch - I,       376,37? 

From  sketch  by  Capt  B.  F.  Conklin. 

106.  Menhaden  fishermen  signaling  to  shore-crews  the  approach  of  a  school  of  fish I,  367 


LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

Vol.  I'ago. 

107.  Crew  of  menhaden  schooner,  in  old  style  seine-boat,  throwing  the  purse-seine I,       336,338 

108.  Carry-away  boat  with  haul  of  menhnden  on  the  way  to  oil  factory I,  373 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

109.  Meudadeu  steamer  discharging  its  catch  at  oil  and  guano  factory,  Tiverton,  K.  I I,  337 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

110.  Gang  of  Portuguese  in  hold  of  menhaden  steamer  filling  the  hoisting  tubs I,  337 

From  photograph  by  T.  "W.  Suiillio. 

111.  Fish  pens  on  top  floor  of  menhaden  factory  ;  the  fish  are  led  through  a  trough  to  the  cooking 

tanks I,  337 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 
113.  Menhaden  steamer  discharging  its  catch  at  oil  and  guano  factory.     Incline  railway  to  carry  Msh 

to  cooking  tanks I,  337 

From  sketch  by  Capt.  B.  F.  Conklin. 

113.  Menhaden  floating  factory.     An  old  vessel  fitted  as  an  oil  factory  and  moved  from  place  to  place 

near  the  fishing  grounds I,       345,378 

Drawing  by  H.  L.  Todd. 

114.  Slivering  menhaden  for  bait 

From  Report  TJ.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  V,  1877. 

llii.  Menhaden  oil  and  guano  factory  at  Milford,  Conn.;  steamers  unloading  fish  at  the  wharf:  inclino 
railway  to  carry  fish  to  cooking  tanks  on  upper  floor  of  factory;  oil  tanks  and  storage 
sheds  in  foreground;  platform  for  dry  ing  scrap  in  rear  of  factory,  connected  with  building 

by  elevated  railway  I,  342 

From  a  photograph. 
(Interiors  of  oil  factories  will  be  illustrated  in  Section  on  Preparation  of  Fishery  Products.) 

THE  HERRING  FISHERY  AND  SARDINE  INDUSTRY. 

116.  Herring  schooner  bound  for  Wood  Island,  Maine  ;  outfit  of  salt  and  barrels  on  deck I,  426 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

117.  Herring  pinkey  bound  for  the  fishing  grounds  ;  nets  hangiug  over  bowsprit  and  stern  ;  net  dories 

on  deck I,  4'JO 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  SmiUie. 

118.  Torching  at  night  for  spnrliug  or  small  herring  in  Ipswich  Bay,  Massachusetts I,  428 

From  sketch  by  J.  S.  Ryder. 

111).  Torching  herring  at  night  near  East  port,  Me I,  429 

From  photograph  by  T.  W".  Smillie. 

120.  Fishermen  mending  lierriug  gill-nets  at  House  Island,  Casco  Bay I,  430 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

121.  Irish  fishermen  of  Boston  picking  their  herring  nets  in  Gloucester  Harbor.     The  typical  "  Irish 

market  boat" I,  430 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

122.  Cape  Ann  herriug  fishermen  landing  their  gill-nets  after  a  night's  fishing I,  430 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

123.  Fishermen  in  quoddy  boat  hauling  herring  gill-nets I,  430 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  "W.  Collins. 

THE   SMOKED   HERRING   INDUSTRY. 

124.  Boat  landing;  fish  houses;  herring  smoke-house  ;  fisherman's  dwelling  and  farm   I,  470 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

125.  Old  style  herring  smoke-house  (without  roof  ventilators)  at  Lubec,  Me I,  476 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

12(>.  Herring  "  horse"  loaded  with  smoked  fish  on  sticks I,  478 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

127.  Herring  smoke-house  at  Eastport,  Me.  ;  sinoke  ventilators  on  roof ;  sticks  of  herring  inside I,  4&n 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

THE   SAKDIXK    INDUSTRY. 

128.  Shore  herring  weir  near  Easlpnit,  Me. ;  the  common  form  of  brush  weir I,  501 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

129.  Bar  herring  weir  near  Eastport,  Me.  ;  escape  of  fish  prevented  by  receding  tide I,  500 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 


LIST  Ol'1  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V.  XV 

Vol.          Page. 

130.  Channel  herring  weir  near  Eastport,  Me.  ;  controls  channel  between  islands I,  501 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Sinillie. 

131.  Section  of  ballasted  weir  near  Eastport,  Me.  ;  for  rocky  bottom I,  502 

From  photograph  hy  T.  W.  Sinillie. 

132.  Fishing  a  herring  weir  at  low  tide,  near  Eastport,  Me I,  503 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

133.  General  view  of  sardine  cannery  at  Eastport,  Me I,  508 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

134.  View  of  sardine  cannery  at  low  tide,  showing  the  employe's  at  work I,  508 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

135.  Herring  boat  landing  fish  at  a  sardine  cannery,  Eastport,  Me I,  50!) 

From  photograph  hy  T.  W.  Smillie. 
lob'.  Sardine  steamer  for  collecting  herring  and  towing  weir  boats I,  510 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

KIT.  Children  al  sardine  cannery  cutting  oft"  the  heads  and  tails  and  cleaning  small  herring  for  can- 
ning            I,  .MO 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

]'•'•*.  Washing,  draining,  and  flaking  herring  at  sardine  cannery,  Eastport,  Me I,  5)'.! 

From  photograph  by  T.  \V.  Smillie. 

13SI.  Spreading  herring  on  flakes  for  drying  in  the  sun  or  in  an  oven I,  fill 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

140.  Herring  drying  on  flakes  in  the  sun  ;  landing,  cleaning,  washing,  &c.,  at  sardine  cannery,  East- 

port.  Me '. I,  513 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

141.  Fish-drying  frames  on  roof  at  sardine  cannery,  Eastport,  Me I,  512 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

1 1','.  Frying  room  in  sardine  cannery,  East  port,  Me. ;  herring  frying  in  pans  of  oil I,  ,M4 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

143.  Packing  room  at  sardine  cannery,  Eastport,  Me. ;  packing  herring-sardines  in  tin  boxes I,  f>lo 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

144.  Soldering  room  at  sardine  cannery,  Eastport,  Me.  ;  solderers  sealing  the  cans I,  51(i 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

145.  Bathing  room  at  sardine  cannery,  Eastport,  Me.;  bathing  vats  at  the  left ;  men  at  right  venting 

cans I,  51? 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

146.  Making  sard ine  cans  at  Eastport,  Me I,  518 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

THE  SPANISH  MACKEREL  FISHERY. 

147.  Methods  of  setting  Spanish  mackerel  gill-nets I,  546 

FIG.  1.  "  Straight  set." 
FIG.  2.  Circle  set. 
FIG.  3.  Crooked  set. 
FIG.  4.  "Hook  set." 
FIG.  5.   "Tset." 
FIG.  6.  "  Square  set." 
FIG.  7.  "Triangle  set," 
FIG.  8.  "  Harpoon  set." 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Tart  VIII,  1880. 

148.  Chesapeake  Bay  Spanish  mackerel  pound-net I,  548 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  VIII,  1880. 

THE  MULLET  FISHERY. 

1  I'J    Camp  of  mullet  fishermen,  North  Carolina I,  5C2 

From  a  photograph. 

THE  POUND-NET  FISHERIES  OF  THE  ATLANTIC  STATES. 

150.  Diagram  of  pound-net  at  Bald  Head,  Maine.     (By  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins) I,  598 

151.  Diagram  of  pound-net  at,  Small  Point,  Maine.     (By  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins) I,  598 


LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

Vol.  Page. 

152.  FIG.  1.  Diagram  of  pound-net  at  Wood's  Holl,  Mass I,  601 

FIG.  2.  Diagram  of  heart  or  ponnd  net  as  set  in  Rhode  Island I,  604 

FIG.  3.  Diagram  of  slat  weir  at  East  Dennis,  Mas8 I,  599 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  II,  1872-'73. 

153.  FIG.  1.  Diagram  of  pound-net  at  Waqnoit,  Mass I,  601 

FIG.  2.  Diagram  of  heart  or  pound  net  at  Quissett  Harl'-r,  Massachusetts I,  601 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  II,  1872-73. 

THE  RIVER  FISHERIES  OF  THE  ATLANTIC  STATES. 

154.  Fishing  with  hack  and  square  traps  in  the  Savannah  River I,  620 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

155.  Shad  gill-nets  in  the  Eclisto  River,  South  Carolina I,  623 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

156.  Fish-nets  in  the  Pedee  River I,  6'J4 

From  a  photograph. 

157.  A  sturgeon  camp  on  Wiuyah  Bay,  South  Carolina  ;  catching  sturgeon  in  gill-nets;  the  pound  for 

keeping  fish  alive  ;  unhcading ;  saving  roe  for  caviare I,  025 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

158.  Drag-net  fishing  in  the  Neuse  River,  North  Carolina;  "  footing  up  the  net " I,  628 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

159.  Skim-net  fishing  for  shad  in  the  Nense  River,  North  Carolina I,  629 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

1GO.  Haul-seine  fishing  at  Sutton  Beach,  Albemarle  Sound,  North  Carolina  ;  boating  the  seine I,  6o<> 

From  a  photograph. 

161.  Haul-seine  fishing  at  Sutton  Beach,  Albemarle  Sound,  North  Carolina;  a  large  haul  of  alewives.        I,  636 

From  a  photograph. 

162.  Shad-fishing  in  Albemarle  Sound  ;  laying  out  the  seine I,  630 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

163.  Shad-fishing  at  night  on  the  Susquehanna  River;  laying  out  the  gill-net I,  652 

From  a  photograph. 

104.  Diagram  of  salmon  weirs  in  PenoLscot  River,  Maine I,  680 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  II,  1872-73. 

165.  Plan  of  salmon-net,  Peuobscot  Bay,  Maine I,  682 

From  Report  CT.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  II,  1872-73. 

166.  Ideal  perspective  of  salmon-net  in  1'enobscot  Bay,  Maine I,  682 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  Part  II,  1872-73. 

167.  Diagram  of  shad  weir,  Kennebec  River,  Maine.     (Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate) I,  684 

Ki8.  Bag-net  fishing  for  smelts  uuder  the  ice,  Penobscot  River,  Maiue.     (Full  explanation  on  page 

opposite  plate) I,  691 

From  sketch  by  C.  G.  Atkins.     • 

THE  PACIFIC  COAST  SALMON  FISHERY. 

169.  Salmon  cannery  at  Astoria,  Oreg. '. I,  745 

From  a  photograph. 

THE  FISHERIES  OF  THE  GREAT  LAKES. 

170.  Kelley's  pound-net  near  Carpenter's  Point,  Lake  Erie,  for  capture  of  whitefisb,  herring,  &c. 

(For  description  of  parts  see  plate) I,  758 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

171.  Lifting  the  pot  at  Kelley's  pound-net,  Lake  Erie I,  760 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

17'J.  Green  May  pound-net  oft'  Ingersoll's  Fishery I,  758 

Drawing  by  L.  Kumlien. 

173.  "  Driving  the  pound."     Stake-boat  and  crr\v  nil'  Marblehead,  Lake  Eric,  driving  stakes  for  pound- 

net.     At  close  of  season  the  other  end  of  the  same  boat  pulls  the  stakes  I,  760 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

174.  Deck  plan  of  stake-boat.     Stake-puller  of  Lake  Erie.     (For  description  of  parts  see  plate) I,  760 

175.  Pouud-uet  at  Detroit  River I,  758 

From  sketch  liy  L.  Knmlirn. 

17(>.  Bailing  out  the  pot  of  pound-net  at  Detroit  River I,  758 

From  sketch  by  L.  Kumlien. 


LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

Vol.  Page. 

177.  Camp  at  South  Manitou  Island,  Lake   Michigan.     Fishing-boats;  gill-nets  on  reel ;  shanty  for 

cleaning  fish .- j(  762 

From  a  photograph. 

178.  Gill-net  drying  on  reel I,  764 

From  a  photograph. 

179.  Type  of  fishermen's  summer  house.     Seine  shed,  tarring-box  annexed I,  765 

Drawing  by  H,  W.  Elliott,  1882. 

180.  Hauling  in  herring-seine  at  Herbert's  Fishery,  Detroit  River.     Inclosure  for  keepingtinh  alive..         I,  7C6 

Sketch  by  L.  Kumlien. 

181.  Pond  fishery,  Detroit  River;  inclosure  for  keeping  fish  alive I,  766 

Photograph  by  U.  S.  Fish  Commission. 

182.  Overhauling  the  seine  at  Grassy  Island  Fishery,  Detroit  River . I,  766 

Photograph  by  U.  S.  Fish  Commission. 

THE  WHALE  FISHERY. 

183.  Map  of  the  world  on  Mercator's  projection,  showing  the  extent  and  distribution  of  the  present 

and  abandoned  whaling  grounds.     (Prepared  by  A.  Howard  Clark  in  1680) II,  7-23 

184.  FIG.  1.  The  sperm  whale  (Pltyseter  macrocephalus'). 

FIG.  2.  The  California  gray  whale  (Ehachianectes  glaucug). 

FIG.  3.  The  North  Pacific  humpback  whale  (Meyaptera  versabilia). 

FIG.  4.  The  sulphur-bottom  whale  (SibbaMius  sulfureus). 

FIG.  5.  The  finback  or  Oregon  tinner  (Balamoptera  velifera). 

FIG.  6.  The  Pacific  right  whale  (Eubalaiiia  cullamach). 

FIG.  7.  The  bowhead  whale  (I>al(e»a  mysticetus). 

From  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  1876.    Natural  History  in  Section  I  of  this  report. 

185.  Whaling  vessels  fitting  out  at  New  Bedford  wharves II,  232 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

186.  Whaling  schooner  Amelia,  of  New  Bedford,  Mass II,  232 

Drawing  by  C.  S.  Ealeigh. 

187.  Steam  whaling-bark  Mary  &  Helen,  of  New  Bedford,  Mass,  (afterwards  the  Rodgers,  of  the  Jean- 

nette  search  expedition) IT,  236 

Drawing  by  C.  S.  Ealeigh. 

188.  Deck  plan  and  side  and  interior  plan  of  whaling-schooner  Amelia,  of  New  Bedford,  Mass.     (Ex- 

planation on  page  opposite  plate) II,  234 

Drawings  by  C.  S.  Ealeigh. 

189.  Deck  plan  and  side  and  interior  plan  of  whaling-bark  Alice  Knowles,  of  New  Bedford,  Mass. 

(Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate) II,  234 

Drawings  by  C.  S.  Kaleigb. 

190.  Starboard  quarter  of  a  whale-ship,  showing  the  manner  of  transporting  the  captain's  boat  and  tho 

spare  boats.     (Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate) II,       243,244 

191.  Deck  view  of  whale-boat  equipped  with  apparatus  of  capture  and  boat  gear.     (Explanation  on 

page  opposite  plate) II,       241,258 

Drawing  by  C.  S.  Kiileigh. 

192.  Side  and  interior  plan  of  wh;ilo-l>oat  equipped  with  npp.arat.iis  of  capture,  &c.     (Explanation 

on  page  opposite  plate) II,       241,258 

Drawing  by  C.  S.  Ealeigh. 

193.  Articles  of  whale-boat  gear '. II,       240,25^ 

FIG.  1.  Lantern  keg  containing  matches,  bread,  &c. 

FIG.  2.  Boat  compass. 

FIG.  3.  Water  keg. 

FIG.  4.  Piggin  for  bailing  water. 

FIG.  5.  Waif  for  signaling. 

FIG.  6.  Tub  oar  crotch. 

FIG.  7.  Double  oar-lock. 

FIG.  8.  Large  line  in  line-tub. 

FIG.  9.  Knife  to  cut  line  when  fonL 

FIG.  10.  Row-lock. 

FIG.  11.  Hatchet  to  cut  line  when  fonl. 

FIG.  12.  Grapuel  to  catch  line. 

FIG.  13.  Drag  or  drug  to  retard  whale. 

FIG.  14.  Canvas  nipper  to  protect  hands  from  running  lina 

SEC.  V,  VOL.  II II 


LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

VoL  Page. 

194.  Whalemen's  harpoons II,  250 

FIG.  1.  Improved  harpoon  or  toggle-iron  now  in  general  use. 

FIGS.  2,  3.  First  form  of  toggle-iron  made  by  Lewis  Temple. 

FIG.  4.  One-flued  harpoon  with  hinged  toggle. 

FlO.  5.  One-flued  harpoou. 

FIG.  6.  Two-fined  harpoon. 

FIG.  7.  Toggle-iron  invented  by  I'rovincctown  whaleman;  not  in  use. 

195.  English  harpoons II,  250 

FIG.  1.  Old-style  hand-harpoon  ;  now  little  used. 
Fio.  2.  Hand-harpoon  in  general  use  about  1857. 
FIG.  3.  Hand-harpoon  now  in  general  use  on  Scotch  whalers. 
Drawings  by  Capt.  William  Adams,  Dundee,  Scotland. 

196.  FIG.  1.  English  harpoon-gun  and  gun-harpoon  now  in  use  on  Scotch  whalers II,  252 

FIG.  2.  An  early  form  of  English  whaliug-guu II,  252 

FIGS.  3,  4,5.  Mason  and  Cunningham  mounting  boat-gun;   a  recent  invention.     (Explanation 

with  plate) II,  252 

ICY.  FiG.  1.  Pierce  and  Cunningham  darting-gun  ;  a  combined  harpoon  and  lance  used  largely  by 

Arctic  whalemen.     (Explanation  with  plate) II,  254 

FIQ.  2.  Cunningham  and  Cogan  gun  ;  length,  33  inches;  weight,  27  pounds;  used  by  Arctic  steam 

whalers  with  bomb  lance II,  253 

FIG.  3.  Brand  muzzle-loading  whaling-gun  and  bomb  lance II,      253,254, 

255 

198.  FIGS.  1,2,3,4.  Pierce  boruh-lance.     (Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate) II,       254,267 

FIG.  5.  Pierce  and  Eggers  breech-loading  gun.     (Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate j II,       253,^67 

199.  Whaling  rocket.     (Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate) II,  254 

200.  Boat  fastened  to  whale  by  harpoon  and  line  ;  killing  the  whale  with  bomb  lance II,       262,207 

From  painting  by  J.  S.  Ryder. 

201.  Natives  harpooning  the  beluga,  or  white  whale,  at  Cook's  Inlet,  Alaska II,  61 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1883. 

202.  Aleuts  planting  glass,  ohsidian,  and  jade  darts  in  a  school  of  humpback  whales  at  Akoon  Island, 

Bering  Sea II,  61,62 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1883. 

203.  Makah  Indians  whaling  at  entrance  to  Fuca  Straits II,  62 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1883. 

204.  Cutting  in  the  bowhead  and  sperm  whales.     (Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate) II,       277,286 

Drawings  by  Capt.  C.  M.  Scammon  and  Capt.  W.  M.  Barnes. 

205.  FIG.  1.  Boat  spade  to  stop  running  whale II,  204 

FIG.  2.  Narrow  cutting  spado  or  thin  boat  spade II.  'J-l 

FiG.  3.  Flat  or  round  shank  spade II,  281 

FiG.  4.  Cutting  spade  for  scarfing  blubber II,  281 

FiG.  5.  Cutting  spade  for  leaning  up II,  2£1 

FIG.  6.  Half-round  spade  II,  281 

206.  Cutting  blocks  and  tackle.     (Explanation  on  page  opposite  plate) II,       277-281 

207.  A  ship  on  the  north  west  coast  of  America  cutting  in  her  last  right  whale II,  277 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  from  a  French  litho-^rapb  designed  by  B.  Russell,  of  .New  r.i-dford. 

208.  "Bailing  in  the  case"  of  a  sperm  whale II,  277 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  from  a  French  lithograph  designed  by  B.  Russell,  of  New  Bedford. 

209.  FiG.  1.  Blubber  mincing-knife. 
FIG.  2.  Boarding-knife. 

FIG.  3.  Monkey-belt. 
FIG.  4.  Wooden  toggle. 
FIG.  5.  Chain-strap. 
FIG.  6.  Throat-chain. 
FIG.  7.  Fin  toggle. 
FIG.  8.  Head-strap. 
FIG.  9.  Blubber-hook. 

210.  Whale-ships  at  New  Bedford  wharf;  ship  hove  down  for  repairs ;  oil-casks II,       289,290 

From  photograph  by  U.  S.  Fish  Commission. 

THE  BLACKFISH  AND  PORPOISE  FISHERY. 

211.  Capture  of  a  school  of  blackfish  in  Cape  Cod  Bay II,       295,307 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  from  a  sketch  by  J.  S.  Ryder. 


LIST  OF  TLATES  TO  SECTION  "V. 

VoL          Page. 
212.  Indian  porpoise  hunters  of  Passamaqnoddy  Bay.     Canoe,  rifle,  and  lance  for  capture  of  porpoise.       II,  308 

From  jihntu^ruph  by  T.  W.  Sinillie. 

21H.  Psssainaciuoddj  Hay  Indians  lancing  and  securing  a  porpoise........... II,  308 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Suiillie. 

THE  PACIFIC  WALRUS  FISHERY. 

214.  Innuits  of  Saint  Lawrence  Island,  Alaska,  surprising  and  harpooning  a  herd  of  walruses II,  313 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

215.  The  walrus  "coup."     Eskimo  lancing  the  exhausted  walrus,  Saint  Lawrence  Island,  Bering 

Sea.    Mahlemut  dresses,  bidarka,  baidar,  &c.,  of  Alaska .- II,  313 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Kllioit. 

216.  Iiiunits  of  Saint  Lawrence  Island,  Alaska,  hoisting  a  walrus II,  313 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

THE  FUR-SEAL  INDUSTRY  OF  ALASKA. 

217.  Map  of  Saint  Paul's  Island,  Pribylov  Group II,  322 

Surveyed  and  drawn,  April,  1S73,  to  July,  1874,  by  Henry  \V.  Elliott 

218.  Map  of  Saint  George  Island,  Pribylov  Group II,  322 

Surveyed  and  drawn,  April,  1873,  to  July,  1874,  by  H.  W.  Elliott 

-11).  Profiles  of  the  east  coast  of  Saint  Paul's  Island II,       322,  IMG 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott 

220.  Ordinary  attire  of  nieir  on  the  killing  ground  and  of  women  and  young  children  in  the  village.    .-II,  »  320 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

221.  The  north  shore  of  Saint  Paul's  Island,  looking  W.SW.  from  the  summit  of  Hutchiusou's  Hill..       II,  336 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott 

222.  The  North  Rookery,  looking  west  to  Starry  Ateel,  Saint  George  Island,  village  of  Saint  George.      II,  348 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

223.  Natives  selecting  a  "  drive."    View  overhauling  grounds  of  "holluschickie"  or  bachelor  seals  at 

English  Bay,  looking  west  from  Tolstoi  sand-dunes II,  363 

Drawing  by  II.  W.  Elliott 

224.  Natives  driving   the  "holluschickie. "    The  drove  passing  over  the  lagoon  flats  to  the  killing 

grounds,  under  the  village  hill,  Saint  Paul's  Island II,  363 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

225.  The  killing  gang  at  work.     Method  of  slaughtering  fur-seals  on  the  grounds  near  the  village, 

Saint  Paul's  Island II,  365 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott 

226.  Preparing  fur-seal- ski  us  for  shipment II,  369 

FIG.  1.  Interior  of  salt-house,  Saint  Paul's  Island  ;  natives  salting  and  assorting  the  pelts. 
FIG.  2.  The  flensed  carcass  of  a  fur-seal  and  the  skin  as  taken  therefrom. 
FIG.  3.  A  bundle  of  skins  ready  for  shipment. 

THE  ANTARCTIC  SEA-ELEPHANT  FISHERY. 

227.  Sketch  map  of  Herd's  Island.  Antarctic  Ocean.     Lat.  53°  10' S.,  Long.  73°  30' E II,  419 

228.  Working  sea-elephants  at  northeast  point,  Herd's  Island II,       419,  435 

Drawing  by  H.  "W.  Elliott  after  Capt.  H.  C.  Chester. 

229.  Stripping  sea-elephant  blubber  and  rolling  it  in  barrels  to  try-works ;  southwest  beach,  Herd's 

Island II,       419,435 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  after  Capt.  H.  C.  Chester. 

THE  SEA-LION  HUNT  ON  PRIBYLOV  ISLANDS,  ALASKA. 

230.  Natives  capturing  the  sea-lion  ;  springing  the  alarm n,  468 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1873. 

231.  Shooting  the  old  males;  spearing  the  surround;  the  drive II      468,469, 

471 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1872. 

232.  Natives  corraling  sea-lions  at  the  Barrabora,  under  Cross  Hill,  northeast  point  Saint  Paul's 

Island II,  469 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott 

233.  Oil-pouches  of   sea-lion  stomach;  seal  meat  frame;    bidarrah    covered  with  sea-lion   skins; 

sealer's  houses II,       471,473 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott 


XX  LIST  OF  PLATES  TO  SECTION  V. 

THE  SEA-OTTER  FISHERY  OF  ALASKA. 

Vol.  Page. 

234.  Aleuts  sea-otter  hunting  south  of  Saanak  Island ;  the  bidarkies  waiting  for  the  otter  to  rise 

again II,  490 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

THE  TURTLE  FISHERY. 

235.  Diving  for  loggerhead  turtle;  Morehead  City,  N.  C II,  495 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1883. 

THE  OYSTER  INDUSTRY. 

236.  Oyster  dredging  steamer  at  work  in  Long  Island  Sound II,     523,535 

237.  Chesapeake  Bay  oyster  dredges II,  523 

From  specimens  iu  H.  S.  National  Museum. 

238.  Oyster  tongs  and  nippers II,  551 

•J.!'.i.  FIG.  1.  lut-Iosed  dock  for  oyster  vessels  at  Perth  Ainboy,  N.  J II,  546 

FIG.  2.  "The  Creek"  at  Key  port,  N.  J.,  with  oyster  boats,  skiffs,  and  scows II,  546 

Drawings  by  Ernest  IngersolL 

240.  A  Lake's  Bay  shipping-house  and  "  platform  "  for  freshening  oysters,  Smith's  Landing,  Lake's 

Bay,  New  Jersey II,  546 

Drawing  by  Ernest  IngersolL 

241.  Oyster-bar*ges  at  foot  of  West  Tenth  street,  North  River,  New  York  City II,  555 

Drawing  by  Ernest  Ingersoll. 

242.  Opening  or  shucking  oysters  in  Baltimore  packing-house  II,  560 

From  a  photograph. 

243.  Baltimore  oyster-shucking  trough.     Oyster   knives  of  diverse  patterns,  used  in  New  England, 

New  York,  and  the  Chesapeake  region II,  559 

THE  CLAM  INDUSTRY. 

211.  Clam-diggers'  boats  and  shncking-honses  at  Esses,  Mass II,  585 

From  photograph  by  T.  "W.  Suiiliie. 

245.  Opening  or  shucking  clams  at  Essex,  Mass II,  565 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Siuillie. 

THE  CRAB  FISHERY. 

246.  Negroes  trawling  for  crabs  on  the  Virginia  and  North  Carolina  coasts II,  633 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott 

THE  LOBSTER  FISHERY. 

247.  Dory  fishermen  hauling  lobster  pots  off  Cape  Ann,  Massachusetts II,     686, 677, 

773 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

248.  Lobster  fishing-boats  of  Bristol,  Me II,      669,677, 

759 
Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott  and  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins. 

249.  Lobster  Cove  at  Lanesville,  Cape  Ann,  Massachusetts,  showing  fishermen's  boat-houses  and  gear.         II,     666, 773 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillin. 

•jr.O.  Summer  village  of  lobster  fishermen  at  No  Man's  Land,  Massachusetts II,  781 

Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott,  1882. 

251.  Lobster  fishermen's  gear  at  No  Man's  Land,  Massachusetts.     (Explanation  on  plate) II,     665,672, 

781 
Drawing  by  H.  W.  Elliott. 

252.  Lobster-boiling  apparatus  at  Portland,  Me II,  684 

From  photograph  by  T.  W.  Smillie. 

THE  FLORIDA  SPONGE  INDUSTRY. 

253.  Sponges  as  lauded  by  the  fishermen  at  Key  West,  Fla.,  and  ready  for  sale II,  826 

From  a  photograph. 

254.  Sponge-loft  at  Key  West,  Fla II,  828 

From  a  photograph. 

255.  Sorting,  trimming,  and  baling  sponges  at  Key  West,  Fla II,  828 


PART     XV. 


THE  WHALE-FISHERY. 


1.— HISTORY  AND  PRESENT  CONDITION  OP  THE  FISHERY. 

By  A.  HOWARD  CLARK. 


1 .  General  review, 
a.  Whaling-grounds. 

3.  Early  history  of  boat-whaling  in  New  England. 

4.  Boat-whaling  during  the  presmt  century. 

5.  Development  of  the  sperm-whale  li.ihery. 

(i.  Development  of  the  North  Pacific  and  Arctic  whale- 
fisherv. 


7.  History  of  the  American  whale-fishery  from  1750  to 

1815. 

8.  The  whale-fishery  of  Provincetown. 

9.  .Statistical  review  of  the  American  whale-fishery. 

10.  List  of  whaling  voyages  from  1870  to  I860. 

11.  Review  of  whale-fishery  by  foreign  nations. 


2.— THE  WHALEMEN,  VESSELS,  APPARATUS,  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERY. 


By  JAMES  TEMPLEMAN  BROWN. 


1.  The  whalemen. 

2.  Whaling  vessels. 

3.  The  whale-boat. 

4.  Apparatus  of  capture. 


5.  Methods  of  capture. 

6.  The  products  and  their  preparation. 

7.  Homeward  passage  and  arrival. 

8.  The  whalemen's  share  or  lay. 


SEO.  v,  VOL.  n- 


THE  WHALE-FISHERY 


1.— HISTORY  AND  PRESENT  CONDITION  OF  THE  FISHERY 

By  A.  HOWARD  CLARK. 
1.  GENERAL  EEVIEW. 

THE  WHALING  FLEET. — The  American  whale-fishery  in  1880  employed  one  hundred  and 
seventy -one  vessels,  aggregating  38,63:;. MS  tons,  and  valued  with  outfits  at  $2,891,650.  Additional 
capital,  aggregating  $1,733,000,  was  invested  in  wharves,  store-houses,  and  oil  refineries.  The- 
number  of  men  employed  on  the  vessels  was  4,198  and  in  shore  whaling  about  250.  The  largest 
vessel  was  the  steam  bark  Belvidere.  440.12  tons,  and  the  smallest  one  employed  in  ocean  whaling 
was  the  schooner  Union,  66.22  tons.  Most  of  the  schooners  and  the  smaller  vessels  of  other  classes 
were  employed  in  Atlantic  Ocean  whaling,  while  the  liirgest  and  best  equipped  craft  were  in  the 
Pacific  and  Arctic  fleets.  The  distribution  was  as  follows  :  Five  vessels  in  Hudson  Bay,  one  hun- 
dred and  eleven  in  the  North  and  South  Atlantic,  twenty-five  in  Bering  Sea  and  the  Arctic  Ocean, 
twenty-two  in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  eight  hauled  up  at  home  ports. 

The  greater  number  of  vessels  belonged  in  Massachusetts,  one  hundred  and  twenty  three 
hailing  from  New  Bedford,  twenty  from  Provincetown,  seven  from  Edgartown,  six  from  Boston, 
two  from  Westport,  two  from  Million,  and  one  from  Dartmouth.  New  London,  Conn.,  owned  five 
vessels  and  five  hailed  from  San  Francisco.  Cal.  The  interest  of  San  Francisco  in  the  whale- 
fishery  cannot  be  measured  by  the  number  of  vessels  owned  there,  for  almost  the  entire  North 
Pa.  ific  and  Arctic  fleets  are  accustomed  t<>  make  that  place  a  fitting  port  and  the  headquarters 
for  reshipment  of  nil  and  bone  to  the  Atlantic  sea-board. 

The  Provincetoun  fleet  was  composed  almost  entirely  of  schooners  employed  in  Atlantic 
Ocean  whaling.  The  whaling  grounds  of  Hudson  Kay  and  Davis  Strait  are  favorite  resorts  for 
New  London  whalemen,  while  New  Bedford  vessels  are  scattered  over  all  the  seas. 

Besides  the  vessel  fishery  then-  is  a  boat  or  shore  whaling  industry,  which  at  times  is  quite 
profitable.  The  principal  stations  are  on  the  California  coast  and  are  manned  mostly  by  Portu- 
guese. On  the  coasts  of  Washington  Territory  and  Alaska  whales  are  taken  by  the  Indians  and 
Kskimos.  The  only  points  on  the  Atlantic  coast  where  boat-whaling  is  carried  on  are  at  Prov- 
ineetown  and  one  or  two  places  in  North  C.'aiolina;  at  Provincetown  the  business  in  some  years  is 
of  considerable  importance,  as  in  188(1,  when  4S  \\hales  were  taken,  yielding  29,925  gallons  of  oil, 
and  8,750  pounds  of  bone.  The  principal  species  taken  at  the  Atlantic  stations  is  the  fin  bacfc 


4  HISTOEY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

whale,  and  on  the  California  coast  the  gray  whale.  Neither  6f  these  species  yields  bone  of  great 
value  and  both  furnish  but  a  limited  quantity  of  oil.  Humpback,  sulphur-bottom,  and  right 
whales  are  occasionally  captured  at  the  California  and  Alaskan  stations,  but  seldom  on  the 
Atlantic  coast. 

THE  PRODUCTS.— The  products  of  the  fishery  in  1880  were  valued  at  $2,323,943,  and  included 
37,614  barrels  of  sperm  oil  and  34,626  barrels  of  whale  oil ;  458,400  pounds  of  whalebone,  worth 
$907,049,  and  $5,465  worth  of  ambergris  and  walrus  ivory.  The  Pacific-Arctic  grounds  were  the 
most  productive,  yielding  oil  and  bone  worth  $1,249,990.  From  Atlantic  Ocean  grounds  oil  and 
bone  were  taken  worth  $908,771. 

The  principal  products  of  the  whale-fishery  are  oil  and  bone,  the  former  obtained  from  the 
blubber  and  the  latter  from  the  jaws  of  the  animal.  The  minor  products  are  ambergris  from  sperm 
whales  and  guano  and  glue  made  from  bones  and  other  refuse  matter.  Oil  as  it  conies  from  the 
animal  is  classed  as  sperm  oil  and  whale  oil,  the  former  being  derived  exclusively  from  sperm 
whales,  and  the  latter  from  the  right  whale  and  other  varieties,  as  also  from  blackfish  and  porpoise. 
Walrus  oil,  taken  by  the  northern  fleet,  is  also  generally  classed  as  whale  oil.  Sperm  oil  is  worth 
about  double  the  value  of  other  whale  oil.  Northern  whale  oil  is  slightly  higher  than  southern 
oil  and  blackfish  higher  than  either.  From  sperm  oil  is  made  refined  oils  for  lubricating,  and 
spermaceti  used  chiefly  for  candles.  The  jaws  of  blackfish  and  porpoise  yield  a  very  superior 
oil,  employed  for  lubricating  watches  and  clocks. 

Crude  or  unrefined  sperm  oil  is  little  used,  though  about  half  the  entire  production  of  ordinary 
whale  oil  is  used  in  a  crude  state  in  the  manufacture  of  cordage. 

The  oil  is  prepared  at  the  refineries  and  sent  to  market  under  various  trade  names,  as  Spring- 
mal-e  natural.  Spring-make  bteached,  Natural  winter,  Bleached  winter,  and  Double-bleached  winter. 
These  names  indicate  the  grades  of  oil  and  the  processes  of  refining.  The  results  of  refining 
sperm  oil  are  three  or  more  grades  of  oil  and  two  qualities  of  spermaceti.  From  whale  oil  are  pro- 
duced several  grades  of  oil,  whale-foots,  which  is  a  tallow-like  substance,  and  oil  soap  used  by 
scourers. 

The  refining  of  whale  oils  is  carried  on  almost  exclusively  at  New  Bedford,  which  port  is 
practically  the  headquarters  'of  the  American  whaling  industry.  When  the  business  was 
extensive  there  were  several  large  refineries  in  active  operation,  but  for  some  years  past  three 
establishments  have  been  enough  to  care  for  the  entire  production.*  The  process  of  refining  varies 
according  to  the  kind  of  oil,  yet  in  some  essentials  the  methods  are  alike  for  all. 

When  landed  from  the  vessels  the  oil  is  in  wooden  casks,  varying  in  size  from  a  few  gallons  to 
a  hogshead  or  more  in  capacity.  If  not  sold  at  once  to  the  refiners  it  is  stored  on  the  wharves  or 
in  sheds,  being  covered  with  seaweed  and  boards  to  protect  the  barrels  from  leakage  by  exposure 
to  the  sun.  It  sometimes  remains  in  this  condition  for  many  months  or  even  years. 

At  the  refinery  the  oil  is  drained  into  vats  and  the  casks  rinsed  out  with  hot  oil,  recoopered, 
and  made  ready  for  another  cruise,  or  sold  to  be  sent  to  Africa  for  shipping  palm  oil. 

In  the  refining  process  the  oil  is  first  heated,  when  pieces  of  blubber  and  foreign  matter  settle, 
and  the  clear  oil  is  again  put  in  casks  to  be  packed  in  ice  pits  and  subjected  to  the  freezing 
process,  which  partially  congeals  or  granulates  it.  The  next  step  in  the  refining  is  to  strain  the 
oil  through  woolen  cloths  to  separate  the  foots,  and  it  is  then  put  in  cotton  bags,  and  submitted 
to  heavy  pressure,  which  further  separates  the  oil  from  the  solid  matter,  leaving  in  the  bags,  if 
sperm  oil,  spermaceti,  which  is  further  heated  and  refined,  or  in  the  case  of  whale  oil  leaving 
whale-foots,  extens'  ;vly  used  by  tanners  for  softening  leather.  The  various  grades  of  oil  are 
obtained  by  further  heating  and  pressing,  and  by  the  admixture  of  chemicals  to  clarify  or  bleach  it. 

*  Refineries  have  recently  (1885)  been  established  at  San  Francisco,  Cal. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  5 

Sperm  oil  is  used  chiefly  as  a  lubricator,  for  which  purpose  it  is  unsurpassed.  Whale  oil  is 
employed  in  niaiiy  industries,  but  chiefly  by  tanners  iu  the  preparation  of  leathers.  Blackflsh  oil 
is  specially  good  in  preparing  morocco.  Whale  oil,  mixed  with  black  lead  and  paraffine  oil,  is 
used  for  lubricating  car  axles  and  wheels. 

Spermaceti  is  used  in  medicine,  in  laundries,  and  for  other  minor  purposes,  but  is  used 
chiefly  for  the  manufacture  of  caudles ;  a  patent  candle  of  superior  quality  is  made  from  paraffine 
and  spermaceti  mixed. 

Whalebone  requires  comparatively  little  preparation  to  fit  it  for  use  by  whip-makers,  dress- 
makers, and  numerous  other  tradesmen.  It  is  received  from  the  vessels  in  bundles  of  slabs  vary- 
ing from  a  foot  to  15  feet  iu  length.  These  slabs  are  scraped,  steamed,  cut,  and  split  into  suitable 
sizes  for  use. 

The  whalebone  workers  of  the  United  States  recognize  five  varieties  of  bone ;  (1)  Arctic,  from 
the  Bowhead  or  Polar  whale;  this  is  the  largest  bone,  and  is  used  principally  in  the  manufacture 
of  whips  and  dress  bone ;  (2)  Northwest,  which  is  the  heaviest  bone,  and  is  used  for  whips  and 
canes;  (3)  South  Sea,  which  is  lint'  and  short,  used  for  whips  and  dress  bone;  (4)  Humpback, 
short  and  black,  specially  suitable  for  corsets ;  (5)  Finback,  short  and  coarse,  used  for  corsets. 
Some  slabs  of  bone  have  longitudinal  streaks  of  white  or  light  yellow.  The  white  portion  is  of 
greater  value  than  the  black,  and  is  thought  by  the  workers  to  be  caused  by  disease. 

Ambergris,  when  pure,  is  worth  more  than  its  weight  in  gold.  It  is  used  in  the  preparation 
of  fine  perfumery,  having  the  property  of  thoroughly  and  permanently  uniting  the  ingredients. 
It  is  found  in  the  intestines  of  the  sperm  whale,  and  is  a  very  uncertain  article.  Many  whalers 
have  cruised  the  seas  for  years  and  never  found  an  ounce,  while  fortunate  ones  hare  secured  a 
hundred  pounds  or  more  of  the  precious  substance  iu  a  single  year.  It  is  supposed  to  be  a 
product  of  a  disease  in  the  animal  similar  to  indigestion.  This  theory  of  its  origin  is  supported 
by  the  fact  that  particles  of  cuttle-fish,  the  chief  food  of  the  sperm  whale,  are  often  found  in  the 
ambergris,  and  the  location  of  the  substance  in  the  intestines  also  supports  this  theory.  In  1858 
a  New  Bedford  vessel  secured  GOO  pounds  of  ambergris,  worth  $10,500;  in  1878  the  Adeline  Gibbs, 
of  New  Bedford,  brought  home  136  pounds  that  sold  for  $23,000.  The  total  quantity  received 
from  the  American  whaling  fleet  from  1836  to  1880  was  1,667|  pounds. 

A  full  discussion  of  ambergris  and  the  manner  of  obtaining  it,  is  given  in  the  section  of  this 
report  treating  of  the  Preparation  of  Fishery  Products. 

DECLINE  OF  THE  FISHERY.— Starbuck,  in  1877,  thus  discussed  the  causes  of  the  decline  of  the 
whale-fishery : 

"On  the  1st  of  January,  1877,  the  entire  fleet  was  reduced  to  112  ships  and  barks,  and  51  brigs 
and  schooners,  having  a  total  capacity  of  37,828  tons.* 

"  It  will  be  well  to  see  to  what  causes  this  decline  is  attributable.  Many  circumstances  have 
operated  to  bring  this  about.  The  alternate  stimulus  and  rebuff  which  the  fishery  received  as  a 
short  supply  and  good  prices  led  to  additions  to  the  fleet  and  an  overstock  and  decline  in  values, 
were  natural,  and  in  themselves  probably  formed  no  positive  impediment.  The  increase  in  popu- 
lation would  have  caused  an  increase  in  comsumption  beyond  the  power  of  the  fishery  to  supply, 
for  even  at  the  necessarily  high  prices  people  would  have  had  light.  But  other  things  occurred. 
The  expense  of  procuring  oil  was  yearly  increasing,  when  the  oil-wells  of  Pennsylvania  were  opened, 
and  a  source  of  illumination  opened  at  once  plentiful,  cheap,  and  good.  Its  dangerous  qualities 
at  first  greatly  checked  its  general  use,  but  these  removed,  it  entered  into  active,  relentless  com- 
petition with  whale  oil,  and  it  proved  the  more  powerful  of  the  antagonistic  forces. 

*  The  lowest  ebb  was  reached  on  the  1st  of  January,  1875,  when  the  fleet  consisted  of  119  ships  and  barks,  and  44 
brigs  and  schooners,  with  a  capacity  of  37,733  tons. 


6  lll«TOi;V   AM)  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

"The  length  of  voyages  increased  from  two  years  for  a  cargo  of  sperm  and  from  nine  to  fifteen 
mouths  for  a  cargo  of  whale  oil  to  four  years  to  till  the  latter,  while  the  former  was  practically 
abandoned  as  a  separate  business*  after  it  became  necessary  to  make  voyages  of  four,  five,  and 
even  six  years,  and  then  seldom  return  \\ith  a  full  cargo.  As  a  matter  of  necessity  the  fitting  of 
ships  became  far  more  expensive,  a  rivalry  in  the  furnishing  adding  perhaps  considerably  to  the 
outlay.  Vessels  were  obliged  to  refit  each  season  at  the  various  islands  in  the  Pacific,  usually  at 
the  port  of  Honolulu  when  passing  in  its  vicinity,  and  the  bills  drawn  upon  the  owners  on  these 
occasions  were  so  enormous  as  to  call  forth  loud  and  frequent  complaints;  and  in  later  years  the 
only  available  western  fishery  was  in  the  North  Pacific  and  Arctic  Oceans,  where,  disasters  were 
the  rule  and  immunity  from  them  the  exception,  thereby  incurring,  when  the  vessels  were  not  lost, 
heavy  bill  for  repairs,  besides  the  ordinary  ones  of  refitting. 

••Again,  during  the  later  days  of  whaling,  more  particularly  immediately  after  the  discovery 
of  the  gold  mines  in  California,  desertions  from  the  ships  were  numerous  and  often  causeless, 
generally  in  such  numbers  as  to  seriously  cripple  the  efficiency  of  the  ship.  In  this  way  large 
numbers  of  voyages  were  broken  up  and  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  were  sunk  by  the  owners. 
During  a  portion  of  the  time  many  ships  were  fired  by  their  refractory  and  mutinous  crews,  some 
of  them  completely  destroyed,  others  damaged  in  amounts  varying  from  a  few  hundred  to  several 
thousand  dollars.  Crews  would  apparently  ship  simply  as  a  cheap  manner  of  reaching  the  gold 
mines,  and  a  ship's  company  often  embraced  among  its  number  desperadoes  from  various  nations, 
fit  for  any  rascality  which  might  best  serve  them  to  attain  their  end.  They  took  no  interest  in 
the  voyage,  nor  cared  aught  for  the  profit  or  loss  that  might  accrue  to  the  owners.  In  order  to 
recruit,  it  became  necessary,  particularly  during  the  ten  years  next  succeeding  the  opening  of  the 
gold  mines,  to  offer  heavy  advance-wages,  and  too  often  these  were  paid  to  a  set  of  bounty -jumpers, 
as  such  men  were  termed  in  the  Army  during  the  late  war,  who  only  waited  the  time  when  the  ship 
made  another  port  to  clandestinely  dissolve  connection  with  her  and  hold  themselves  in  readiness 
for  the  next  ship.  Unquestionably  there  were  times  when  men  were  forced  to  desert  to  save  their 
lives  from  the  impositions  and  severity  of  brutal  captains,  but  such  cases  were  undoubtedly  very 
rare.  Formerly  the  crews  were  composed  almost  wholly  of  Americans,  but  latterly  they  were 
largely  made  up  of  Portuguese  shipped  at  the  Azores,  a  mongrel  set  shipped  anywhere  along  the 
western  coast  of  South  America,  and  Kanakas  shipped  at  the  Pacific  islands.  There  were  times, 
when  the  California  fever  was  at  its  highest,  that  the  desertions  did  not  stop  with  the  men,  but 
officers  and  even  captains  seemed  to  vie  with  the  crew  in  defrauding  the  men  from  whose  hands 
they  had  received  the  property  to  hold  in  charge  and  increase  in  value. 

"Another  source  of  loss  was,  strangely  enough,  to  be  found  in  the  course  of  the  consular  agents 
sent  out  by  our  Government  to  protect  the  interests  of  our  whalemen.  Many  and  bitter  were  the 
complaints  at  the  extortionate  charges  and  percentages  demanded  by  many  of  these  men.t 

"As  another  important  source  of  the  decline  in  this  business  must  be  regarded  the  scarcity  and 
shyness  of  whales.  Prior  to  the  year  1830  a  ship  with  a  capacity  for  2,000  barrels  would  cruise 
in  the  Pacific  Ocean  and  return  in  two  years  with  a  cargo  of  sperm -oil.  The  same  ship  might  go 
to  Delago  or  Woolwich  Bay  and  fill  with  whale-oil  in  about  fifteen  mouths,  or  to  the  coast  of 

*  Always  excepting,  of  course,  Atlantic  whalers.  Sperm-whaling  in  th'e  Atlantic  has  always  been  pursued  by  the 
bulk  of  the  Provincetowu  vessels  and  by  quite  a  ileet  of  schooners  ami  brigs  from  other  ports.  There  isan  occasional 
revival  of  this  pursuit  in  larger  vessels  at  intervals  of  a  few  years,  at  present  some  of  the  most  successful  voyages 
being  made  by  ships  and  barks  cruising  for  sperm  whales  in  this  oc< 

tin  many  cases  justice  (f)  semis  to  U:i\ v  been  meted  more  in  accordance  -with  the  requirements  of  the  income  of 
our  representatives  than  witb  ihose  of  ab^traet.  right,  and  it  lias  happened  that  the  case  of  an  arbitrary,  cruel  cap- 
tain against,  Mime  unfortunately  weak  and  impecunious  sailor  has  l>rm  decided  on  the  time-honored  (among  barba- 
rians) maxims  that  "might  makes  right,"  and  "the  king  can  do  no  wrong." 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  7 

Brazil  and  return  hi  iiine  mouths  full  of  the  oil  peculiar  to  the  whales  of  those  seas;  but,  as  has 
been  previously  remarked,  this  has  all  changed,  and  the  length  of  the  voyage  has  become  entirely 
disproportioned  to  the  quantity  of  oil  returned. 

"Briefly,  then,  this  is  the  case.  Whaling  as  a  business  has  declined:  1st,  from  the  scarcity 
and  shyness  of  whales,  requiring  longer  and  more  expensive  voyages;  2d,  extravagance  in  fitting 
out  and  refitting;  3d,  the  character  of  the  men  engaged  ;  4th,  the  introduction  of  coal  oils. 

"Of  late  years  sperm-whaling  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  has  been  revived  with  some  success,  but 
the  persistency  with  which  any  Held  is  followed  up  makes  its  yield  at  least  but  temporary.  It 
may  perhaps  be  a  question  worthy  of  serious  consideration  whether  it  is  policy  for  the  United 
States  Government  to  introduce  the  use  of  coal  oils  into  its  light-house  and  similar  departments, 
to  replace  the  sperm  oil  now  furnished  from  our  whaling  ports,  and  thus  still  further  hasten  the 
ultimate  abandonment  of  a  pursuit  upon  the  resources  of  which  it  draws  so  heavily  in  the  day  of 
its  trouble,*  or  whether  this  market — the  only  aid  asked  from  the  Government — may  still  continue 
at  the  expense  of  a  few  dollars  more  per  year."t 

2.  WHALING-GROUNDS.:): 

DISTRIBUTION  OF  WHALES. — A  whale-ship  leaving  her  home  port  mans  her  mast-head  as 
soon  as  she  leaves  soundings,  and  from  that  time  is  in  constant  hope  of  seeing  whales.  There  are 
certain  portions  of  the  ocean  where  whales  abound,  and  many  large  tracts  where  vessels  rarely 
make  a  stop;  still  it  is  not  unusual  even  in  the  more  barren  spaces  to  hear  from  aloft  the  welcome 
cry  "there  she  blows."  Many  of  the  grounds  where  vessels  were  formerly  very  successful  are  now 
entirely  abandoned  and  others  are  but  seldom  visited.  There  are  now  no  sperm  whalers  from  the 
United  States  on  the  Indian  Ocean  or  North  Pacific  grounds,  and  very  few  cruising  in  the  West 
Pacific  Ocean,  but  nearly  all  of  the  vessels  at  present  engaged  in  this  branch  of  the  fishery  resort 
to  the  grounds  in  the  North  and  South  Atlantic  and  the  eastern  part  of  the  South  Pacific  Oceans. 

At  an  early  period  in  the  development  of  the  whale  fishery  there  was  little  difficulty  in 
securing  a  cargo  in  a  short  time.  Whales  were  abundant  near  shore  and  in  very  many  parts  of 
the  ocean.  They  were  taken  in  great  numbers  by  the  Dutch  and  by  the  English  at  Spitzbergen 
and  off  the  east  coast  of  Greenland,  upon  grounds  that  have  not  been  frequented  for  many 
years.§  Later  they  were  abundant  in  Davis  Strait,  where  they  were  pursued  by  a  considerable 
fleet  of  vessels.  They  are  still  taken  there  in  limited  numbers  by  a  fleet  of  about  a  dozen  Scotch 
steamers.  Toward  the  close  of  the  last  century  began  the  discovery  of  prolific  grounds  for  right 
whales  in  the  South  Atlantic,  and  of  the  famous  South  Pacific  sperui  and  right  whale  grounds.  In 
the  present  century  important  fields  have  been  discovered  in  the  North  Pacific  and  Arctic  Oceans, 

*  The  London  Mercantile  Gazette,  of  October  22,  1852,  said:  "The  number  of  American  ships  engaged  in  the 
Southern  whale-fishery  alone  would  of  themselves  be  nearly  sufficient  to  man  any  ordinary  fleet  of  ships-of-war 
which  that  country  might  require  to  send  to  sea."  Instances  are  not  wanting,  indeed,  where  whalemen  have  under- 
taken yeoman's  service  for  their  country.  Thus,  in  November,  1846,  Captain  Simmons,  of  the  Magnolia,  and  Capt. 
John  S.  Barker,  of  the  Edward,  both  of  New  Bedford,  hearing  that  the  garrison  at  San  Jos6,  Lower  California,  was 
in  imminent  danger,  landed  their  crews  and  marched  to  its  relief.  Nor  were  their  good  services  toward  foreign  gov- 
ernments in  peace  less  houorable  to  the  country  than  in  war,  for  when  the  Government  buildings  at  Honolulu  were 
burning  some  years  ago,  and  entire  and  disastrous  destruction  threatened,  American  whalemen  rushed  to  the  rescue 
and  quenched  the  flames,  already  beyond  the  control  of  the  natives.  During  the  rebellion,  of  5,956  naval  officers, 
Massachusetts  furnished  1,226,  Maine  449,  Connecticut  264,  New  Hampshire  175,  Rhode  Island  102,  and  Vermont  81. 

t  Report  U.  S.  Commission  of  Fish  and  Fisheries  for  1875-'76. 

{Special  acknowledgments  are  duo  Capt.  H.  W.  Seabury,  of  New  Bedford,  Mass.,  and  Capt.  William  M.  Barnes, 
of  Nashua,  N.  H.,  for  information  on  this  subject. 

$  The  east  coast  of  Greenland  has  recently  again  become  a  cruising  ground  for  the  whalers  of  Norway  and  Scotland. 


8  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

among  which  are  the  Japan,  Northwest,  arid  Okhotsk  grounds,  now  well  nigh  abandoned.  The 
Arctic  grounds  north  of  Bering  Strait  were  first  visited  in  1848  by  the  Superior,  under  Captain 
Eoys,  and  these  grounds  have  since  been  by  far  the  most  important  for  the  production  of  whale, 
bone  and  a  superior  quality  of  whale  oil. 

RELATIVE  IMPORTANCE  OF  VARIOUS  GROUNDS. — The  relative  importance  of  the  various 
oceans  to  the  whale-fishery  during  recent  years  is  shown  by  the  following  facts:  Of  the  sperin 
oil  taken  by  the  American  whaling  fleet  from  1870  to  1880,  55  per  cent,  was  from  the  North  and 
South  Atlantic  grounds;  33  per  cent,  from  the  Pacific;  and  12  per  cent,  from  the  Indian  Ocean. 
Of  the  whale  oil  taken  during  the  same  period,  58  per  cent,  was  by  the  North  Pacific  fleet  from  the 
region  north  of  the  fiftieth  parallel,  including  the  Arctic,  Okhotsk,  and  Bering  Seas;  24  per  cent, 
by  vessels  cruising  in  the  North  and  South  Atlantic;  10  per  cent,  from  the  Pacific  grounds;  5  per 
cent,  from  the  Indian  Ocean  ;  and  .'1  per  cent,  from  Hudson  Bay,  Cumberland  Inlet,  and  Davis  Strait. 
Of  the  whalebone  .secured  in  ihe  .same  time  88  per  cent,  was  by  the  North  Pacific  fleet;  5  percent, 
by  the  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet  fleet;  4  per  cent,  from  the  North  and  South  Atlantic 
grounds ;  and  3  per  cent,  about  equally  divided  between  the  Pacific  and  Indian  Oceans.  The  num- 
ber o! !'vo\;i  ^es  commenced  by  United  Star.es  vessels  from  1870  to  1880  was  810,  which  includes 
the  A\.  ;ie  whalers  annually  relit! ing-  at  San  Francisco  and  other  ports.  Of  these  voyages,  382 
were  ,-,  ;he  North  and  South  Atlantic,  254  to  the  Arctic,  Okhotsk,  and  adjacent  grounds,  98  to  the 
Pacific,  45  to  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  31  to  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet. 

(«)  SPEEM-WHALE   GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL  DISTRIBUTION  OF  SPERM  WHALES. — The  sperm  whale  is  very  widely  distrib- 
uted in  the  oceans  of  the  temperate  and  the  tropical  zones.  They  have  been  taken  as  far  south  as 
56°  south  latitude  iu  the  Atlantic  and  in  the  Pacific,  and  as  far  north  as  56°  12'  in  the  North. 
Pacific.  Early  authors  mention  them  as  numerous  on  the  coast  of  Greenland,  but  Beale*  says 
that,  they  are  seldom  or  never  seen  there  by  recent  navigators.  They  are  generally  taken  off 
soundings,  though  they  are  sometimes  abundant  in  comparatively  shallow  water,  especially  along 
the  edge  of  the  ocean  banks.  Within  the  limits  included  between  30°  north  and  30°  south  latitude 
they  are  generally  of  smaller  size  than  in  higher  latitudes.  There  are  certain  cruising-grouuds 
especially  frequented  by  vessels  in  search  of  sperm  whales,  and  these  will  be  described  in  order 
beginning  with  those  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  proceeding  then  to  the  Pacific  and  Indian  Ocean 
grounds. 

The  Atlantic  grounds,  from  which  more  than  half  the  entire  production  of  sperm  oil  is  taken, 
are  visited  by  both  large  and  small  vessels,  the  latter  cruising  chiefly  north  of  the  equator  and 
remaining  out  about  nine  months,  while  the  former  make  voyages  lasting  one,  two,  or  even  three 
years,  cruising  over  various  parts  of  the  North  and  South  Atlantic  and  sending  oil  home  from  the 
Azores,  St.  Helena,  and  other  convenient  ports.  Vessels  visiting  the  Pacific  and  Indian  Oceans 
are  usually  barks  and  ships,  and  fit  out  for  long  voyages. 

NORTH  ATLANTIC  GROUNDS.— Profitable  sperm  whaling  has  been  found  in  the  Caribbean 
Sea,  off  Chagres,  Blauquilla,  and  in  other  parts  of  the  sea  ;  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  particularly  in 
latitude  28°  to  29°  north,  longitude  89°  to  90°  west ;  in  various  parts  of  the  West  India  seas, 
especially  iu  the  Mona  Passage  and  off  the  coasts  of  Cuba,  Porto  Rico,  and  St.  Domingo,  north  of 
the  Bahama  Islands,  in  latitude  28°  to  29°  north,  longitude  79°  west;  on  the  "  Charleston  Ground," 
iu  latitude  29°  to  32°  north,  longitude  74°  to  77°  west,  and  on  the  "  Hatteras  Grounds,"  extend  - 

*  BKALE,  THOMAS:  Natural  History  of  the  Syerrn  Whale,  London,  1836,  p.  88.     He  says  that  sperm  whales  are 
found  from  60°  uorth  to  60°  south  latitude. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  9 

ing  along  the  edge  of  the  Gulf  Stream  off  Cape  Hatteras.*  Vessels  cruise  on  the  more  southern 
of  the  above  grounds  during  the  winter  mouths  and  early  spring,  and  work  north  and  east  as  the 
season  advances.  Their  next  resorts,  after  leaving  the  Charleston  Ground,  are  in  latitude  36° 
north,  longitude  74°  west ;  latitude  32°  north,  longitude  68°  west ;  latitude  28°  to  33°  north, 
longitude  48°  to  57°  west,  and  from  latitude  33°  to  45°  north,  longitude  50°  to  the  east  of  the 

Azores.t 

Among  the  favorite  resorts  in  the  North  Atlantic  are  the  "Two  Forties"  aud  "Two  Thirty- 
sixes,"  the  former  being  in  latitude  40°  north,  longitude  40°  west,  and  the  latter  in  latitude  36° 
north,  longitude  36°  west.  Vessels  cruise  here  throughout  the  summer  and  fall  months  and  often 
into  December.  The  whales  taken  are  of  all  sizes.  Ships  of  late  years  have  cruised  from  lati- 
tude 43°  to  46°  north,  longitude  25°  to  32°  west,  also  from  latitude  48°  to  50°  north,  longitude 
21°  to  24°  west;  and  on  the  "Commodore  Morris  Grounds,"}:  in  latitude  52°  to  54°  north,  longi- 
tude 23°  to  25°  west.  Sperm  whales  are  often  seen  and  taken  near  the  Azores.  Good  cruising 
places,  known  as  the  "  Western  Grounds,"  are  situated  in  latitude  28°  to  37°  north,  longitude  40° 
to  52°  west.  Another  resort  is  the  "  Steen  Ground,"  in  latitude  31°  to  36°  north,  longitude  21C 
to  24°  west,  where  vessels  cruise  from  August  to  November.  Sperm  whales  are  sometimes  found 
quite  numerous  along  the  southern  coast  of  Portugal  and  Spain  from  Cape  St.  Vincent  to  the 
Straits  of  Gibraltar;  also  near  the  southern  side  of  the  island  of  Tenerifle;  north  and  west  of  the 
Cape  Verde  Islands  during  the  winter  months;  from  latitude  10°  to  14°  north,  longitude  35°  to 
to  40°  west  in  March.  April,  and  May,  and  in  latitude  5°  to  7°  north,  longitude  18°  to  20°  west, 
during  the  winter  season.  Good  whaling  has  also  been  found  in  the  Gulf  of  Guinea  near  the 
Island  Fernando  Po;  also  on  the  "  Cornell  Ground,"  in  latitude  5°  to  9°  north,  longitude  22°  to 
27°  west.§ 

SOUTH  ATLANTIC  GROUNDS. — On  the  west  side  of  the  South  Atlantic,  sperm  whale  grounds 
were  formerly  found  on  and  near  the  Carabellas  banks  in  latitude  17°  to  19°  south  from  the  coast 
of  Brazil  to  longitude  35°  west ;  also  in  about  latitude  23°  south,  longitude  39°  to  42°  west.  The 
smaller  class  of  vessels  cruised  on  these  grounds,  capturing  mostly  large  bull  whales,  while  large 

*  "  Iu  IS:;?,"  says  Captain  Atwood,  of  Proviucetown,  "the 'Edward  and  Rienzi'was  bought  for  blackfisbing, 
and  went  on  the  ground  south  of  the  George's  Bank  and  towards  Cape  Hatteras.  No  whaling  vessels  had  ever  been 
there  before,  and  she  found  sperm  whales  abundant,  and  since  that  time  the  '  Hatteras  Ground'  and  the  '  Charleston 
Ground  '  farther  south,  have  been  favorite  cruising  places  for  the  Provincetovvn  fleet." 

t  On  the  northern  edge  of  the  Grand  Banks  and  the  Gulf  Stream  where  the  Labrador  current  meets  the  Stream, 
making  an  eddy  and  a  strong  current,  sperm  whales  were  reported  in  the  months  of  September,  October,  and  November. 
The  geographical  position  of  this  spot,  as  given  by  Messrs.  Swift  &  Allen,  of  New  Bedford,  is  latitude  41°  to  48°  N., 
and  longitude  45°  to  50°  W.  Care  should' be  taken  to  keep  a  medium  temperature  of  water. — J.  T.  BROWN. 

I  This  ground  was  first  visited  by  the  American  fleet  about  the  year  1859  and  was  then  called  the  Camilla  Ground, 
after  the  bark  Camilla.  It  has  been  cruised  upon  by  many  of  the  best  vessels  of  the  sperm-whale  fleet. 

§  Captain  Tripp,  of  the  bark  Pioneer,  makes  the  following  condensed  report  of  a  cruise  for  sperm  whales  in  1873 
and  187 1  mainly  in  the  North  Atlantic. 

On  July  12  he  found  sperm  whales  in  latitude  38°  05'  N.,  longitude  67°  45'  W.,  aud  on  the  30th  killed  a  large 
whale  in  latitude  35°  45'  N.,  longitude  45°  50'  W.  August  4  he  again  saw  sperm  whales  in  latitude  35°  '27'  N.,  longi- 
tude 4.V  1C'  W.  On  the  27th  took  a  large  one  in  latitude  34°  37'  N.,  longitude  39°  41',  W.,  and  found  them  on  the  31st 
in  latitude  34°  37'  N.  and  longitude  39°  41'  W.  On  September  12  he  killed  two  whales  iu  latitude  35°  N.  and  longi- 
tude 39°  50'  W.  He  crossed  the  equator,  but  again  worked  to  the  northward  and  finished  his  cruise. 

On  March  'J9  he  killed  two  whales  in  latitude  13°  58'  N.,  longitude  37°  28'  W.,  and  another  on  April  28  in  latitude 
13°  20'  N.  and  longitude  44°  25'  W.  Sperm  whales  were  seen  on  the  1st,  2d,  3d,  aud  4th  of  May  in  the  latitudes  of  13° 
36',  13°  34',  13°  28',  and  13°  22',  and  in  the  longitudes  of  44°  51',  44°  34',  44-  24',  aud  44°  20",  respectively,  but  no  catches 
were  made  ;  on  the  5th  he  killed  four  whales  in  latitude  13°  28',  longitude  44°  28';  two  on  the  8th  iu  latitude  13°  18' 
and  longitude  44°  49';  three  on  the  10th  iu  latitude  13°  08',  longitude  44°  'J.V,  and  four  on  the  12th  in  latitude  13°  56', 
and  longitude  45°  22'.  On  the  )3th  sperm  whales  were  seen  iu  latitude  13°  08'  and  longitude  45°  14',  but  none  were 
killed.  From  that  time  on  he  had  "greasy  luck."  On  the  19th  he  killed  three  whales  in  latitude  13°  06',  longitude 
46°  25'.  One  was  killed  July  21  iu  latitude  34°  and  longitude  44°  12'  ;  two  on  August  1  in  latitude  34°  45' ;  one  on  the 
10th  in  latitude  34°  13',  longitude  40°  17' ;  two  on  the  20th  in  latitude  31°  26',  longitude  50°,  and  one  large  one  on 
the  25th  in  latitude  31°  and  longitude  50°.  He  cruised  in  this  locality  fourteen  months  and  obtained  1,100  barrels  of 
sperm  oil.— J.  T.  BROWN. 


10  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

vessels  tbuud  good  whaling  on  the  '-River  La  Plate  Ground"  extending  from  latitude  30°  to  40° 
south,  and  from  30  to  250  miles  off-shore.  The  season  here  was  from  September  to  May,  and  the 
whales  taken  were  of  all  sizes.  A  few  vessels  continue  to  cruise  on  all  these  grounds,  meeting 
with  moderate  success.  Large  whales  have  also  been  found  quite  plenty  in  latitude  45°  to  47° 
south,  longitude  00°  to  60°  west,  where  ships  cruise  from  November  to  May. 

Passing  across  to  the  east  side  of  the  ocean  we  find  good  whaling  grounds  along  the  coast 
of  Africa,  also  around  the  islands  of  Ascension  and  St.  Helena.  The  principal  resorts  are  in 
latitudes  4°  to  23°  south,  longitude  9°  to  10°  west;  around  St.  Helena;  latitude  34°  south, 
longitude  0°  to  7°  west ;  also  a  few  degre  es  east  of  the  meridian  iu  the  same  latitude;  and  on  the 
"Carroll  Ground"  iu  latitude  32°  south,  longitude  7°  east.  The  time  for  cruising  on  the  more 
southern  of  the  above  grounds  is  from  September  to  May,  and  farther  north  during  the  whole 
year. 

SOUTH  PACIFIC  GROUNDS. — Sperm  whales  are  often  seen  off  Cape  Horn,  and  it  is  the  opinion 
of  most  whalers  that  they  pass  from  one  ocean  to  the  other  in  their  migrations.  Captain  Seabury 
writes  that  he  has  himself  on  two  occasions  taken  large  sperm  whales  within  sight  of  land  off  this 
cape.  The  grounds  in  the  Pacific  have  been  exceedingly  profitable.  From  the  time  of  their  dis- 
covery in  1788,  by  Nan  tucket  whalemen  in  an  English  whale  ship,  dates  the  great  prosperity  of 
the  sperm-whale  fishery  which  reached  its  climax  in  the  year  1837. 

One  of  the  most  important  and  extensive  grounds  in  the  South  Pacific  lies  off  the  coast  of  Chili, 
extending  from  latitude  35°  to  40°  south,  and  from  the  coast  200  miles  off  shore.  Within  these 
limits  there  are  some  specially  favorable  spots,  as  around  the  island  of  Huafo,  near  the  south  end 
of  Chiloe  Island,  off  Mocha  Island,  and  off  the  port  of  Talcahuano.  Around  the  islands  of  Juan 
Fernandez  and  Masafuero,  and  from  these  islands  to  longitude  00°  west,  are  good  grounds.  Ships 
cruise  here  and  farther  south  from  September  to  May,  and  sometimes  throughout  the  year,  find- 
ing mostly  large  whales. 

Passing  farther  north  we  come  next  to  the  Archer  Ground,  which  lies  in  latitude  17°  to  20' 
south,  longitude  84°  to  90°  west,  where  ships  cruise  throughout  the  year,  capturing  large  whales. 
From  the  Archer  Ground,  all  along  the  coast  to  Panama  Bay,  in  latitude  8°  north,  from  the 
shore  to  90°  west  longitude,  many  sperm  whales  have  been  taken.  Along  the  coast  from  latitude 
12°  to  18°  south,  also  from  latitude  10°  to  14°  south,  longitude  80°  to  911°  west,  were  formerly 
noted  cruising  places.  The  latter  is  called  the  "Callao  Ground,"  and  is  still  visited  by  a  few  ships 
that  cruise  throughout  the  year,  taking  medium  sized  bull  whales,  yielding  from  40  to  GO  barrels 
of  oil  each. 

One  of  the  most  important  grounds  iu  the  South  Pacific  extends  from  latitude  5°  south  to 
2°  north,  and  from  the  coast  of  Peru  to  longitude  93°  west,  embracing  the  Galapagos  Islands. 
"  Most  of  the  whales  found  here,"  says  Captain  Seabury,  "are  cows  and  calves,  though  occasionally 
a  large  bull  whale  is  captured.  The  large  whale  is  quite  often  found  3  or  4  miles  from  the  school 

of  small  ones.     After  striking  >  of  a  school  the  o;hers  sometimes  slop  around  the  fast  whale. 

which  is  called  'bringing  to'  or  '  brought  to,'  when  each  of  the  lour  boats  may  fasten  to  a  whale. 
More  frequently  the  rest  start  off  after  the  first  boat  strikes  and  are  pursued  by  the  boats,." 

Many  ships  have  cruised  on  the  Offshore  Ground,  extending  from  latitude  3°  30' to  5°  30' 
south,  and  from  longitude  100°  to  120°  west.  The  season  here  lasts  during  the  whole  year,  and 
the  whales  taken  are  of  all  sizes,  though  the  majority  are  young  bulls.  These  whales  go  in  schools, 
and  the  larger  the  size  of  whale  the,  smaller  is  the  number.  This  ground  was  discovered  in 
the  year  1818  by  Capt.  George,  \V.  (larduer  iu  the  ship  Globe,  of  Nantucket.  The  whalers  had 
been  cruising  along  the  coast  of  South  America  when  Captain  Gardner  concluded  to  find  new 


THE  WIIALK  FISHERY.  11 

fields,  and  in  his  search  he  cruised  over  the  ground  extending  from  latitude  5°  to  10°  south,  and 
from  longitude  105°  to  125°  west,  where  whales  were  found  in  great  numbers.  This  new  field 
was  christened  the  li Offshore  Ground,"  and  continues  to  this  day  a  favorite  resort  of  1'anlic 
whalers. 

On  a  belt  of  ocean  from  latitude  2°  north  to  2°  south  and  extending  across  the  Pacific  from 
the  west  coast,  of  South  America,  large  numbers  of  sperm  whales  have  been  taken,  especially 
from  longitude  110°  to  130°  west,  and  also  around  Jarvis  Island  and  the  King's  Mill  Group.  The 
whales  taken  near  the  equator  are  generally  of  the  smaller  kind. 

Vessels  have  cruised  with  some  success  around  the  Marquesas  Islands,  Low  and  Societies, 
Navigator's  Islands,  the  Fiji  group,  and  around  New  Zealand  and  Australia.  The  most  noted 
part  of  the  New  Zealand  Ground  is  20  miles  southeast  and  southwest  from  French  Rock,  which 
lies  in  about  latitude  31°  30'  south,  lougitiule  179°  west.  Other  resorts  included  on  the  New  Zea- 
land Ground  are  on  the  Vasques  Ground,  iu  latitude  36°  south,  longitude  165°  west ;  from  lati- 
tude 36°  to  38°  south,  longitude  104°  to  166°  west ;  around  the  Three  Kings,  in  latitude  32° 
south,  longitude  170°  to  175°  east;  40  to  80- miles  off  shore  east-northeast  from  Mouganui  and 
east-southeast  from  Cape  Bret;  around  Stewart's  Island,  the  Snares,  and  Chatham  Islands. 
Sperm  whales  have  sometimes  been  found  abundant  all  around  New  Zealand.  Large  schools  of 
great  sperm  whales  abounded  here  more  than  on  any  other  whaling  ground.  Captain  Seabury  says 
that  "  several  ships  often  get  into  a  school  of  these  whales  at  one  time,  each  vessel  taking 
one  or  more  whales  that  yield  100  barrels  of  oil.  The  season  for  cruising  at  the  extreme  south  is 
in  the  summer  months,  or  from  September  to  April,  and  on  the  northern  ground  vessels  cruise 
throughout  the  year.  Hurricanes  are  sometimes  encountered  off  the  Navigator's  Islands  and  French 
Rock,  so  that  only  the  best  of  vessels  are  sent  there." 

Sperm  whales  were  once  abundant  all  the  way  across  from  New  Zealand  to  Australia,  and 
around  Tasmania  ;  also  along  the  shores  of  Australia,  and  near  Wreck  Reef,  around  New  Ireland, 
the  Solomon  Islands,  New  Guinea,  Kermadec  Islands,  New  Caledonia,  and  New  Georgia.  Banker 
Bay,  New  Ireland,  was  a  noted  place. 

NORTH  PACIFIC  GROUNDS. — The  most  important  ground  in  the  North  Pacific  for  many  years 
was  off  the  coast  of  Japan,  first  visited  by  whaling  vessels  in  1820.  Around  the  Bonin  Islands,  in 
latitude  27°  north,  longitude  140°  west,  was  also  a  noted  ground.  Vessels  cruised  all  the  way 
from  latitude  2S°  to  32°  north,  and  longitude  165°  west  to  165°  east.  The  Japan  Ground 
included  the  region  from  the  coast  of  Japan  southeast  to  Bonin  Islands,  across  to  165°  west 
longitude.  The  season  was  from  May  to  November,  during  which  time  great  quantities  of  oil  were 
frequently  taken.  The  whales  were  mostly  large  bulls,  and  many  of  them  very  old.  as  was  shown 
by  their  teeth. 

Capt.  William  M.  Barnes,  formerly  of  New  Bedford^,  writes  :  ''There  is  now  (1881)  not  a  single 
sperm  whaler  in  the  North  Pacific  Ocean,  and  in  certain  parts  of.it,  as  on  the  old  Japan  Ground,  the 
Arctic  cruisers  in  crossing  ha  ve  lately  seen  sperm  whales  in  increasing  numbers."  During  the  winter 
season  in  the  northern  hemisphere  the  Arctic  whalers  occasionally  spend  a  few  months  among  the 
islands  of  the  Western  Pacific,  but  otherwise  these  large  grounds  are  now  seldom  resorted  to  by 
whalemen.  In  many  cases  the  sperm  whalers  find  it  difficult  to  fill  their  casks  with  sperm  oil,  and 
so  assist  in  making  up  their  cargo  by  spending  a  few  mouths  in  "  humpbackiug." 

Sperm-whaling  was  formerly  carried  on  with  good  success  around  the  Ladrone  Islands,  also 
in  the  Sooloo  or  Mindora  Seas,  and  around  the  East  India  Islands,  where  ships  continued  to  cruise 
until  within  about  three  years.  The  whales  were  generally  very  small,  and  mostly  cows  with 
calves.  A  great  deal  of  calm  weather  and  strong  currents  are  found  around  these  islands  and  seas. 


12  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

We  corne  now  to  the  grounds  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  North  Pacific.  In  former  years  many 
ships  cruised  around  Cape  San  Lucas,.near  the  Gulf  of  California,  and  along  the  coast  of  Lower 
California  from  10  to  50  miles  off  shore.  Whales  of  large  size  were  taken  here  in  the  winter  months 
by  vessels  that  had  spent  the  summer  on  the  Japan  Ground.  Around  the  Maria  Islands,  near  San 
Bias,  on  the  Mexican  coast,  whales  were  quite  often  found ;  also  in  the  Bay  of  Panama  from  the 
coast  to  90°  west  longitude,  and  farther  west  in  the  ocean  from  latitude  4°  to  8°  north,  longitude 
100°  to  110°  west.  In  the  vicinity  of  Owhyhee  and  other  parts  of  the  Sandwich  Islands  vessels 
met  with  fair  success. 

INDIAN  OCEAN  GROUNDS. — The  principal  resorts  of  vessels  in  this  ocean  were  off'  Port  Dauphin 
and  around  Madagascar  in  the  Mozambique  Channel ;  around  the  islands  of  Mauritius  and  Bourbon 
and  the  island  of  Roderique ;  around  the  Amirante  Group,  and  Seychelle  and  Comore  Islands ;  off 
Zanzibar  and  along  the  east  coast  of  Africa  to  the  Red  Sea;  off  the  island  Socotra;  along  the 
Arabian  coast ;  around  the  Laccadive  Islands  and  the  island  of  Ceylon.  Other  resorts  are  along 
the  west  and  south  coasts  of  Australia,  especially  in  the  vicinity  of  Cape  Leeuwiu  and  off  Shark's 
Bay,  on  the  ground  extending  from  latitude  20°  to  23°  south,  longitude  107°  to  110°  east.  From 
March  to  July  ships  cruise  several  degrees  off  shore  to  the  west  of  Australia  and  from  October 
to  May  near  the  land.  The  number  of  American  whaling  vessels  visiting  the  Indian  Ocean  has 
.been  gradually  diminishing  for  several  years,  and  in  18SO  not  a  single  vessel  from  the  United 
States  went  there  for  sperm  oil.  A  fleet  of  about  eleven  sail  of  vessels,  belonging  at  Tasmania,  is 
engaged  mostly  in  sperm  whaling,  and  some  years  they  meet  with  good  success. 

SPEEM- WHALE  GROUNDS  IN  1840. — The  principal  grounds  visited  by  sperm  whalers  about 
the  time  of  the  greatest  prosperity  in  this  fishery  are  thus  described  by  Commander  Wilkes,  of  the 
United  States  Exploring  Expedition : 

"  The  following  embraces  all  the  different  grounds  in  the  Pacific  visited  by  our  whalers : 

"  (1)  The  on-shore  ground;  that  includes  the  whole  extent  of  ocean  along  the  coast  of  Chili  and 
Peru  from  the  island  of  Juan  Fernandez  to  the  Galapagos  Islands. 

"  (2)  The  off-shore  ground ;  being  the  space  between  latitude  5°  and  10°  south,  longitude  90° 
and  120°  west. 

"  (3)  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands. 

"  (4)  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  Society  Islands. 

"  (5)  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  Samoan  Group. 

"(6  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  Fiji  Group. 

"  (7)  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  King's  Mill  Group. 

"  (8)  Along  and  to  the  south  of  the  equator,  from  the  coast  of  South  America  to  the  King's  Mill 
Group. 

"  (9)  Across  the  South  Pacific,  between  the  parallels  of  21°  and  27°  south. 

"  (10)  Across  the  North  Pacific,  between  the  parallels  of  27°  and  3.5°  north. 

"(11)  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  east  coast  of  New  Zealand. 

<;(12)  In  the  middle  ground  between  New  Holland  and  New  Zealand. 

"  (13)  The  coast  of  Japan,  and  between  it  and  Bonin  Islands. 

'•(14)  The  northwest  coast  of  America. 

"  (15)  Coast  of  California. 

"These,  it  will  be  seen,  embrace  a  large  field,  and  it  might  be  supposed  that  a  ship  could 
hardly  miss  finding  the  animals.  Such,  however,  is  not  the  case.  A  vessel  may  visit  all  these 
places,  and  yet  return  home  a '  clean  ship,'  if  she  happened  to  be  out  of  season.  It  appears  from 
experience  that  whales,  in  their  migrations  congregate  in  the  above-named  places  at  certain  times 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  13 

of  the  year,  and  those  who  are  acquainted  with  the  business  endeavor  to  be  early  on  the  cruising 
grounds.  I  shall  now  point  out  the  times,  according  to  the  best  information,  at  which  the  whales 
visit  the  several  grounds,  and,  although  not  a  whaler,  I  hope  to  £ive  such  information  as  may  be 
useful  to  this  class  of  my  countrymen. 

"  For  convenience  of  description,  the  cruising-grounds  may  be  considered  as  included  within 
four  sections  or  belts. 

"  These  belts  are  from  20  to  25  degrees  of  latitude  iu  width. 

"  The  first  of  which  I  speak  is  that  between  the  equator  and  the  northern  tropic ;  the  second, 
between  the  tropic  and  50°  north ;  the  third,  between  the  equator  and  the  southern  tropic  and 
latitude  50°  south. 

"  Within  the  tropics  whales  are  almost  always  to  be  met  with.  There  are,  however,  particular 
places  within  this  zone  where  they  chiefly  congregate.  Whales  are  found  iu  the  first  belt  on  the 
north  side  of  the  equator,  to  the  southward  of  the  Sandwich  Islands,  and  thence  westward  as  far 
as  the  Mulgrave  Islands,  for  the  greater  part  of  the  year ;  but  the  only  spot  or  space  they  are 
known  to  abound  in  at  any  particular  season,  within  this  belt  is  to  the  westward  of  the  Galapa- 
gos; they  pass  and  repass  over  the  rest  of  this  space  in  their  migrations,  and  may  generally  be 
found  near  to  or  around  the  small  islands. 

"  In  the  second  belt  they  range  from  the  coast  of  Japan  to  the  northwest  coast  of  America  and 
California;  this  they  frequent  from  May  till  November.  In  the  month  of  July  they  are  found  off  the 
Boniu  Islands,  and  between  them  and  the  coast  of  Japan.  They  frequent  the  space  lying  to  the  north- 
ward of  the  Hawaiian  Islands,  and  comprehended  between  the  parallels  of  28°  and  35°  north ;  and 
within  the  meridians  of  145°  and  156°  west,  from  June  to  October ;  and  resort  to  the  northwest 
coast  of  America  in  August  and  September,  and  to  that  of  California  in  November  and  January. 

"  The  third  belt  comprises  the  ocean  from  the  coast  of  South  America  to  the  King's  Mill  Group, 
including  the  Marquesas,  Society,  and  Friendly  Islands,  the  Samoan  and  Fiji  Groups.  Within 
these  are  spaces  known  as  the  on-shore  and  off-shore  grounds.  The  latter  the  whalers  frequent 
from  November  to  February,  and  along  this  belt  they  are  found  until  the  mouths  of  July  and  Au- 
gust, by  which  time  they  reach  the  King's  Mill  and  Fiji  Groups.  There  are,  however,  stragglers  to 
be  met  with  in  this  space  during  all  seasons. 

"The  fourth  belt  extends  from  the  southern  tropic  to  the  latitude  of  50°  south.  The  most 
profitable  time  for  cruising  within  it  is  in  the  months  of  March,  April,  and  May,  to  the  eastward 
of  New  Zealand.  After  that  date,  along  and  between  the  parallels  of  22°  and  28°  south,  from  the 
coast  of  New  Holland  to  that  of  South  America.  The  portion  of  sea  between  New  Holland  and 
New  Zealand  is  called  the  'middle  ground,'  and  is  frequently  found  very  profitable. 

"From  an  examination  of  the  particular  localities  iu  which  whales  are  found  most  at  certain 
seasons,  and  connecting  these  with  my  own  observations  on  currents,  I  am  induced  to  believe  the 
places  of  their  resort  will  point  more  correctly  to  the  neutral  points  or  spaces  of  no  current,  than 
any  other  data  that  we  yet  possess. 

"These  must  necessarily  become  the  rendezvous,  or  feeding-places,  of  these  animals.  The 
determination  of  these  points  will,  therefore,  throw  additional  light  on  the  systems  of  currents  iu 
the  ocean,  by  pointing  out  the  neutral  spaces.  The  chief  resort  of  whales  will  be  seen  on  the  map 
at  one  view ;  and  when  these  are  connected  with  the  currents  shown  to  exist  by  the  observations 
of  the  expedition  and  others,  they  will  be  found  to  correspond  in  a  remarkable  manner  with  the 
neutral  spaces. 

"  I  have  myself  paid  much  attention  to  acquiring  information  in  relation  to  the  position  of 
these  grounds  from  the  masters  of  whale-ships,  but  have  usually  found  their  reports  at  variance 


14  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

one  with  another,  and  they  have  sometimes  differed  as  much  as  5  degrees  in  assigning  their  limits. 
Their  position,  no  doubt,  varies  much  in  different  years ;  but  even  this  will  not  explain  all  the 
discrepancies  of  the  statements.  t 

"  If  we  examine  the  seasons  of  the  appearance  of  whales  at  certain  islands,  they  will  generally 
be  found  to  be  between  the  beginning  and  the  end  of  the  summer  of  the  climate,  during  which 
time  animal  life  is  most  prolific,  and  the  food  of  the  whale  consequently  abounds  near  the  par- 
ticular group.  I  have  frequently  been  told,  and  it  is  generally  believed,  that  whales  are  partial  to 
warmth,  and  frequent  few  places  outside  the  tropics.  This,  if  true,  would  be  singular  enough; 
but  the  main  reason  for  their  frequenting  the  summer  seas  at  particular  seasons  is  the  procure- 
ment of  food,  which  is  there  to  be  found  in  greater  abundance ;  and  there  appears  to  be  little 
doubt  that  iu  migrating  these  animals  move  with  the  currents  until  they  find  their  food  in  plenty, 
and  then  continue  in  such  locality  until  it  is  exhausted. 

"A  number  of  instances  are  known,  *  *  in  which,  at  certain  seasons,  strong  currents  have 
been  experienced  iu  places  where  three  months  afterward  they  were  found  to  have  ceased  altogether, 
or  even  to  have  changed  their  direction.  I  have  now  particular  reference  to  the  northwest  coast. 

"Having  pointed  out  the  different  belts  iu  the  Pacific,  I  will  now  refer  to  the  localities  in  the 
Atlantic  and  Indian  Oceans  where  the  sperm-whale  fishery  is  most  successful. 

"  These,  in  like  manner,  are  found  to  correspond,  and  are  connected  with  the  obstructions  of 
the  submarine  currents,  or  the  places  where,  from  opposing  currents,  they  become  lost. 

"  In  the  Atlantic  Ocean  :  (1)  Off  the  Azores  or  Western  Islands ;  (2)  off  the  Cape  de  Verdes; 
(3)  north  of  Bahama  Banks ;  (4)  Gulf  of  Mexico;  (5)  Caribbean  Sea;  (G)  to  the  eastward  of  the 
Windward  Islands  ;  (7)  north  coast  of  Brazil ;  (8)  south  coast  of  Brazil ;  (9)  Carrol  Ground,  or  a 
space  of  ocean  lying  between  St.  Helena  and  Africa. 

"  In  the  Indian  Ocean :  (1)  Off  the  south  end  of  Madagascar,  and  between  it  and  Africa ;  (2) 
off  the  north  end  of  Madagascar;  (3)  the  coast  of  Arabia;  (4)  west  coast  of  Java;  (5)  northwest 
coast  of  New  Holland  ;  (6)  south  coast  of  New  Holland,  and  between  it  and  Van  Diemen's  Land. 

"  The  periods  of  time  allotted  to  these  fisheries  coincide  with  the  time  at  which  it  might  be 
expected  that  the  food  of  the  whale  would  be  most  plentiful  if  brought  by  the  polar  streams. 

"The  Atlantic  fishery  is,  for  the  most  part,  carried  on  in  a  smaller  class  of  vessels  than  those 
used  iu  the  Pacific ;  the  voyages  are  of  less  duration,  and  less  capital  is  therefore  required  in  this 
business  than  the  other.  In  speaking  of  the  cruisiug-grounds,  I  shall  follow  the  order  in  which 
they  are  visited. 

"  The  first  in  point  of  time  is  that  near  the  Azores.  This  ground  does  not  extend  more  than 
200  miles  from  these  islands,  and  lies  principally  to  the  southwest  of  them.  Here  whales  are 
found  during  the  summer  mouths,  and  as  late  as  October.  These  islands,  it  will  be  well  to 
remark  here,  lie  in  the  route  of  the  great  north  polar  stream,  and  form  an  obstruction  to  its  passage; 
consequently  the  food  is  arrested  iu  its  progress,  and  is  accumulated  here. 

"  The  next  ground  visited  is  off  Cape  Blanco  and  the  Cape  de  Verdes,  and  it  is  also  searched 
by  the  outward-bound  ships  of  the  Pacific  fleet.  The  whalers  of  the  Atlantic  next  pass  to  the  north 
coast  of  Brazil,  in  the  months  of  October,  November,  and  December,  aud  thence  to  the  Brazil 
Bank,  and  off  the  mouths  of  the  Rio  de  la  Plata,  where  they  fish  in  January  aud  February ;  after 
this  they  .seek  Saint  Helena  aud  Carrol  Ground,  which  lies  from  50  to  200  miles  south  of  that 
island,  toward  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  On  the  latter  ground  they  remain  during  the,  mouths  of 
.March,  April,  and  May;  and  thence  they  pass  to  the  westward  along  the  South  American  coast, 
to  the  eastward  of  the  Windward  Islands;  thence  to  the  Bahama  Banks,  Cape  Hatteras,  and 
along  the  coast  of  the  United  States,  home. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  15 

"The  smaller  class  of  whalers  seldom  extend  their  cruising  to  the  south  of  the  line,  but  after 
they  have  visited  the  first  two  whaling-grounds  they  usually  pass  to  the  westward  toward  the 
island  of  Fernando  de  Noronha,  and  thence  along  the  South  American  coast  until  they  reach 
the  Windward  Islands.  They  frequent  the  Caribbean  Sea  in  the  months  of  January  and  Feb- 
ruary, and  farther  to  the.  westward  off  the  peninsula  of  Yucatan  and  Cuba  in  April ;  after  which 
time  they  proceed  through  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  to  cruise  off  the  Bahama  Banks  and  Cape  Hatteras 
in  May.  Thence  they  pass  northward,  on  either  side  of  the  Gulf  Stream,  to  the  eastern  side  of 
the  Grand  Banks. 

"  In  the  Indian  Ocean,  the  south  part  of  Madagascar,  off  Point  Dauphin,  is  visited  in  March 
and  April ;  in  May,  June,  and  July  the  ground  off  the  southwest  coast  of  Madagascar,  in  the 
Mozambique  Channel,  and  upon,  both  sides  of  that  channel.  The  whalers  usually  recruit  iu  Saint 
Augustine's  Bay,  where  supplies  are  to  be  had  in  abundance,  and  both  wood  and  water  are  easily 
procured.  After  this  they  usually  spend  some  time  off  Cape  Corrientes.  with  the  cape  and  head- 
lauds  on  either  side,  and  visit  the  Comoro  Isles.  Sperm  whales  are  frequently  found  in  numbers 
among  these  islands,  and  ships  usually  do  well  in  their  vicinity.  The  African  coast,  from  Mozam- 
bique to  Zanzibar,  is  good  ground,  and  the  latter  is  also  a  good  port  for  repairing. 

"  Some  ships  extend  their  cruising  during  the  northeast  monsoon,  from  October  to  April,  to 
the  Arabian  coast,  but  the  African  is  generally  preferred.  The  Chagos  Archipelago  at  times 
affords  some  success,  but  it  is  very  doubtful  ground,  and  has  not  often  been  frequented.  The 
proper  season  is  during  the  southwest  monsoon. 

" The  most  profitable  ground  iu  the  Indian  Ocean  is  the  west  and  northwest  coast  of  New 
Holland,  as  far  eastward  as  the  islands  of  Timor,  Lomboch,  and  Angier,  and  westward  to  the 

Keeling  Islands,  including  the  coast  of  Java. 

********** 

"  It  wilt  be  perceived  how  nearly  these  grounds  coincide  with  the  places  wherein,  according 
to  the  views  already  stated,  the  polar  streams  are  obstructed  by  land  or  islands,  so  as  either  to 
interrupt  their  course  or  create  such  an  impediment  as  to  change  it. 

"  The  Sooloo  Sea  is  the  only  place  that  remains  to  be  noticed.  American  ships,  however,  have 
seldom  gone  thither,  but  English  vessels  are  reported  as  having  met  with  much  success  there."* 

(b)   EIGHT-WHALE    GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL,  DISTRIBUTION  OF  RIGHT  WHALES. — The  right  whale  (Eubalcena)  is  found 
in  various  parts  of  the  world  as  far  north  as  latitude  61°  30',  at  the  mouth  of  Hudson  Strait,  and 
south  to  the  Antarctic  Ocean,  though  it  is  rare  in  the  warmest  latitudes.  This  whale,  of  which 
there  are  several  species  in  the  different  oceans,  must  not  be  confounded  with  the  bow-head, 
or  polar  whale,  which  is  called  right  whale  by  many  whalemen,  though  quite  distinct  from  it  and 
inhabiting  much  colder  waters,  the  bow-head  being  an  ice  whale  and  the  right  a  temperate  whale. 
The  principal  right-whaling  grounds  east  of  America  are  in  the  South  Atlantic,  while  in  the 
Pacific  Ocean  they  are  of  about  equal  importance  both  north  and  south  of  the  tropics. 

NORTH  ATLANTIC  GROUNDS. — The  North  Atlantic  grounds  for  this  species  are  few  iu  num- 
ber. They  are  taken  during  the  summer  mouths  off  the  southern  end  of  Greenland  and  to  a 
limited  extent  in  the  lower  part  of  Davis  Strait,  near  Resolution  Island.  Along  the  eastern 
coast  of  the  United  States  they  are  occasionally  captured  by  shore,  whalemen,  especially  at  the 
whaling  stations  in  North  Carolina.  During  the  winter  mouths  whalers  find  them  on  the  Hatteras 

"  Narrative  of  Wilkes's  U.  S.  Exploring  Expedition,  vol.  v. 


]  6  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Ground,  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  in  the  Caribbean  Sea.  A  few  small  vessels  have  cruised  with 
indifferent  success  for  right  whales  along  the  west  coast  of  Africa,  in  latitude  15°  north,  and  in 
Center  Bay,  about  latitude  23°  north.  At  no  particular  place  in  the  North  Atlantic  are  they  now 
abundant,  though  they  were  formerly  taken  in  great  numbers  close  to  the  New  England  shore, 
and  eastward  of  the  Newfoundland  fishing-banks. 

SOUTH  ATLANTIC  GROUNDS. — The  most  noted  grounds  for  right  whales  at  the  commencement 
of  the  right- whale  fishery  iu  the  last  century  were  off  the  coasts  of  Brazil  and  of  Patagonia,  on  what 
were  called  the  "Brazil,"  or  "  Main,"  and  "  False  Banks,"  and  especially  between  the  thirty-sixth  and 
the  fifty-fifth  parallels  from  the  coast  to  30°  west  longitude.  The  most  important  spots  were  on  and 
about  the  above  banks  and  from  latitude  38°  to  45°  south,  and  longitude  38°  to  45°  west.  Right 
whales  were  also  quite  abundant  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Falkland  Islands,  which  were  first  visited  by 
our  whalemen  in  1774;  near  the  Tristan  Islands,  between  latitude  28°  to  42°  south,  and  from  the 
meridian  to  20°  west  longitude,  was  called  the  "Tristan  Ground,"  and  was  a  favorite  cruising 
place.  Good  whaling  was  also  found  from  latitude  34°  to  43°  south  and  longitude  24°  to  28° 
west.  Other  important  grounds  were  along  the  west  coast  of  Africa  from  latitude  22°  to  32° 
south,  or  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  Ships  met  with  great  success  on  the  South  Atlantic  grounds 
for  many  years,  and  it  was  not  an  uncommon  occurrence  for  vessels  of  from  l/iOO  to  2,500  barrels 
capacity  to  fill  up  and  return  home  from  the  South  Atlantic  in  one  season,  making  the  voyage  in 
from  seven  to  ten  months. 

The  grounds  more  particularly  visited  at  the  present  day  in  this  ocean  are  around  the  Tristan 
Islands  in  latitude  36°  to  38°  south,  longitude  10°  to  25°  west,  from  September  to  January;  on 
the  east  coast  of  South  America  in  latitude  30°  to  35°  south,  from  May  to  August ;  and  from 
September  to  June  along  the  coast  of  Patagonia  in  latitude  42°  to  r<2°  south.  The  whales  caught 
are  of  the  regular  right-whale  species,  the  bull  when  full  grown  yielding  from  40  to  60  barrels  of 
oil  and  the  cow  from  60  to  80  barrels,  or  about  60  barrels  on  an  average.  The  whalebone  aver- 
ages about  300  pounds  to  100  barrels  oil  in  the  bull,  and  400  to  600  pounds  to  100  barrels  oil  in 
the  cow  whale. 

INDIAN  OCEAN  AND  SOUTH  PACIFIC  GROUNDS. — We  now  pass  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  to 
the  right- whale  grounds  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  all  of  which  are  at  present  entirely  abandoned  by 
the  Americans.  On  many  parts  of  the  ocean  lying  between  the  parallels  of  20°  to  50°  south,  and 
from  longitude  18°  to  80°  east,  right  whales  were  found  abundant  in  former  years,  and  a  few 
ships  continued  to  cruise  there  up  to  1879,  though  most  of  the  whales  have  been  killed  or  driven 
from  the  ground.  The  most  important  places  within  these  limits  of  latitude  and  longitude  were 
at  Delago  Bay,  in  latitude  26°  south,  longitude  32°  east ;  east  of  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  in  latitude 
35°  to  38°  south,  longitude  30°  to  35°  east ;  around  the  Crozette  Islands,  in  latitude  45°  to  47° 
south,  and  longitude  49°  to  52°  east ;  in  the  vicinity  of  St.  Paul's  Island,  in  latitude  32°  to  38° 
south,  longitude  70°  to  80°  east;  and  near  Kerguelen  Island,  in  latitude  48°  to  50°  south,  longi- 
tude 69°  to  700  West. 

The  season  for  cruising  in  the  Indian  Ocean  is  the  same  as  in  the  South  Atlantic.  The  best 
mouths  for  whaling  offshore  are  from  September  to  May,  and  when  inshore  more  whales  are 
taken  in  the  winter  months,  when  they  can  be  found  around  the  islands,  near  the  rocks,  and 
among  the  kelp  or  seaweed.  The  whales  in  this  ocean  are  smaller  than  those  taken  in  the  South 
Atlantic,  averaging  40  barrels  of  oil  and  240  pounds  of  bone  for  the  bull,  and  for  the  cow  whale 
60  barrels  of  oil  and  360  pounds  of  bone,  or  600  pounds  of  bone  to  100  barrels  of  oil. 

In  former  years  right  whales  were  found  quite  plenty  on  the  west  and  south  coasts  of  Australia, 
especially  at  Cape  Leeuwin,  Geographe  Bay,  and  King  George  Sound.  They  were  also  taken 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  17 

around  Van  Diemen's  Land,  or  Tasmania,  which  place,  for  the  past  ten  years,  has  employed  a  fleet 
of  eleven  vessels,  principally  in  the  sperm-whale  fishery  in  this  vicinity.  In  the  year  1872  nineteen 
vessels,  measuring  4,017  tons,  belonged  at  Tasmania,  and  produced  112  barrels  of  whale  oil  and 
2,712  barrels  of  sperm  oil. 

The  vicinily  of  New  Zealand  was  once  an  important  right- whaling  ground,  and  is  still  occa- 
sionally visited  by  vessels,  that  meet  with  moderate  success,  taking  both  right  and  sperm  whales. 
The  grounds  are  both  inshore  and  offshore  ;  the  most  noted  of  those  offshore,  from  October  to 
March,  are  from  latitude  38°  to  48°  south,  and  longitude  154°  to  162°  east.  Commencing  the 
season  to  the  north,  vessels  work  south  with  the  whales.  Around  the  Auckland  Islands  and  in 
the  vicinity  of  Stewart's  Island,  from  the  laud  to  100  miles  offshore,  are  good  cruising  grounds; 
also  from  36°  to  45°  south  latitude,  and  KJIP  east  to  160°  west  longitude. 

Right  whales  were  takeu  in  abundance  off  the  coast  of  Chili  about  forty  years  ago,  and  a  few 
vessels  still  cruise  in  that  vicinity,  making  mixed  voyages  for  sperm  and  whale  oil.  The  season  is 
from  September  1  to  January  1,  on  the  grounds  from  latitude  42°  to  47°  south,  and  longitude  75° 
to  80°  west.  After  the  beginning  of  the  year  vessels  work  along  shore  toward  the  north  as  far 
as  latitude  35°  south,  occasionally  anchoring  in  the  bays  and  cruising  back  and  forth  between 
the  thirty-fifth  and  the  fortieth  parallels  until  'May.  The  most  noted  grounds  are  Concepcion  and 
St.  Vincent  bays,  near  the  port  of  Talcahnaua,  where  they  formerly  caught  their  whales  and  tried 
out  their  oil  while  at  anchor,  sometimes  taking  1,000  barrels  of  oil  in  a  month.  Some  vessels  used 
to  winter  in  these  bays,  though  they  were  not  very  successful  in  the  winter  months. 

NORTH  PACIFIC  GROTTNDS. — One  of  the  principal  cruising  places  for  right  whales  in  this 
ocean  is  that  known  as  the  "Northwest  coast  right- whale  ground,"  or  the  "Kadiak  ground," 
situated  near  an  island  of  that  name  off  the  Aliaska  peninsula,  and  extending  from  latitude  50°  to 
GO0  north,  and  longitude  130°  to  160°  west.  The  best  portion  of  this  ground  lies  between 
latitude  55°  to  58°  north,  and  longitude  140°  to  152°  east,  and  the  most  profitable  cruising  season 
is  from  April  to  October.  The  first  whaling  vessel  to  cruise  here  was  the  ship  Ganges,  of  Nan- 
tucket,  commanded  by  Capt.  Barzillar  Folger.  This  was  in  the  year  1835,  from  which  time  until 
within  a  few  years  past  the  Kadiak  was  the  most  important  ground  north  of  the  Japan  ground. 
The  whales  taken  on  this  ground  average  about  125  barrels  of  oil  each,  the  male  or  bull  making 
from  60  to  100  barrels,  and  the  cow  whale  from  100  to  250  barrels.  The  bone  will  average  about 
1,000  pounds  to  100  barrels  of  oil,  and  is  much  longer  than  the  South  Sea  bone.  A  full-grown 
whale  here  has  about  two  hundred  slabs  of  bone,  varying  in  length  from  1  foot  to  11  feet.  Some 
ot  these  whales,  though  apparently  good  when  taken,  prove  to  be  "  dry  skins,"  making  no  oil,  and 
many  of  them  sink  after  being  killed.  The  blubber  varies  in  thickness  on  different  parts  of  the 
body,  being  from  5  to  15  inches  on  a  100-barrel  whale,  and  on  a  200-barrel  from  5  to  18  inches. 
The  lips,  from  which  oil  is  also  taken,  sometimes  yield  from  8  to  10  barrels. 

Right  whales  are  found  and  have  been  captured  around  the  Fox  Islands  and  in  Bristol  Bay 
north  of  the  Aliaska  peninsula.  In  Bering  Sea,  along  the  coast  of  Kamchatka,  there  is  good 
right  whaling ;  also  at  the  entrance  to  Okhotsk  Sea,  and  in  the  southern  part  of  that  sea  during 
the  months  of  April  and  Jlay.  They  are  also  taken  in  the  Japan  and  the  Yellow  Seas.  "In 
former  years,"  says  Scammou,  "the  right  whales  were  found  on  the  coast  of  Oregon,  and  ocea- 
sionly  in  large  numbers ;  the  few  frequenting  the  coast  of  California  are  supposed  to  have  been 
merely  stragglers  from  their  northern  haunts.  Some,  indeed,  have,  been  taken  (from  February  to 
April)  as  far  south  as  the  Bay  of  San  Sebastian  Viscaino,  and  about  Cerros  Island,  both  places 
being  near  tin-  parallel  of  29°  north  latitude."* 

*  Marine  Mammalia,  ji.  Wi. 

SEC.  v,  VOL.  ii 2 


|g  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHEE1ES. 

(C)    BOWHEAD-WHALE   GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL  DisTinr.rrioN  OF  BOWHEAD  WHALES.— The  bowhead  or  polar  whale  is  the 
spi-Hes  ibnucrly  taken  in  great  numbers  by  the  Dutch  and  English  whalers  at  Spitzbergen, 
•Greeuliind.  nnd  Davis  Strait.  It  is  the  whale  captured  by  the  American  fleet  in  the  Arctic  Ocean, 
and  is  the  most  valuable  of  the  right  or  whalebone  whales  both  for  the  quantity  and  for  the  quality 
of  its  oil  and  for  the  length  and  the  thickness  of  its  baleen.  In  the  English  whale  fishery  it  is 
not  distinguished  from  the  right  whale,  but  is  not  the  same  us  the  species  commonly  known  to 
American  whalemen  under  that  name,  The  American  right  whale  lives  in  more  temperate  waters, 
while  the  polar  or  bowhead  whale  inhabits  only  the  icy  regions  of  the  northern  seas.  The  home 
of  the  bowhead  is  in  must  of  1  he  waters  north  of  the  sixtieth  parallel  of  north  latitude.  It  is  found 
in  lower  latitudes  on  the  Asiatic  than  on  the  Greenland  side  of  America,  being  taken  in  the 
Okhotsk  Sea  as  far  south  as  the  fifty-fourth  parallel  and  in  the  Bering  Sea  as  far  south  as  the 
fifty-fifth  parallel,  which  is  the  southern  limit  of  the  winter  ice  in  that  sea.  In  the  Greenland 
Arctic  the  bowhead  is  not  found  south  of  Cape  Farewell  on  the  sixtieth  parallel.  The  northern 
limit  of  this  whale  is  undefined. 

TLe  capture  of  the  bowhead  whale  began  at  Spitzbergen  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century;  it  soon  extended  to  the  east  coast  of  Greenland,  and  early  in  the  eighteenth  century 
they  were  taken  in  Davis  Strait  and  adjoining  waters.  It  was  not  until  the  year  1848  that  the 
whalers  pushed  their  way  through  Bering  Strait  and  established  the  very  profitable  fishery  for  this 
species  in  the  Pacific-Arctic. 

The  principal  grounds  visited  by  the  whaling  vessels  of  the  United  States  in  search  of  the 
bowhead  are  as  follows: 

ATLANTIC-ARCTIC  GROUNDS. — Off  Cape  Farewell,  at  the  southern  end  of  Greenland,  from 
June  to  August;  also  in  Hudson  Strait  and  Hudson  Bay,  especially  in  the  vicinity  of  South- 
hampton  Island  and  near  Cape  Fullerton,  that  lies  in  about  latitude  64°  north,  and  longitude  86° 
west.  The  vessels  are  accustomed  to  work  through  the  ice  in  Hudson  Strait  about  the  middle 
of  July,  arriving  in  the  bay  about  August  1,  and  if  intending  to  return  home  the  same  year 
they  leave  the  bay  by  the  1st  of  September.  Many  of  them  go  into  winter  quarters  about  Sep- 
tember 15,  and  spend  the  winter  in  the  ice,  taking  advantage  of  the  early  and  the  late  appearance 
of  the  whales,  as  also  occasionally  capturing  seals  or  walrus  in  the  winter  months. 

In  Davis  Strait  the  vessels  cruise  near  Northumberland  Inlet  in  about  latitude  65°  north, 
and  longitude  68°  west.  Cumberland  Inlet  has  also  been  a  favorite  resort  for  whaling  vessels  of 
the  smaller  class,  and  they  frequently  winter  there.  Eesolution  Island,  at  the  entrance  to  Cumber- 
laud  Inlet,  is  a  good  ground  for  both  bowhead  and  right  whales  during  April  and  May. 

The  whales  taken  in  these  bays  and  inlets  in  former  years  would  average  about  120  barrels 
of  oil  each,  the  bull  100  barrels,  and  the  cow  140  barrels ;  but  of  late  years  they  have  been  smaller 
and  scarcer.  The  yield  of  bone  is  usually  about  1,300  pounds  to  100  barrels  of  oil. 

American  vessels  at  present  cruise  no  farther  north  than  the  sixty-fifth  parallel,  though  the 
Scotch  steam-whalers,  that  carry  their  blubber  home  to  be  boiled  out,  frequently  take  their  whales 
as  far  north  as  the  seventy-fifth  parallel.  The  American  vessels  formerly  went  as  far  as  Pond's 
Bay,  in  about  latitude  73°  north. 

A  further  discussion  of  the  movements  of  the  Scotch  whalers  is  given  below  under  the  head 
of  Foreign  Whale  Fishery. 

In  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  and  first  part  of  the  nineteenth  centuries  there  were  very 
profitable  whaling  grounds  for  the  bowhead  in  the  vicinity  of  Spitzbergen  and  off  the  east  coast 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  19 

of  Greenland,  where  extensive  fisheries  were  curried  on  by  the  European  nations.  These  grounds 
were  not  visited  by  vessels  of  the  United  States  until  within  the  past  thirty  years,  and  then  only 
in  a  lew  instances.  The  first  American  whaler  sailing  for  Spitzbergen  Sea  was  the  ship  Han- 
nibal, Captain  Kovee,  that  left  New  London  May  '21,  18.3.3,  and  returned  March  21,  1856,  with 
only  twenty  eight  barrels  of  whale-oil.  A  second  attempt  was  the,  voyage  of  the  bark  Tempest, 
Captain  Allyn,  that  left  New  London  May  HI,  1857.  Captain  Allyn  states  that  he  had  under- 
taken this  voyage  to  the  Spitsbergen  regions  by  the  advice  of  Hon.  Thomas  W.  Williams,  a 
successful  whaling  agent,  who  furnished  him  with  Scoresby's  journals  and  information  obtained 
by  correspondence  with  whaling  agents  in  Scotland,  setting  forth  the  frequent  appearance  of 
whales  in  the  region  of  ocean  north  of  Knssia.  During  the  month  of  July  these  seas  were  cruised 
over  by  the  Tempest,  but,  "although  we  sought  diligently  for  whales,"  says  Captain  Allyn,  "our 
search  was  totally  unsuccessful,  and  on  the  9th  of  August  we  concluded  to  proceed  to  a  more 
congenial  climate."*  The  vessel  then  cruised  clown  through  the  North  and  South  Atlantic 
Oceans,  round  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  on  to  New  Zealand,  and  thence  to  the  Okhotsk  Sea,  and 
after  cruising  with  moderate  success  for  two  or  three  seasons  in  these  waters  returned  to  New 
London  in  1861.  In  1865  a  third  attempt  was  made  to  establish  an  American  fishery  in  these 
seas,  this  time  at  Iceland  by  the  bark  Reindeer,  of  New  York,  principally  for  sulphur-bottom 
whales.  The  first  year's  work  was  unsuccessful,  and  the  second  season  resulted  in  such  little 
profit  that  the  project  was  abandoned.  Tbese  three  voyages  are  the  only  ones,  so  far  as  known, 
that  have  been  made  by  American  whaling  vessels  to  the  oceans  east  of  Greenland  or  north  ot 
Europe. 

The  Eussians  and  Norwegians  carry  on  profitable  whale  fisheries,  mostly  for  the  fin-back,  at 
one  or  two  points  along  the  coasts  of  Norway  and  Fiurnark.  One  of  these  stations  is  on  an  island 
in  Varangar  Fiord,  opposite  Wadso,  in  Fiumark.  In  recent  years  a  few  Norwegian  vessels  have 
visited  Spitzbergeu  in  search  of  whales,  as  in  the  season  of  1873,  when  six  vessels,  with  fifty-seven 
men,  were  frozen  in  the  ice  at  the  island,  and  seventeen  of  the  men  perished  before  assistance 
reached  them. 

PACIFIC-ARCTIC  GROUNDS. — The  fleet  of  whaling  vessels  cruising  north  of  50°  north  latitude  in 
the  waters  between  the  Asiatic  and  the  American  coasts  is  called  the  North  Pacific  fleet.  It  has 
been  the  most  important  branch  of  the  American  right-whaling  fleet  since  1835,  when  the  famous 
Kadiak  ground,  lying  between  latitude  ,3<P  and  60°  north,  was  discovered.  Here  were  taken  only 
the  right  whale,  but  in  1843  the  fleet  pushed  farther  north,  and  began  capturing  bowheads  on  the 
Kamchatka  coast.  In  1848  a  whaling  vessel  entered  the  Arctic  in  pursuit  of  these  large  animals 
and  met  with  good  success.  In  1839  there  were  only  two  vessels  in  the  North  Pacific  fleet.  From 
that  date  to  1880  the  total  number  of  voyages  m  ale  to  these  grounds  by  American  vessels  was 
4,300,  and  the  total  catch  of  whale-oil  (including  oil  of  the  right  whale,  bowhead,  and  walrus)  was 
3,994,397  barrels,  or  60  per  cent,  of  the  total  production  of  whale-oil  by  the  American  fleet  in  all 
oceans  during  the  same  period. 

The  North  Pacific  right  and  bowhead  whale  fishery  has  always  been  peculiarly  an  American 
enterprise,  very  few  foreign  vessels  having  participated  in  it.  The  principal  grounds  were 
discovered  by  American  vessels  bet  ween  the  years  183,3  and  1S48.  The,  most  important  whaling- 
grounds  for  the  bowhead  in  this  region  are  the  Okhotsk  Sea  and  tiie  Arctic  Ocean.  The  former- 
is  at  present  of  little  importance,  but  lew  vessels  having  visited  it  dining  the  past  five  or  ten 
years,  nearly  all  of  the  fleet  preferring  the  hazardous,  though  profitable,  whaling  in  the  Arctic.  The 

•TheOld  tJ:i.ilnr'.sSi,.i-.\,  l,.\- Cimlm,  L.  All    n    1879,  p.  85, 


20  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

bays  iu  the  Bering  Sea  are  visited  by  the  fleet  oil  its  way  to  the  Arctic,  and  large  numbers  of 
whales  are  sometimes  taken  in  these  waters  before  the  ice  permits  the  vessels  to  pass  through  the 
Strait. 

The  North  Pacific  whale  fishery  was  at  its  height  in  1846,  when  292  ships  cruised  in  the  region 
north  of  the  fiftieth  parallel,  between  the  Asiatic  aud  the  American  shores.  In  1868  there  were 
but  68  vessels  in  the  fleet,  of  which  number  41  were  in  the  Arctic  Ocean,  8  in  the  Okhotsk  Sea, 
and  19  on  the  Kadiak  ground.  In  the  season  of  1SSO  the  fleet  was  reduced  to  19  vessels,  all  of 
which  cruised  in  the  Arctic  and  captured  a  total  of  2(>f>  whales. 

"The  principal  herding  places  of  the  bowheads  in  the  Okhotsk,"  says  Scammou,  "were  at  the 
extremities  of  this  great  sheet  of  water,  the  most  northern  being  the  Northeast  Gulf  (Gulf  of 
Ghijigha),  the  most  southern  Tehauter  Bay.  The  whales  did  not  make  their  appearance  in 
Northeast  Gulf  so  soon  as  iu  the  bay.  Whalers  endeavored,  as  soon  as  possible,  to  get  to  the  head 
of  Tehauter  Bay,  where  they  found  the  objects  of  pursuit  in  the  intermediate  water,  between  the 
ice  and  the  shore,  long  before  the  main  body  of  the  congealed  mass  was  broken  up,  and  before  the 
ships  could  get  between  the  ice  aud  the  shore,  even  at  high  tide,  the  boats  being  sent  forward 
weeks  previous  to  the  ships.  Soon  after  the  ships'  arrival  the  whales  avoided  their  pursuers  by 
going  under  the  main  body  of  ice,  situated  in  the  middle  of  the  bay,  where  they  found  breathing- 
holes  among  the  floes.  The  boats  cruised  about  the  edge  of  the  barrier,  watching  for  them  to 
emerge  from  their  covert,  which  occasionally  they  did,  when  chase  was  instantly  given.  Fre- 
quently, in  sailing  along  this  ice-field,  yon  could  hear  distinctly  the  sound  of  whales  blowing 
among  it,  where  no  water  was  visible  at  the  point  whence  the  sound  came.  The  first  of  the  season, 
before  the  ice  broke  up  and  disappeared,  when  there  were  no  whales  about,  the  question  was 
frequently  asked, 'Where  are  the  whales?'  and  as  often  answered,  'They  are  in  the  ice';  and,  'When 
do  you  think  they  will  come  out?'  was  answered  by, '  When  the  ice  leaves.'  It  has  been  established 
lieyond  question  that  this  species  pass  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  or  rather,  if  we  may  be 
allowed  the  expression,  from  the  Atlantic  Arctic  to  the  Pacific  Arctic,  by  the  north  ;  and,  too,  it 
is  equally  certain  that  numerous  air-holes  always  exist  in  the  ice  that  covers  the  Arctic  waters, 
even  in  the  coldest  latitudes.  These  fissures  are  caused  by  the  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides,  and  con- 
traction and  expansion  of  the  ice.  Storms  acting  upon  the  water  hundreds  of  miles  distant  also 
have  their  influence  in  rending  asunder  the  icy  fetters  of  those  frozen  seas.  It  appears  to  us 
not  improbable  that  the  bowhead  has  a  feeding  and  breeding  ground  iu  a  polar  sea.  And  as 
they  have  never  been  seen  during  the  winter  months  in  any  other  quarter  of  the  globe,  except  as 
before  mentioned,  it  would  appear  that  they  nmst  remain  among  the  rough  water  and  broken  ice, 
at  the  southern  edge  of  the  winter  barrier,  or  migrate  to  some  remote  sea  unknown  to  man."  * 

The  whaling  vessels  enter  the  Okhotsk  as  soon  as  the  ice  leaves,  which  is  usually  about  the 
last  of  May,  though  sometimes  it  is  as  late  as  July.  Having  anchored  the  vessel  in  a  convenient 
bay  or  inlet,  the  boats  are  sent  out  in  search  of  the  whales,  and  the  animals,  after  being  captured, 
are  sometimes  towed  ashore  and  cut  up  there,  the  blubber  being  rafted  off  td*"the  vessel.  This 
mode  is  made  necessary  from  the  fact  that  the  boats  may  be  absent  several  days  or  even  weeks, 
and  be  quite  a  distance  from  their  vessel.  The  difficulties  incident  to  whaling  in  the  Okhotsk  are 
told  by  Captain  Scammon  in  his  history  of  the  whale-fishery.  The  whales  found  here  during 
recent  years  have  been  much  smaller  than  those  taken  at  the  beginning  of  the  fishery,  when  the 
largest  sometimes  yielded  250  barrels  of  oil  each,  and  the  smallest  about  80  barrels.  The  cow 
whales  gave  the  most  oil,  averaging  about  130  barrels,  and  the  bulls  about  90  barrels,  the  yield  of 
bone  being  about  1,500  pounds  to  TOO  barrels  of  oil.  The  M-ason  closes  in  the  Okhotsk  about  the 

.ION  :   lljiriue  Mammalia,  y.  59. 


THIO   WHALE   KISIIKKY.  21 

latter  part  of  October,  though  vessels  sometimes  continue  musing  throughout  November  at  great 
risk  from  the  ice,  and  they  have  occasionally  wintered  in  the  ice  in  order  to  take  advantage  of  the 
late  and  early  seasons. 

Ships  that  cruise  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  generally  arrive  in  the  Kamchatka  and  the  Anadyr 
Seas  about  the  beginning  of  May,  and  continue  cruising  south  of  Bering  Strait  until  the  ice  per- 
mits them  to  pass  through  the  .Strait  into  the  Arctic,  which  is  usually  about  the  first  of  June. 
Before  entering  the  Strait  a  considerable  number  of  whales  are  sometimes  taken  in  the  bays  and 
gulfs  along  the  Siberian  coast  and  about  St.  Lawrence  Island.  Captain  Barnes,  in  the  bark  Sea 
Breeze, of  New  Bedford,  in  the.  season  of  1S77,  passed  the.  Aleutian  chain  on  May  4,  and  three 
days  after  came  up  to  the  ice  in  latitude  f>(P  30'  north.  Until  May  -',',  the  ice  was  skirted  toward 
the  westward,  and  frequent  iuell'ectual  attempts  were  made  to  penetrate  it.  Laud  was  sighted  on 
the  iMth,  l-'.JO  miles  west -sout Invest  from  Cape  Xavarin,  and  on  that  day  the  ice  was  entered.  On 
June  18,  whales  were  seen  off  Cape  Chaplin.  The.  whales  usually  pass  through  the  Strait  about 
the  beginning  of  June,  and  are  followed  up  by  the  vessels  that  cruise  along  the  western  side  of  the 
Arctic  during  the,  first  part  of  the  season,  while  waiting  for  the  ice  to  open  NO  that  they  may  pass 
to  the  eastward  to  1'oint  Barrow.  This  time  of  waiting  usually  lasts  from  the  middle  of  June  till 
the  1st  of  August,  and  is  called  the  "summer  season"  or  ''between  seasons."  It  is  spent  princi- 
pally in  capturing  walrus  which  herd  on  the  ice  floes  in  immense  numbers  in  the  vicinity  of  Cape 
Serdze-Kameu.  During  specially  favorable  4;  summer  seasons,1'  as  that  of  1880,  many  whales  are 
taken,  and  little  time  is  spent  in  wall-using,  but  these  weeks  are  usually  quiet  ones  with  the  fleet, 
the  killing  of  walrus  being  considered  a  pastime  by  the  whalemen. 

As  soon  as  the  ice  will  permit,  at,  the  beginning  of  August,  the  fleet  follows  up  through  the 
openings,  capturing  whales  wherever  they  can  be  found.  Most  of  the  vessels  reach  Point  Barrow 
by  the  middle  of  August,  and  begin  to  push  farther  to  the  eastward,  creeping  along  the  edge  of 
the  ice  or  entering  the  openings  in  search  of  their  prey.  Some  of  the  vessels  in  the  season  of  1877 
went  as  far  east  as  Return  Beef,  and  early  in  September  they  had  all  returned  to  Point  Barrow. 
From  this  time  until  the  ice  begins  to  close  tip  the  fleet  cruises  back  and  forth  westward  of  Point 
Barrow,  reaching  some  seasons  as  high  as  the  seventy-second  parallel,  which  is  about  the  most 
northern  cruising  ground  in  the  Arct  ic.  The  period  from  the  middle  of  August  until  about  October 
1,  when  the  fleer  leaves  the  ocean,  is  the  real  Arctic  season,  and  an  exciting  one  it  is. 

Ships  quite  often  anchor  along  the  shores  in  thick  weather,  as  also  to  "  cut  in"  the  whales,  or 
to  "try  out"  the  oil.  Most  of  the  ships  leave  the  sea  about  the  1st  of  October,  though  sometimes 
they  stay  later,  at  the  risk  of  being  caught  in  the  new  ice.  "The  general  breaking  up  of  the  ice  in 
this  region,"  says  Captain  Hooper,  ••commences  in  May  or  June  in  the  vicinity  of  Bering  Strait, 
and  continues  until  the  first  part  of  .September,  after  which  time  new  ice  begins  to  form,  although 
the  sea  is  not  entirely  close. 1  for  some  weeks  later.  The  heavy  j;ales  keep  the  larger  floes  in  motion, 
and  prevent  them  from  unit  ing  in  one  mass.  After  October  1  the  water  is  so  chilled  that  a  general 
closing  up  of  the  sea  is  likely  to  occur  at  any  time.  Formerly  the  whale-ships  did  not  remain  in 
the  Arctic  later  than  the  middle  <  mber.  but  as  whales  grew  scarce  they  prolonged  their 

stay  each  year,  until  last  year  (ls7'.h  they  did  not  leave  until  after  the  middle  of  October.  This 
resulted  in  the  loss  of  three  vessels  and  two  entire  crews;  a  fourth  vessel,  the  bark  Helen  Mar, 
Captain  Bauldry,  barely  escaped,  bringing  with  her  the  crew  of  the  bark  Mercury,  one  of  the  lost 
vessels.  Her  escape  was  effected  by  carrying  all  sail  with  a  strong,  fair  wind,  and  forcing  a  passage 
through  the  new  ice,  which  was  so  t  hick  that  at  times  her  headway  was  entirely  lost  until  a  strong 
puff  of  wind  started  her  again.  In  this  way  the  vessel  worked  on  a  few  miles  each  day,  reaching 
Bering  Strait  about  the  1st  of  November."* 

*  Corwin's  Cruise,  1880. 


22  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

(d)   nTJMPBACK-TVHAI/E   GROUNDS. 

GEOGRAPHICAL  DISTRIBUTION  OP  HUMPBACK  WHALES. — Humpback  whales  (Negaptera) 
are  found  within  the  parallels  of  C0°  north  and  70°  south  latitude.  They  are  seldom  seen  far 
from  laud,  but  me  generally  caught  in  mild  climates,  within  certain  bays  and  along  coasts  where 
the  water  is  shallow. 

The  most  noted  places  lor  taking  them  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  are  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Island 
of  Trinidad  and  in  the  Gulf  of  Para,  irom  10°  to  11°  north  latitude,  and  01°  to  63°  west  longitude, 
also  around  Cape  Verde  Islands  during  the  winter  months,  and  on  the  coast  of  Africa  from  3° 
north  to  7°  south  latitude  from  June  to  October. 

"  Some,  of  the  Provmcetowu  whalers,''  sa\  s  Captain  Atwood,  "  prosecute  both  the  humpback 
and  the  sperm  whale  fishery.  They  sail  from  port  about  the  middle  or  last  of  January  and  go 
direct  to  the  West  Indies,  where  they  whale  near  the  shores  of  these  islands  for  humpbacks. 
Their  whaling-ground  for  this  species  is  from  Tobago,  latitude  11°  20'  north,  longitude  60°  27' 
west,  thence  northward  around  the  shores  of  the  islands  as  far  as  the  Island  of  Mariegulante,  in 
latitude  15°  52'  north,  longitude  Cl°  18'  west.  These  vessels  stop  there  until  the  latter  part  of 
April  or  early  in  May,  when  they  leave  for  the  Western,  Charleston,  or  Hatteras  grounds  in  pur- 
suit of  sperm  whales,  and  usually  return  home  in  September.  Another  favorite  ground  is  around 
the  Cape  Verde  Islands,  where  these  vessels  cruise  near  the  shore  for  the  humpback  during 
the  winter  mouths  and  then  go  north  to  the  sperm  whale  grounds." 

In  1879  humpback  whales  were  abundant  on  the  coast  of  Maine.  One  of  the  most  successful 
whalers  out  of  Provincetown  that  season  was  the  Brilliant,  an  old  pink-stern  schooner  of  17  tons, 
which  hunted  this  species  off  Deer  Isle,  Maine.  Up  to  October  1  she  had  taken  four  whales,  yield- 
ing one  hundred  and  fifty-five  barrels.  The  Brilliant  carried  but  one  whale-boat,  and  tried  out  the 
oil  on  shore,  towing  in  the  whales  as  they  were  killed.  Capt.  J.  W.  Collins  reports  that  on  May 
17,  1877,  when  in  latitude  44°  16'  north,  longitude  58°  59'  west,  he  noticed  an  unusual  number 
of  whales  and  porpoises.  "  There  were  more  humpback  whales  than  I  had  even  before  seen  in 
that  locality ;  appeared  to  be  entirely  fearless  of  the  vessel;  played  around  her  all  day,  sometimes 
coming  up  alongside  within  15  or  20  feet,  their  heads  out  of  water  10  or  12  feet.  At  other  times 
they  would  lie  on  top  of  the  water  and  lash  it  into  snowy  foam  with  their  long,  flexible  fins." 

In  the  Pacific  Ocean  humpbacks  are  taken  all  along  the  coast  of  Ecuador  and  Colombia,  from 
Guayaquil  to  the  Bay  of  Panama  and  on  reefs  around  the  islands  of  the  Friendly  Group,  also 
occasionally  around  the  New  Hebrides  and  the  Fiji  Group.  They  are  also  found  in  considerable 
abundance  around  the  Rosemary  Islands,  on  the  northwest  coast  of  Australia,  and  around  Bramp- 
tou  Shoals.  The  liesi  -rounds  on  the  South  American  coast  are  in  the  Gulf  of  Guayaquil,  which 
lies  in  about  latitude  o°  south,  and  from  here  along  the  shore  to  the  north  as  far  as  3°  north  lati- 
tude, off  the  villages  of  Tacaroes  and  Esmaraldas,  in  Ecuador.  Ships  occasionally  anchor  and  send 
out  their  boat  for  the  whales,  that  must-  as  a  rule  be  killed  in  shoal  water,  as  most  of  them  sink  and 
must  be  hauled  up.  The  season  for  whaling  ou  this  coast  is  from  February  to  August,  beginning 
at  Esmaraldas  in  February,  and  working  along  south  until,  in  June,  the  whales  appear  at  the  Gulf 
of  Guayaquil,  and  continue  until  August.  The  season  ou  the  Australian  coast  and  around  the 
Western  Pacific  group  of  islands  begins  about  the  1st  of  June  and  continues  into  November  and 
December. 

Humpback  whales  are  taken  along  the  coast  of  California  at  the  shore-whaling  stations, 
especially  at  Moniei-ey  Bay.  They  are  also  seen  and  captured  at  Magdaleua  and  Balenas  Bays. 
In  many  bays  and  around  islands  in  the  Alaskan  territory  and  the  Aleutian  Islands  they  are 
taken  by  the  Indians  atid  the  Eskimos. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  23 

Captain  Scammon  records  the  following  observations  on  this  species  of  whale :  "  In  the  years 
is.li!  ami  1853  large  numbers  of  humpbacks  resorted  to  the  Gulf  of  Guayaquil,  coast  of  Peru,  to 
calve,  aud  the  height  of  the  season  was  during  I  lie  months  of  July  and  August.  The  same  may 
be  said  of  the  gulfs  aud  bays  situated  near  the  corresponding  latitudes  north  of  the  equator;  still, 
instances  are  not  infrequent  when  cows  and  their  calves  have  been  seen  at  all  other  seasons  of 
the  year  about  the  same  coast.  In  the  Bay  of  Valle  de  llanderas,  coast  of  Mexico  (latitude  20° 
30'),  in  the  month  of  December,  we  saw  numbers  of  humpbacks,  with  calves  but  a  few  days  old. 
In  May,  1855,  at  Magdalena.  Ray,  coast  of  Lower  California  (about  latitude  24°  30'),  we  found 
them  in  like  numbers,  some  with  very  large  calves,  while  others  were  very  small.  The  season  at 
Tongataboo  (one  of  the  Friendly  Islands,  latitude  21°  south,  longitude  174°  west),  according  to 
Captain  Beckermau,  includes  August  and  September.  Here  the  females  were  usually  large, 
yielding  an  average  of  40  barrels  of  oil,  including  the  entrail  fat,  which  amounted  to  about  6 
barrels.  The  largest  whale  taken  at  this  point  during  the  season  of  1871  produced  73  barrels, 
and  she  was  adjudged  to  be  75  feet  in  length."  * 

In  the  year  1872  humpback  whaling  was  successfully  prosecuted  at  Panama  Bay;  Harper's 
and  Tonga  Islands;  Chesterfield  Shoals;  coast  of  Africa;  West  Indies;  Crozet  and  Desolation 
Islands.  The  last  two  islands  have  been  visited  more  especially  for  the  capture  of  right  whales 
and  sea  elephants,  though  humpback  whales  were  taken  here  aud  in  other  parts  of  the  Indian 
Ocean. 

(e)   FINBACK,    SULPHUR-BOTTOM,   AND   OTHER  WHALING   GROUNDS. 

SULPHUR-BOTTOM  WHALES. — The  finback  and  the  sulphur-bottom  whales  are  found  in  most 
parts  of  the  different  oceans  and  in  some  places  are  very  numerous.  The  sulphur-bottom  is  the 
largest  whale  known,  varying  from  60  to  100  feet  or  more.  It  is,  like  the  finback,  exceedingly 
swift  in  its  movements,  aud  can  be  captured  only  by  the  whalingrocket  or  the  bomb-gun.  Captain 
Seabury  states  that  "they  sometimes  follow  the  vessel  for  miles."  There  can  hardly  be  said  to  be 
any  special  grounds  where  the  sulphur-bottom  is  captured,  comparatively  few  having  ever  been 
taken.  On  the  coast  of  California  the  shore-whalemen  have  taken  a  few,  and  several  were  taken 
some  years  since  by  the  schooner  Page,  of  San  Francisco,  off  the  port  of  San  Quentin,  Lower  Cali- 
fornia. An  attempt  was  made  about  1865  to  establish  a  fishery  for  this  species  at  Iceland.  "  Two 
or  three  small  screw  steamers,"  says  Captain  Seabury,  "were  sent  there  from  England  to  whale  in  the 
bays,  using  for  the  capture  a  whale-gun  and  a  large  line  to  go  through  the  bottom  of  the  boat. 
They  were  quite  successful  in  taking  the  whale,  aud  followed  up  the  business  for  two  or  three  years, 
but  the  expense  being  greater  than  the  income,  it  was  abandoned.  Beyond  those  taken  by  this 
expedition  off  Iceland,  there  have  been  but  few  sulphur-bottoms  captured." 

FINBACK  WHALES. — This  whale  is  taken  principally  by  shore-whalemen,  vessels  preferring 
more  profitable  game,  as  the  finback  has  but  little  blubber,  no  valuable  bone,  and  withal  is  very 
difficult  to  capture.  They  are  taken  by  the  California  boat-whalers,  aud  for  two  years  past  have 
been  captured  in  considerable  number  along  the  coast  of  New  England,  especially  at  Proviucetown, 
where  forty-eight  were  secured  in  the  spring  of  1880.  The  shore-whaling  stations  on  the  coasts  of 
Norway  and  Fiumark  are  for  the  capture  of  this  species. 

GRAY  WHALE  OR  DEVIL-FISH. — The  California  gray  whale,  also  called  "devil-fish"  and 
"mussel-digger,"  is  found  principally  on  the  coast  of  California,  in  the  bays  and  gulfs  and  along 
the  shores,  in  shoal  water.  The  most  noted  places  are  Magdalena  Bay,  in  about  latitude  25°  north, 
and  Scammon's  Lagoon,  in  about  latitude  30°  north.  They  are  also  found  aud  taken  in  the 


"Marine  Mammalia,  ji.  4::. 


24  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Okhotsk  Sea  and  the  Arctic  Ocean.  They  are  not  large,  and  yield  on  an  average  only  about  30 
barrels  of  a  reddish  oil.  They  are  said  to  be  the  most  dangerous  to  capture  of  all  whales.  The 
bomb-lance  or  the  whaling  rocket  is  generally  used  in  the  chase.  On  the  Calit'ornian  coast  the 
best  season  for  the  capture  of  this  species  is  from  November  to  April  or  May,  after  which  time 
they  move  north.  They  appear  in  October  and  November  off  the  coast  of  Oregon  on  their  return 
south.  This  whale  is  known  only  in  northern  latitudes,  and  is  not  found  in  the  Atlautic  Ocean. 
No  great  number  has  ever  been  taken.  Captain  Scarninon,  in  1872,  estimated  that  the  whole 
number  captured  or  destroyed  since  1846,  when  bay-whaling  commenced,  would  not  exceed  10,800. 
DISTRIBUTION  OF  BLACKFISH  AND  PORPOISE. — There  are  several  other  species  of  cetacea, 
as  the  blackfish  and  the  porpoise,  that  are  widely  distributed  over  the  oceans,  and  are  often  taken 
by  whaling  vessels,  though  they  are  not  special  objects  of  pursuit.  Those  fisheries  for  these 
species  are  discussed  in  the  next  chapter.  The  white  whale  or  beluga  is  found  principally  in  the 
icy  waters  of  the  north,  and  several  hundred  of  them  are  annually  taken  by  the  natives  of  the 
countries  bordering  those  seas,  as  also  by  the  Scotch  whaling  vessels  visiting  Davis  Strait.  These 
vessels  in  1877  took  935  white  whales,  and  in  187G  they  captured  700.  According  to  Scammon 
large  numbers  are  captured  by  the  natives  of  Alaska  and  of  Eastern  Siberia,  where  they  ascend 
the  rivers  for  several  hundred  miles.  They  are  taken  in  the  Gulf  of  Saint  Lawrence,  and  also  by 
the  Norwegians  at  Spitzbergen.  Nordeuskiold  *  states  that  in  1871  vessels  from  Tromsoe  alone 
caught  2,167  of  this  species  in  nets.  Their  value  was  estimated  at  about  $15  each.  Both  the 
blubber,  hide,  aud  carcass  are  utilized,  the  latter  by  the  guano  factories  in  Norway.  They  are 
also  taken  in  nets  by  the  Russians  and  Samoyeds  at  Chabarova. 

ROUTES   TO   GROUNDS;   SUPPLY   STATIONS. 

ROUTES  TO  WHALING-  GROUNDS. — Vessels  engaged  in  the  Atlautic  Ocean  fishery  are  of  two 
classes,  those  of  small  size  on  short  cruises  and  those  of  large  capacity  that  make  longer  voyages. 
The  former  cruise  principally  in  the  North  Atlantic,  and  are  always  on  the  alert  for  whales,  work- 
ing on  all  the  grouuds  in  this  ocean,  but  especially  those  near  the  Azores  or  on  the  Hatteras 
ground.  They  usually  leave  home  in  the  spring  and  return  in  the  fall,  proceeding  first  to  the  more 
southeru  and  working  toward  the  more  northern  fields.  Some  of  these  small  vessels,  however, 
remain  out  for  a  year  or  even  more,  spending  the  winter  mouths  on  the  tropical  grounds  aud  often 
cruising  in  the  South  Atlantic,  where  they  obtain  a  quantity  of  oil  to  be  transshipped  from  St. 
Helena  to  the  United  States.  They  will  work  toward  home,  .stopping  in  the  principal  equatorial 
and  northern  grounds.  The  second  or  larger  class  of  vessels  are  gone  fiom  home  for  from  two  to 
three  years,  often  cruising  on  all  the  grounds  in  both  the  North  and  the  South  Atlantic.  They 
usually  go  first  to  the  Western  Islands  and  from  there  work  south  or  north  as  the  abundance  or 
the  scarcity  of  whales  on  the  different  grounds  may  suggest.  They  frequently  resort  to  ports  at 
the  Azores  or  Cape  Verde  Islands,  in  the  north  Atlantic,  and  St.  Helena,  in  the  South  Atlantic. 

The  Hudson  Bay  or  Davis  Strait  fleet  is  composed  of  vessels  of  all  sizes.  They  make  voyages 
lasting  from  eight  mouths  to  one  or  two  years.  Many  of  them  have  been  accustomed  to  leave 
home  in  the  spring  and  to  proceed  at  once  to  the  Straits  in  time  to  enter  the  bays  and  gulfs  at  the 
breaking  up  of  the  ice.  They  spend  the  summer  in  search  of  whales,  and  may  return  home  in  the 
early  fall,  or  remain  to  winter  in  the  ice  in  ordei-  to  take  advantage  of  the  early  movement  of 
whales  in  spring.  There  are  no  refitting  ports  to  which  they  can  resort,  so  that  if  the  vessel  be  of 
small  carrying  capacity  she  will  generally  prefer  to  winter  at  home  rather  than  in  the  icy  regions. 

*  Voyage  of  the  Vega,  vol.  i. 


TILIC   WHALE  FISUEBY.  25 

The  I'acitie-Aretic  fleet  is  aceustomcd  to  winter  in  San  Francisco  or  at  the  Sandwich  Isl- 
ands, and  upon  the  opening  <>t'  spring  to  proceed  at  once  to  the  north,  there  awaiting  the  open- 
ing of  the  ice  to  go  through  the  Strait.  They  return  to  winter  quarters  in  the  late  fall  and  trans- 
ship their  catches  by  rail  or  \  New  Bedford.  Vessels  sailing  from  New  Bedford  for  the 
Arctic  leave  home  in  the  fall,  in  order  to  pass  Tape  Horn  during  the  summer  season.  These 
vessels  seldom  stop  on  the  various  grounds  in  their  pathway,  but  will  not  refuse  a  good  chance  to 
take  a  whale  wherever  tlie.s  maybe.  They  are  frequently  absent  from  home  for  several  years, 
making  annual  cruises  north  from  their  retifting  station. 

Ships  and  barks  that  cruised  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  in  former  years  made  their  voyages  in  from 
thirty  to  forty-eight  mouths,  or  an  average  of  about  forty  months.  At  the  present  time  such  a 
vessel  shipping  products  home  seldom  makes  a.  voyage  in  less  than  three  years,  and  sometimes 
they  are  gone  live  years.  The  usual  course  of  sperm  and  right  whale  ships  when  sailing  in  the 
spring  or  summer  is  to  look  the  ground  over  as  far  as  the  Western  Islands,  touch  there  and  get 
recruits  and  ship  oil,  if  they  have  any;  then  run  down  and  sight  the  Cape  Verde,  and  sometimes 
touch  there  for  refreshments  and  ship  men  if  needed,  which  is  quite  often  done  at  the  Azores  or 
Western  Islands.  They  then  cross  the  equator  in  from  24°  to  31°  west  longitude,  and,  if  bound 
round  Cape  Horn,  run  along  within  a  few  degrees  of  the  east  coast  of  South  America,  generally  to 
the  west  of  the  Falkland  Islands,  and,  passing  through  the  Straits  of  Le  Maire  or  to  the  east  of 
Stateu  Laud,  steer  for  Cape  Horu,  keeping  as  near  to  the  cape  as  possible,  to  avoid  the  strong 
westerly  gales  and  easterly  current  that  is  usually  found  off  shore.  After  getting  around  the 
Horn  each  ship  steers  for  its  chosen  ground.  In  coming  home  they  take  a  more  easterly  course, 
after  getting  into  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  than  the  passage  out,  so  as  to  strike  the  southeast  trade 
wind  in  about  longitude  28°  or  30°  west;  then  make  a  direct  track  for  home. 

If  bound  around  the  East  Cape  or  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  after  crossing  the  equator  they  keep 
by  the  wind  in  going  through  the  southeast  trades,  and  when  in  latitude  28°  to  30°  south,  steer 
to  the  eastward  and  double  the  cape.  If  bound  to  New  Zealand,  they  keep  in  the  variable  wind 
to  the  south  of  latitude  30°  south,  and  pass  around  Van  Diemau's  Land.  If  bound  into  the 
Indian  Ocean,  after  passing  the  cape  they  steer  for  their  several  grounds.  If  sailing  late  in  the 
season,  and  bound  direct  for  the  Pacific  or  Indian  Ocean,  ships  keep  the  same  course,  except  that 
they  go  more  to  the  south  and  avoid  the  Western  Islands. 

SUPPLY  STATIONS. — The  principal  places  in  the  North  Atlantic  visited  by  whaling  vessels 
for  supplies  or  for  transshipment  of  oil  are  the  Barbadoes,  Bermuda  Islands,  Fayal  at  the  Azores, 
and  Port  Praya  at  Cape  Verde  Islands.  In  the  South  Atlantic  the  most  important  places  are 
Peruambuco,  Rio  de  Janeiro,  St.  Catherine,  and  Montevideo,  on  the  east  coast  of  South  America. 
On  the  African  coast  are  St.  Helena,  Ambrozet,  and  Cape  Town. 

lu  the  Indian  Ocean,  Mauritius,  on  the  Isle  de  France,  is  about  the  only  port  whence  oil  is 
transshipped  aud  about  the  only  place  for  repairs,  though  there  are  other  places,  as  Zanzibar. 
Seychelle  Islands,  Singapore,  aud  some  of  the  East  India  islands,  that  are  visited  by  the  vessels. 
On  the  west  coast  of  New  Holland,  Shark's  Bay,  Geographe  Bay,  and  King  George's  Sound; 
also,  Hobart  Town,  on  Van  Dieman's  Land,  and  Sydney,  on  the  east  coast  of  Australia,  are  supply 
stations  for  vessels  cruising  on  adjacent  grounds. 

The  principal  places  visited  by  whalemen  in  the  South  Pacific  are  Monganui  and  Bay  of 
Islands,  on  the  east  coast  of  New  Zealand,  Feejee  and  Navigator's  Island,  Papeta,  on  the  island  of 
Otaheite,  and  Nookaheva,  one  of  the  Marquesas  Islands ;  and  on  the  west  coast  of  South  America 
the  ports  of  Sail  Carlos,  Talcahuano,  Valparaiso,  Callao,  Payta,  and  Tumbez.  Only  two  ports  are 
much  used  for  transshipping  oil;  these  are  Talcahuano,  in  Chili,  and  Bay  of  Islands,  in  New 


26  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHEEIES. 

Zealand.  These,  with  Payta  and  Tumbez,  in  Pern,  are  the  principal  ports  visited  by  ships.  The 
Galapagos  Islands  have  some  good  harbors  and  are  occasionally  resorted  to  for  the  land  turtles 
or  terrapin  that  are  abundant  there.  On  some  islands  wood  can  be  obtained,  and  on  the  south 
side  of  Chatham  Island  good  water  can  be  got  with  safety  from  November  to  May. 

In  the  North  Pacific  the  principal  ports  visited  for  the  transshipment  of  oil  are  San  Fran- 
cisco, Panama,  Hila,  and  Honolulu.  Tacames,  in  Ecuador,  Acapulco,  on  the  west  coast  of  Mexico. 
Yokohama,  Hakadadi,  Guam,  one  of  the  Ladrone  Islands,  Hong-Kong,  and  Manila  have  all  been 
visiting  stations.  There  are  also  many  other  places  occasionally  visited  by  the  whaling  fleet.  For 
the  convenience  of  the  Arctic  fleet  a  supply  vessel  is  sent  from  San  Francisco  to  meet  the  vessels 
at  Bering  Strait  or  in  the  Arctic  and  receive  what  oil  they  may  wish  to  send  home  and  supply 
them  with  fresh  provisions. 

3.  EARLY  HISTORY  OF  BOAT-WHALING  IN  NEW  ENGLAND. 

r.OAST   OF    MAINE. 

We  find  no  records  to  indicate  that  shore-whaling  was  ever  extensively  practiced  on  the 
coast  of  Maine,  though  drift  whales  may  have  been  frequently  cast  ashore  and  cared  for  by  the 
shoremen.  The  following  item,  given  by  Hubbard  in  his  history  of  New  England,  shows  that 
the  people  of  Maine,  in  early  times,  were  not  versed  in  the  handling  of  whales:  "In  1668  a  sperm 
whale  fifty-five  feet  long  was  taken  at  Winter  Harbor,  near  Casco  Bay.  The  like  hath  happened 
in  other  places  of  the  country,  where,  for  want  of  skill  to  improve  it,  much  gain  hath  slipped  out 
of  the  hands  of  the  finders." 

MASSACHUSETTS  NORTH   OP   CAPE   COD. 

There  is  little  in  the  early  records  to  show  what  interest  the  people  of  Massachusetts,  north 
of  Cape  Cod,  had  in  shore  whaling.  It  is  probable  that  at  Salem  and  vicinity  this  business  was 
carried  on  in  a  small  way  during  the  eighteenth  century.  Mr.  John  Higginsou,  in  1700,  writes 
that  at  Salem,  u  we  have  a  considerable  quantity  of  whale  oil  and  bone  for  exportation."*  He 
writes  again  in  1706  to  a  friend  in  Ipswich  as  if  he  were  concerned  with  others  in  boat  whaling. 
Drift  whales  were  frequently  found,  and  claimants  notified  to  prove  their  rights  before  courts  of 
adininilly  in  accordance  with  the  laws  of  the  colony.  Boston  papers  of  December  12, 1707,  mention 
tbc  capture  by  boats  of  a  40-foot  whale  near  Noddle's  Island.  It  is  therefore  inferred  that  whale 
boats  and  implements  for  capture  were  kept  in  readiness  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston. 

It  is  probable  that,  as  in  recent  years,  drift  whales  were  taken  at  Cape  Ann  and  other  points 
farther  north  along  the  coast  of  Massachusetts,  though  we  find  no  record  to  show  a  definite 
business  done  in  boat  whaling  at  places  north  of  Cape  Cod. 

BOAT   WHALING  AT   CAPF.   COD. 

Starbuck  has  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  abundance  of  whales  was  one  of  the  main 
arguments  for  the  early  settlement  of  Cape  Cod  by  the  English,  and  has  quoted  some  interesting 
accounts  of  the  manner  in  which  the  aborigines  hunted  the  whale  two  centuries  and  a  half  ago. 
In  Richard  Mather's  Journal  of  his  voyage  to  Massachusetts,  iu  1635,  he  records  seeing  on  the  end 
of  the  Bank  of  Newfoundland  near  to  New  England  "  mighty  fishes  rolling  and  tumbling  in  the 
waters,  twice  as  long  and  as  big  as  an  ox  "  and  "  mighty  whales,  spewing  up  water  in  the  air,  like 

*  FELT  :  Annals  of  Salem,  II,  p.  225. 


TIIK   WHALE  FISHERY.  27 

tbe  smoke  of  a  chimney,  anil  making  tin-  sea  about  them  white  and  hoary,  as  is  said  in  Job,  of 
such  incredible  bigness  that  I  will  never  wonder  that  the  body  of  Jonas  could  lie  in  the  belly  of  a 
whale." 

As  early  as  1W51,  Sandwich,  Harnstable,  Yarmouth,  and  Kastham  were  included  in  a  proposition 
regarding  the  distribution  of  drift  whales,  submitted  by  the  general  court  of  Plymouth  Colony,* 
and  in  1690,  the  people  of  Xantucket,  finding  that  the  people  of  Cape  Cod  had  made  greater  profi- 
ciency in  the  art  of  catching  whales  than  themselves,  sent  tliitlier  for  an  instructor. t 

The  Cape  Cod  whale  fishery  in.  the  seventeenth  century,  and  perhaps  later,  was  prosecuted  no 
doubt  nearly  exclusively  from  the  shore,  as  was  also  done  in  Nan  tucket,  and  as  to  the  present  day 
the  sperm-whale  fishery  is  carried  on  about  the  Bermudas.  A  lookout  was  kept  by  watchmen  on 
the  shore,  who  gave  signals  when  a  whale  appeared  and  indicated  his  movements  from  their  lofty 
stations.  One  of  these  stations  was  ou  Great  Island,  at  the  mouth  of  Wellfleet  Harbor,  where,  tra- 
dition says,  there  were  at  one  time  ten  or  twelve  houses  and  the  first  tavern  built  in  Wellfleet. 
Wellfleet  was  then  included  in  the  town  of  Eastham,  and  it  was  doubtless  by  the  people  of  this 
settlement  that  the  petition  was  presented  in  1706,  which  states,  "all  or  most  of  us  are  concerned  in 
fitting  out  Boats  to  Catch  and  take  Whales  when  ye  season  of  ye  year  Serves;  and  whereas  when  we 
have  taken  any  whale  or  whales,  our  Custom  is  to  Cutt  them  up  and  to  take  away  ye  fatt  and  ye 
Bone  of  such  Whales  as  are  brought  in  and  afterwards  to  let  ye  Kest  of  ye  Boikly  of  ye  Lean  of 
whales  Lye  on  shear  in  lowe  water  to  be  washt  away  by  ye  sea,  being  of  uoe  vallue  nor  worth  any 
Thing  to  us,"  and  begs  that  Thomas  Houghtou  or  his  assigns  be  permitted  to  take  away  this  waste. f 

Another  of  these  stations  was  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Dennis,  and  is  the  present  site  of 
the  hotel  called  the  "Bay  House."  This  tract  was  the  joint  property  of  Dennis  and  Yarmouth, 
and  was  reserved  until  March,  1877,  when  it  was  sold  by  the  mutual  vote  of  the  two  towns  at  the 
yearly  town  meeting. 

Starbuck  relates  that  in  1724  and  1726,  in  the  prosecution  of  the  wars  between  the  Indians 
and  the  colonists,  some  of  the  friendly  Indians  from  the  county  of  Barnstable  were  enlisted  with 
the  express  understanding  that  that  they  were  to  be  discharged  in  time  to  take  part  in  the  fall 
and  winter  whale  fishery.  § 

This  would  indicate  that  the  boat  fishery  was  still  at  that  time  profitable  and  actively  prose- 
cuted. 

In  1737,  a  paragraph  in  the  Boston  News  Letter  stated,  a  dozen  whaling  vessels  were  fitting  in 
Proviucetown,  for  Davis  Strait,  and  that  so  many  people  were  going  that  not  over  a  dozen  or 
fourteen  men  would  be  left.  Eastham  also  had  a  vessel  in  Davis  Strait  this  year,  and  the  Davis 
Strait  fleet  from  Massachusetts  alone  is  estimated  by  Starbuck  to  have  consisted  of  from  fifty  to 
sixty  vessels.  Four  years  later  Barnstable  had  at  least  one,  whaling  vessel  which  was  captured 
by  the  Spanish,  and  in  1770  this  port  still  had  two  whalers  in  the  Arctic. 

The  size  of  the  Arctic  fleet  of  Massachusetts  in  1737  would  indicate  that  the  shore-fishery  was 
falling  off  in  importance.  Indeed  a  statement  to  this  effect  occurs  in  Felt's  Annals  of  Saleui, 
under  date  of  1748,  where  it  is  said,  "  whales  formerly  for  many  successive  years  set  in  alongshore 
by  Cape  Cod.  There  was  good  whaling  in  boats  *  *  *  .  After  some  years  they  left  this 
ground  and  passed  farther  off  upon  the  banks  at  some  distance  from  the  shore.  The  whalers 
then  used  sloops  with  whale-boats  aboard,  and  this  fishery  turned  to  good  account.  At  present 
the  whales  take  their  course  in  deep  water,  whereupon  a  peace  our  whalers  design  to  follow 
them."  ||  

*  STARBUCK  :  in  Rep.  U.  S.  Fish.  Com.,  Part  IV,  1875-'76,  p.  7.  t  STARBUCK  :  1. -a.,  p.  17. 

til.  MSs.  mriTit'mr>,  TV,  pp.  72-73,  quoted  l.y  Starlmolc,  ?.  c.,  p.  JW.         }  J.  C.,  p.  3V         I1  PTARBnCK:  I  c.,  p   W. 


28  HISTORY   AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

This  corresponds  also  with  statements  gathered  by  Starbuek  from  various  sources  to  the 
effect  that  the  years  1737,  1738,  and  1739  were  very  unfortunate  ones  for  the  people  of  Province- 
town,  Sandwich,  and  adjacent  ports,  insomuch  that  some  of  the  inhabitants  took  into  serious 
consideration  a  change  of  residence. 

The  people  of  Yarmouth  preserve  a  tradition  that  the  early  whale  fishery  of  that  region  had 
for  its  object  the  capture  of  humpbacks  and  right  whales.  As  has  been  suggested,  the  number 
of  humpbacks  taken  must  have  been  very  considerable,  yet  the  right  whales  must  also  have  been 
plenty  in  early  days. 

The  Plymouth  colonists,  according  to  Thacher,*  were  inclined  at  first  to  settle  on  Cape  Cod, 
because  large  whales  of  the  best  kind  for  oil  and  bone  came  daily  alongside,  and  played  about 
the  ship,  while  the  master  (presumably  of  the  "Mayflower")  and  his  mate,  and  others  experienced- 
in  fishing,  preferred  it  to  the  Greenland  fishery.  In  February,  1738,  the  Yarmouth  whalemen  had 
killed  but  one  large  whale  during  the  season ;  the  bone  of  that  being  from  8  to  9  feet  long.  This 
was  of  course  a  right  whale,  and  the  thing  in  the  occurrence  remarkable  to  the  recorder  was  that 
a  great  many  more  had  not  been  taken  the  same  winter.  In  March,  1736,  the  boats  of  Province- 
town  took  a  large  whale  which  produced  100  barrels  of  oil.  Humpbacks  rarely  yield  more 
than  50  barrels,  and  probably  would  not  have  been  classed  among  the  numerous  '-large  whales" 
taken  in  those  years.  Another  argument  in  favor  of  the  supposed  early  abundance  of  the  right 
whale  in  these  waters,  was  that  upon  their  becoming  scarce,  a  large  fleet  was  forthwith  dispatched 
to  Davis'  Straits,  where  none  but  whalebone  whales  occur.  The  sperm-whale  fishing  of  Cape  Cod 
was  not  inaugurated  until  about  1826,  or  at  least  not  in  a  permanent  way,  though  Starbnck  gives 
nine  vessels  from  "Cape  Cod"  in  1789,  eight  of  which  cruised  in  the  "Straits  of  Belleisle,"  six  of 
which  obtained  about  50  barrels  each  of  sperm  oil,  the  other  two  about  80  barrels  each. 

In  the  early  records  of  the  Plymouth  and  Massachusetts  Bay  Colonies  are  numerous  orders 
relating  to  drift  whales,  among  which  we  find  the  following :  "At  a  session  of  the  general  court, 
the  first  of  the  8th  mouth,  1645,"  it  was  ordered  as  one  of  the  duties  of  the  Auditor-General, 
"  that  he  shall  take  notice  and  looke  aftr  wafes,  strayes,  goods  lost,  shipwrecks,  whales,  &c.,  or 
any  such  things  of  y*  like  nature,  wr  ye  pticuler  owner  is  not  knowne  ;  and  ye  country  may  claiine 
a  priviledge  in  or  comon  right  unto.'H  July  4,  1656,  it  was  "  ordered  by  the  court  that  wheras 
the  countrey  hath  receiued  great  dammage  by  a  defect  in  the  order  about  the  barrell  of  oyle  due  for 
euery  whale  taken  on  drift  or  cast  on  shore  as  is  expressed  in  the  said  order  by  leakquage  of 
Caske  or  otherwise;  tho  court  bane  ordered  that  for  the  future  all  such  oyle  as  shalbee  due  and 
payable  as  aforsaid  shalbee  deliuered  att  Boston,  viz,  a  full  barrell  of  march aiitable  oyle  for  euery 
whale  and  the  fraight  therof  discharged  by  those  that  deliuer  it,  the  said  oyle  to  bee  deliuered  att 
Boston  to  such  as  the  Treasurer  shall  appoint  from  yeare  to  year  and  a  receipt  taken  from  such 
as  to  whome  it  is  deliuered  shalbee  a  discharge  to  those  that  deliuer  it."}  In  1661  it  was 
"enacted  by  the  Court  and  the  Authentic  therof  that  whosoeuer  taketh  any  whale  on  drift  att 
sea  without  those  bounds  and  limites  alreddy  sett  and  bring  them  on  shore  hee  shall  have  the  one 
halfe  and  the  Countrey  the  other  halfej  and  the  Countrey  to  allow  Caske  for  theirej?te  of  the  oyle. 
That  whosoeuer  shall  find  any  whale  on  shore  on  the  Cape  or  elsewhere  that  is  out  of  any  Townese 
bounds  and  is  on  the  Countreyes  bounds  or  liinittes  shall  allow  the  Countrey  two  hogsheads  of  oyle 
cleare  and  payed  to  the  Countrey ."§ 

On  the  3d  of  June,  1662,  it  was  resolved  that  "wheras  there  hath  bine  much  controversye 
occa  tioned  for  want  of  a  full  and  cleare  settlement  of  matter  relateing  into  such  whales  as  by  Gods 


•Quoted  by  Starbuek,  1.  a.,  p.  ;>.  t  Plymouth  Colony  Records,  XI,  p.  20» 

tRecords  of  Massachusetts,  II,  p.  143.  $  Hid.,  XI.  p.  66. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  29 

providence  doe  fall  iiito  any  pte  of  this  Jurisdiction.  This  Court  doth  therfore  order  for  the  pre- 
vention of  any  discontent  or  controversy  for  tlir  future  and  for  a  iinall  Issue  and  settlement  soe 
farr  as  in  the  Court  lyeth  about  the  saint- ;  that  for  all  such  whales  as  by  Gods  providence  shalbee 
cast  on  shore  on  any  pte  of  this  gournieiit  or  shalbee  by  any  cut  vp  att  sea,  and  brought  on  shore  in 
the  Goirment  ;  there  shalbee  for  every  such  Uish  one  full  hogshead  of  Marchantable  oyle  payed 
into  the  Count  rev  delivered  alt  Boston  by  such  to\vnes  or  psons  as  are  Interested  in  the  lauds  where 
they  fall  or  shall  soe  cutt  vp  any  tlish  att  sea;  and  iucaso  that  any  Ih'sh  bee  soe  considerably  torne 
or  wasted  that  a  full  quarter  pte  bee  gone;  the.u  to  jiay  but  halfe  a  hogshead  and  for  such  Incon- 
siderable ]iet-ce.s  of  I'tish  as  are  lesse  then  halfe  they  shall  pay  nothing;  and  for  the  resedew  of  such 
tlish  or  the  produce  of  them  as  remaines  the  Countu-yes  pte  being  discharged.  It  shalbee  freely 
att  the  dispose  of  such  Townrs  when-  it  falls  or  for  the  Uenifef  t  of  such  as  Cutt  them  Vp;  if  taken 
on  drift  without  such  bounds  as  have  bine  formerly  sett;  the  same  being  still  continewed."* 

On  the  4th  of  November,  1690,  it  was— 

"Ordered,  that  tor  the  prevention  of  contests  and  suits  by  whale  killers: — 

"1.  This  Court  cloth  order,  that  all  whales  killed  or  wounded  by  any  man  &  left  at  sea,  sd 
•,vha!e  killers  that  killed  or  wounded  s'1  whale  shall  presently  repaire  to  some  prudent  person 
whome  the  Court  shall  appoint,  and  there  give  in  the  wounds  of  sb  whale,  the  time  &  place 
when  &  where  killed  or  wounded;  and  s'1  person  so  appointed  shall  presently  comitt  it  to  record, 
and  his  record  shall  be  allowed  good  testimony  in  law. 

"  2.  That  all  whales  brought  or  cast  ou  shore  shall  be  viewed  by  the  persons  so  appointed,  or 
his  deputy,  before  they  are  cut  or  any  way  defaced  after  come  or  brought  on  shore,  and  sd  viewer 
shall  take  a  particular  record  of  the  wounds  of  sd  whale,  &  time  &  place  where  &  when  brought 
on  shore ;  &  his  record  shall  be  good  testimony  in  law,  and  sd  viewer  shall  take  care  for  securing 
sd  fish  for  the  owner. 

"  3.  That  whatever  person  or  persons  shall  cut  up  or  deface  any  whale  fish,  by  cutting,  stab- 
bing, or  launcing,  after  come  on  shore  or  at  sea,  if  a  drift,  unless  of  necessity  to  towe  it  to  shore, 
before  it  hath  beeu  viewed  by  the  person  appointed  thereto,  and  a  record  taken  by  him,  shall  lose 
their  right  to  sd  fish,  &  pay  a  fine  of  ten  pounds  to  the  county.  And  sd  viewers  shall  seize  sd 
fish  for  the  owners  use,  on  the  effects  thereof,  and  sd  viewer  shall  have  power  to  make  a  deputy  or 
deputies  under  his  hand,  and  to  have  six  shillings  for  [each]  whale  so  viewed  &  recorded  of  the 
owners  thereof. 

"  4.  That  whosoever  find,  takes,  or  cuts  up  any  drift  whale  found  on  the  stream,  a  mile  from 
the  shore,  not  appearing  to  be  killed  by  any  man,  shall  be  thet  first  sieze  and  secure  them,  paying 
an  hogshea'd  of  oyle  to  y  county  for  every  such  whale." 

MARTHA'S  VINEYARD. 

The  inhabitants  of  this  island  were  early  engaged  in  boat  whaling.  According  to  Starbuck 
the  earliest  mention  of  whales  at  this  place  occurs  in  November,  1652,  when  Thomas  Daggett  and 
William  Weeks  were  appointed  "whale  cutters  for  this  year."  In  the  following  April  it  was 
"  Ordered  by  the  town  that  the  whale  is  to  be  cut  out  freely,  four  men  at  one  time,  and  four  at 
another,  and  so  every  whale,  beginning  at  the  east  end  of  the  town."  In  1690  Mr.  Sarson  and 
William  Vinson  were  appointed  by  "the  proprietors  of  the  whale"  to  oversee  the  cutting  and 
sharing  of  all  whales  cast  on  shore  within  the  bounds  of  Edgartowu,  "they  to  have  as  much  for 
their  care  as  one  cutter." 

*  Ply.  Col.  Bee.,  zi,  p.  134.  ilbid.,  vi,  p.  252. 


30  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

"In  1692,"  says  Starbuck,  "  came  the  inevitable  dispute  of  proprietorship.  A  whale  was  cast 
oil  shore  at  Edgarfown  by  the  proprietors,  '  seized  by  Benjamin  Smith  and  Mr.  Joseph  Norton  in 
their  behalf,'  which  was  also  claimed  by  'John  Steel,  harpooner,  on  a  whale  design,  as  being  killed 
by  him.'  It  was  settled  by  placing  the  whale  in  the  custody  of  Richard  Sarsou,  esq.,  and  Mr. 
Benjamin  Smith,  as  agents  of  the  proprietors,  to  save  by  trying  out  and  securing  the  oil;  'and 
that  no  distribution  be  made  of  the  said  whale,  or  effects,  till  after  fifteen  days  are  expired  after 
the  date  hereof,  that  so  such  persons  who  may  pretend  an  interest  or  claim,  in  the  whale,  may 
make  their  challenge;  and  in  case  such  challenge  appear  sufficient  to  them,  then  they  may  deliver 
the  said  whale  or  oyl  to  the  challenger;  otherwise  to  give  notice  to  the  proprietors,  who  may  do  as 
the  matter  may  require.  By  the  inhabitants  of  Martha's  Vineyard,  in  1702-'3,  there  appear  to 
have  been  several  whales  lulled.  The  following  entry  occurs  under  that  date  in  the  court  records: 
'The  marks  of  the  \\  hales  killed  by  John  Butler  and  Thomas  Lothrop.  One  whale  lanced  near  or 
over  the  shoulder  blade,  near  the  left  shoulder  blade  only  ;  another  killed  with  an  iron  forward 
in  the  left  side,  marked  W;  and  upon  the  right  side  marked  with  a  pocket-knife  T.  L.;  and  the 
other  had  an  iron  hole  over  the  right  shoulder-blade,  with  two  lance  holes  in  the  same  side,  one  in 
the  belly.  These  whales  were  all  killed  about  the  middle  of  February  last  past;  all  great  whales, 
betwixt  (i  and  7  and  8-foot  bone,  which  are  all  gone  from  us.  A  true  account  given  by  John 
Butler  from  us,  and  recorded  Per  me,  Thomas  Trapp,  clerk.' " 

NANTTJCKET. 

The  history  of  shore-whaling  at  Nantucket  begins  with  the  occupancy  of  that  island  by  Euro- 
peans, about  the  year  1640,  although  prior  to  that  time  the  Indians  were  doubtless  accustomed  to 
occasionally  capture  a  whale.  "The  very  earliest  account  of  a  capture,"  says  Mr.  C.  S.  Raleigh, 
"was  in  the  year  1608,  when  a  party  of  Indians  killed  a  humpback  whale  which  got  stranded  on 
a  part  of  Nantucket,  called  Chiton,  in  the  inner  harbor."  "The  first  whaling  expedition,"  says 
Macy.  "was  undertaken  by  some  of  the  original  purchasers  of  the  island;  the  circumstances  of 
which  are  handed  down  by  tradition,  and  are  as  follows:  A  whale,  of  the  kind  called  'scragg,' 
came  into  the  harbor  and  continued  there  three  days.  This  excited  the  curiosity  of  the  people, 
and  led  them  to  devise  measures  to  prevent  his  return  out  of  the  harbor.  They  accordingly 
invented  and  caused  to  be  wrought  for  them  a  harpoon,  with  which  they  attacked  and  killed  the 
whale.  This  first  success  encouraged  them  to  undertake  whaling  as  a  permanent  business ;  whales 
being  at  that  time  numerous  in  the  vicinity  of  the  shores."* 

The  islanders  were,  anxious  to  rugate  in  the  whaling  industry  and,  according  to  Starbuck,t 
recorded  a  memorandum  of  a  proposed  agreement  with  one  James  Loper,  in  which  it  is  said  that 
the  said  James  "doth  Ingage  to  carrey  on  a  Desigue  of  Whale  Catching  on  the  Island  of  Nan- 
tucket  that  is  to  say  James  In  gages  to  be  a  third  in  all  Respects,  and  som  of  the  Town  Ingages 
also  to  carrey  on  the  other  two  thirds  with  him  in  like  manner — the  town  doth  also  consent  that 
first  one  company  shall  begin,  and  afterwards  the  rest  of  the  freeholders  or  any  of  them  have 
Liberty  to  set  up  another  Company  provided  they  make  a  tender  to  those  freeholders  that  have 
no  share  in  the  first  company  and  if  any  refuse  the  rest  may  go  on  themselves,  and  the  town  doth 
engage  that  no  other  Company  shall  be  allowed  hereafter ;  also,  whoever  kill  any  whales,  of  the 
Company  or  Companies  aforesaid,  they  are  to  pay  to  the  Town  for  every  such  whale  five  shillings 
and  for  the  Incoragemeut  of  the  said  James  Loper  the  Town  doth  grant  him  ten  acres  of  Land  in 
surne  Couvenaut  place  that  he  may  chuse  in  (Wood  Laud  Except)  and  also  liberty  for  the  com- 
monage of  three  cows  and  Twenty  sheep  and  one  horse  with  necessary  wood  and  water  for  his 
"  MACY  :  Hist.  Nantucket,  p.  28.  t  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Com.,  1875-76. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  31 

use,  on  Conditions  that  lie  follow  (lie  trade  of  whalling  ou  this  Island  two  years  in  all  seasons 
thereof  beginning  the  first  of  March  next  Insuing;  also  he  is  to  build  upon  his  Land  and  when 
he  leaves  Inhabiting  upon  this  Island  then  he  is  first  to  offer  his  Land  to  the  Town  at  a  valuable, 
price  and  if  the  Town  do  not  buy  it  he  may  sell  it  to  whom  he  please ;  the  commonage  is  granted 
only  for  the1  time  of  his  staying  !•<  '.  t  the  same  meeting,"  continues  Starbuck,  "John  Sav- 

idge  had  a  grant  made  to  him,  upon  condition  that  he  took  up  bis  residence  ou  the  island  for  the 
space  of  three  years,  and  also  that  he  should  ;  follow  his  trade  of  a  cooper  upon  the  island,  as  the 
Town  or  whale  Company  ha\e  need  to  employ  him.'  Loper  beyond  a  doubt  never  improved  this 
opportunity  offered  him  of  immortalizing  himself',  bnt  Savidge  did,  and  a,  perverse  world  has, 
against  his  own  will,  handed  down  to  posterity  the  name  of  Loper,  who  did  not  come,  while  it  has 
rather  ignored  that  of  Savidge,  who  did  remove  to  That  island." 

In  the  mean  time  the  people  of  ( 'ape  Cod  were  becoming  more  proficient  in  whaling  than  those 
of  Nantucket,  so  that  the  latter  sent  TO  the  cape  in  IG'JO,  and  "employed  a  man  by  the  name  of 
Ichabod  Paddock  to  instruct  them  in  the  manner  of  killing  whales  and  extracting  their  oil."* 
From  small  beginnings  The  industry  increased,  and  reached  its  greatest  prosperity  in  1726,  when, 
says  Maey,  eighty-six  were  taken,  "a  greater  number  than  was  obtained  in  any  one  year,  either 
before  or  since  that  date.  The  greatest  number  ever  killed  and  brought  to  the  shore  in  one  day 
was  eleven."  Shore  whaling  at  this  period  was  the  principal  employment  of  the  islanders.  "The 
Indians  even  manifested  a  disposition  for  fishing  of  every  kind,  readily  joined  with  the  whites. in 
this  new  pursuit,  and  willingly  submitted  to  any  station  assigned  them.  By  their  assistance,  the 
whites  were  enabled  to  fit  out  and  man  a  far  greater  number  of  boats  than  they  could  have  done 
of  themselves.  Nearly  every  boat  was  manned,  in  part,  many  almost  entirely,  by  natives ;  some 
of  the  most  active,  of  them  were  made  steersmen,  and  some  were  allowed  even  to  head  the  boats; 
thus  encouraged,  they  soon  became  experienced  whalemen,  and  capable  of  conducting  any  part 
of  the  business." 

The  following  incident  illustrates  their  bravery  when  in  danger: 

"It  happened  once,  when  there  were  about  thirty  boats  about  six  miles  from  shore,  that 
the  wind  came  round  to  the  northward  and  blew  with  great  violence,  attended  with  snow.  The 
men  all  rowed  hard,  but  made  but  little  headway.  In  one  of  the  boats  were  four  Indians  and 
two  white  men.  An  old  Indian  in  the  head  of  the  boat,  perceiving  that  the  crew  began  to  he- 
disheartened,  spake  out  loud  in  his  own  tongue,  and  said,  '  Momadichchator  auqua  sarshlcee  sarrikee 
plncliee  eynoo  sememoocli'kee  cliaquanl's  -irihclu'c phirlicc  eynoo;'  which  in  English  is,  'Pull  ahead  with 
courage  ;  do  not  be  disheartened  ;  we  shall  not  be  lost  now ;  there  are  too  many  Englishmen  to 
be  lost  now.'  His  speaking  in  this  manner  gave  the  crew  new  courage.  They  soon  perceived 
that  they  made  headway,  and  after  long  rowing  they  all  got  safe  on  shore."t 

Whales  were  abundant  close  in  shore  for  many  years,  so  that  a  plentiful  supply  of  oil  was 
obtained  without  going  out  of  sight  of  land.  "The  south  side  of  the  island,"  says  Hector  St. 
John,  "  was  divided  into  four  equal  parts,  and  each  part  was  assigned  to  a  company  of  six,  which, 
though  thus  separated,  still  carried  on  their  business  in  common.  In  the  middle  of  this  distance 
they  erected  a  mast,  provided  with  a  sufficient  number  of  rounds,  and  near  it  they  built  a  tem- 
porary hut  where  five  of  the  associates  lived,  whilst  the  sixth,  from  his  high  station,  carefully 
looked  toward  the  sea,  in  order  to  observe  the  spouting  of  whales."  f 

"The  process  of  savin//  the  whales, "  says  Macy,  "after  they  had  been  killed  and  towed  ashore, 
was  to  use  a  crab,  an  instrument  similar  to  a  capstan,  to  heave  and  turn  the  blubber  off  as  fast  as 

•MACY:  op.  <•  tM ass.  Jlisl.  Sue.  Coll.,  iii  j>.  175. 

t  JLetturs  iruui  uu  Amui-icuu  i'urtuer;   Hrrtnr  St.  .lobn  ('revem-m  ;  jmlilislinl  l?8i. 


32  HISTORY  AOT)  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

it  was  cut.  The  blubber  was  then  put  iuto  their  carts  and  carried  to  their  try -houses,  which,  at 
that  early  period,  were  placed  near  to  their  dwelling-houses,  where  the  oil  was  boiled  out  and 
fitted  for  market."  * 

Shore- whaling  continued  till  about  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  when  whales  became 
scarce  and  were  pursued  by  vessels,  when  the  boat-whaling,  as  a  regular  business,  was,  according 
to  Macy,  abandoned.  "The  first  sperm-whale  known  to  the  islanders  was  found  ashore  on  the 
southwest  part  of  Nantucket.  It  caused  considerable  excitement,  some  demanding  a  part  of  the 
prize  under  one  pretense,  some  under  another,  and  all  were  anxious  to  behold  so  strange  an 
animal.  There  were  so  many  claimants  of  the  prize,  that  it  was  difficult  to  determine  to  who  it 
should  belong.  The  natives  claimed  it  because  they  found  it ;  the  whites,  to  whom  the  natives 
made  known  their  discovery,  claimed  it  by  a  right  comprehended,  as  they  affirmed,  in  the  pur- 
chase of  the  island  by  the  original  patent.  An  officer  of  the  crown  made  his  claim,  and  pretended 
to  seize  the  fish  in  the  name  of  his  majesty,  as  being  property  without  any  particular  owner. 
After  considerable  discussion  between  these  contending  parties,  it  was  finally  settled  that  the 
white  inhabitants,  who  first  found  the  whale,  should  share  the  prize  equally  amongst  themselves. 
The  teeth,  which  were  considered  very  valuable,  had  been  extracted  by  a  white  man  and  an  Indian, 
before  any  others  had  any  knowledge  of  the  whale.  All  difficulty  being  now  settled,  a  company 
was  formed,  who  commenced  cutting  the  whale  in  pieces  convenient  for  transportation  to  their  try- 
works.  The  sperm  procured  from  the  head  was  thought  to  be  of  great  value  for  medical  purposes. 
It  was  used  both  as  an  internal  and  external  application ;  and  such  was  the  credulity  of  the  people, 
that  they  considered  it  a  certain  cure  for  all  diseases ;  it  was  sought  with  avidity,  and,  for  awhile, 
was  esteemed  to  be  worth  its  weight  in  silver.  The  whole  quantity  of  oil  obtained  from  this 

whale  is  not  known."! 

RHODE  ISLAND  AND  CONNECTICUT. 

In  1731  Rhode  Island  passed  an  act  for  the  encouragement  of  the  fisheries,  giving  "  a  bounty 
of  five  shillings  for  every  barrel  of  whale  oil,  one  penny  a  pound  for  bone,  and  five  shillings  a 
quintal  for  codfish,  caught  by  Rhode  Island  vessels,  and  brought  into  this  Colony." f 

The  fishery  had  been  carried  on  to  some  extent  in  boats  from  the  shore,  and  whales  were  taken 
in  the  waters  of  Narragansct  Bay. 

The  first  official  document  to  be  found  connecting  the  State  of  Connecticut  with  the  whale 
fishery  is  a  resolve  passed  at  a  meeting  of  the  general  court  held  at  Hartford,  May  25,  1647,  which 
says: 

"  Yf  Mr.  Whiting,  wth  any  others  shall  make  tryall  and  prsecute  a  designe  for  the  takeing  of 
whale  wthin  these  libertyes,  and  if  vppou  tryall  wthin  the  terme  of  two  yeares.  they  shall  like  to 
goe  on,  noe  others  shalbe  suffered  to  interrupt  the,  for  the  tearine  of  seauen  yeares."§ 

It  is  probable  that  drift-whales  were  occasionally  taken  along  the  coast  of  Connecticut  in  early 
times,  but  we  find  no  special  reference  to  show  that  boat-whaling  was  ever  engaged  in  by  the 
inhabitants. 

NEW   YORE. 

Long  Island,  with  its  long  stretch  of  sandy  beaches,  was  in  early  times  a  favorite  resort  for 
boat  whalemen.  It  was  the  rival  of  Cape  Cod,  and  the  inhabitants  on  its  eastern  end  found  much 
profit  in  capturing  whales,  and  shipping  oil  and  bone  to  London.  The  following  interesting  account 
of  shore-whaling  along  those  shores  is  taken  entire  from  Mr.  Starbuck's||  report  on  the  whale 
fishery. 

*  Hist.  Nantucket,  p.  31.  ilbid.,  p.  :«.  t  ARNOLD  :  Hist.  Rhode  Island,  ii,  p.  103. 

$  Comi.  Col.  Reu.,  i,  p.  154.  1  U.  8.  Fisli  Commissioner's  Report,  Part  IV,  1875-76. 


THE  WHALE    FISHERY.  33 

"  It  is  probably  safe  to  assert  that  the  first  organized  prosecution  of  the  American  whale-fishery 
was  made  along  the  shores  of  Long  Island.  The  town  of  Southampton,  which  was  settled  in  1640 
by  an  offshoot  from  the  Massachusetts  Colony  at  Lynn,  was  quick  to  appreciate  the  value  of  this 
source  of  revenue.  In  March,  1644,  the  town  ordered  the  town  divided  into  four  wards  of  eleven 
persons  to  each  ward,  to  attend  to  the  drift-whales  cast  ashore.  When  such  an  event  took  place 
two  persons  from  each  ward  (selected  by  lot)  were  to  be  employed  to  cut  it  up.  'And  every 
Inhabitant  with  his  child  or  servant  that  is  above  sixteen  years  of  age  shall  have  in  the  Division  of 
the  other  part,'  (i.  e.  what  remained  after  the  cutters  deducted  the  double  share  they  were,  ex-officio, 
entitled  to)  'an  equall  proportion  provided  that  such  person  when  yt  falls  into  his  ward  a  suffi- 
cient man  to  be  imployed  about  yt.'*  Among  the  names  of  those  delegated  to  each  ward  are 
many  whose  descendants  became  prominent  in  the  business  as  masters  or  owners  of  vessels— the 
Coopers,  the  Sayres,  Mulfords,  Peirsons,  Hedges,  Howells,  Posts,  and  others.  A  few  years  later 
the  number  of  'squadrons'  was  increased  to  six. 

"  In  February,  1645,  the  town  ordered  that  if  any  whale  was  cast  ashore  within  the  limits  of 
the  town  no  man  should  take  or  carry  away  any  part  thereof  without  order  from  a  magistrate, 
under  penalty  of  twenty  shillings.  Whoever  should  find  any  whale  or  part  of  a  whale,  upon  giv- 
ing notice  to  a  magistrate,  should  have  allowed  him  five  shillings,  or  if  the  portion  found  should 
not  be  worth  five  shillings  the  finder  should  have  the  whole.  '  And  yt  is  further  ordered  that  yf 
any  shall  finde  a  whale  or  any  peece  thereof  upon  the  Lord's  day  then  the  aforesaid  shillings  shall 
not  be  due  or  payable.' t  '  This  last  clause,'  says  Ho  well,  '  appears  to  be  a  very  shrewd  thrust  at 
"mooning"  on  the  beach  on  Sundays.' 

"It  was  customary  a  few  years  later  to  fit  out  expeditious  of  several  boats  each  for  whaling 
along  the  coast,  the  parties  engaged  camping' out  on  shore  during  the  night.  These  expeditions 
were  usually  gone  about  one  or  two  weeks. f  Indians  were  usually  employed  by  the  English,  the 
whites  furnishing  all  the  necessary  implements,  and  the  Indians  receiving  a  stipulated  proportion 
of  oil  in  payment. 

"At  Easthampton  on  the  6th  of  November,  1651,  '  It  was  Ordered  that  Rodman  Mulford  shall 
call  out  ye  Town  by  succession  to  loke  out  for  whale.'§  Easthampton,  however,  like  every  other 
town  where  whales  were  obtainable,  seems  to  have  had  its  little  unpleasantnesses  on  the  subject, 
for  in  1653  the  town  '  Ordered  that  the  share  of  whale  now  in  controversie  between  the  Widow 
Talmage  and  Thomas  Talmage  '  (alas  for  the  old-time  Chesterfieldian  gallantry)  '  shall  be  divided 
among  them  as  the  lot  is.'||  In  the  early  deeds  of  the  town  the  Indian  grantors  were  to  be  allowed 
the  fins  and  tails  of  all  drift-whales;  and  in  the  deed  of  Montauk  Island  and  Point,  the  Indians 
and  whites  were  to  be  equal  sharers  in  these  prizes,  fl  In  1672  the  towns  of  Easthampton,  South- 
ampton, and  South  wold  presented  a  'memorial  to  the  court  at  Whitehall '  setting  forth  that  they 
have  spent  much  time  and  paines,  and  the  greatest  part  of  their  estates,  in  settling  the  trade  of 
whale-fishing  in  the  adjacent  seas,  having  endeavoured  it  above  these  twenty  yeares,  but  could  not 
bring  it  to  any  perfection  till  within  these  2  or  3  yeares  last  past.  And  it  now  being  a  hopefull 
trade  at  New  Yorke.  in  America,  the  Governor  and  the  Dutch  there  do  require  ye  Petitioners  to 
come  under  their  patent,  and  lay  very  heavy  taxes  upon  them  beyond  any  of  his  MatieB  subjects  in 
New  England,  and  will  not  permit  the  petitioners  to  have  any  deputys  in  Court,**  but  being  chiefs, 
do  impose  what  Laws  they  please  upon  them,  and  insulting  very  much  over  the  Petitioners 

*  HOWELL  :  Hist,  of  Southampton,  p.  179.  t  Ibid.,  p.  184.  t  Ibid.,  p.  183. 

§  Bicentennial  Address  at  Easthamptoti,  1850,  by  Henry  P.  Hedges,  p.  8.  ||  Ibid.,  p.  8.  11  Ibid. 

**Iu  this  petition  is  an  early  assertion  oi'  the  twiuship  of  taxation  and  representation,  for  which  Massachusetts 
aud  her  ofl'shoots  WPI-H  pver  strenuous. 

SEC.  T,  VOL.  II 3 


34  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

threaten  to  cut  down  their  timber  which  is  but  little  they  have  to  Casks  for  oyle,  altho'  the  Pet™ 
purchased  their  landes  of  the  Lord  Sterling's  deputy,  above  30  yeares  since,  and  have  till  now 
under  the  Government  and  Patent  of  Mr.  Winthrop,  belonging  to  Conitycut  Patent,  which  lyeth 
far  more  convenient  for  ye  Petitioners  assistance  in  the  aforesaid  Trade.'  They  desire,  therefore, 
either  to  continue  under  the  Connecticut  government,  or  to  be  made  a  free  corporation.  This  peti- 
tion was  referred  to  the  '  Council  on  Foreign  Plantations.' 

"  This  would  make  the  commencement  of  this  industry  date  back  not  far  from  the  year  1650. 
In  December,  1652,  the  directors  of  Dutch  West  India  Company  write  to  Director  General  Peter 
Stuyvesaut,  of  New  York  :  '  In  regard  to  the  whale-fishery  we  understand  that  it  might  be  taken 
in  hand  during  some  part  of  the  year.  If  this  could  be  done  with  advantage,  it  would  be  a  very 
desirable  matter,  and  make  the  trade  there  flourish  and  animate  many  people  to  try  their  good 
luck  in  that  branch.'  In  April  (4th),  1656,  the  council  of  New  York  '  received  the  request  of  Hans 
Jongh,  soldier  and  tanner,  asking  for  a  ton  of  train-oil  or  some  of  the  fat  of  the  whale  lately  cap- 
tured: " 

In  1669  Mr.  Maverick  writes  from  New  York  to  Colonel  Nichols,  as  follows : 

"  On  ye  East  end  of  Long  Island  there  were  twelve  or  thirteen  whales  taken  before  ye  end  of 
March,  and  what  since  wee  heare  not ;  here  are  dayly  some  seen  in  the  very  harbour,  sometimes 
within  Nutt  Island.  Out  of  the  Pinnace,  the  other  week,  they  struck  two,  but  lost  both,  the  iron 
broke  in  one,  the  other  broke  the  warpe.  The  Governour  hath  encouraged  some  to  follow  this 
designe.  Two  shollops  made  for  itt,  but  as  yett  wee  doe  not  heare  of  any  they  have  gotten."* 

"  In  1672,"  continues  Starbuck,  "  the  town  of  Southampton  passed  an  order  for  the  regulation  of 
whaling,  which,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  year,  received  the  following  confirmation  from  Governor 
Lovelace :  '  Whereas  there  was  an  ordinance  made  at  a  Towne-Meeting  in  South  Hampton  upon  the 
Second  Day  of  May  las  relating  to  the  Regulation  of  the  Whale  ffishing  and  Employment  of  the 
Indyans  therein,  wherein  particularly  it  is  mentioned.  That  whosoever  shall  Hire  an  Indyan  to 
go  a-Whaling,  shall  not  give  him  for  his  Hire  above  one  Trucking  Cloath  Coat,  for  each  whale, 
hee  and  his  Company  shall  Kill,  or  halfe  the  Blubber,  without  the  Whale  Bone  under  a  Penalty 
therein  exprest:  Upon  Considerac'on  had  thereupon,  I  have  thought  good  to  Allow  of  the  said 
Order,  And  do  hereby  Confirm  the  same,  until  some  inconvenience  therein  shall  bee  made  appeare, 
And  do  also  Order  that  the  like  Rule  shall  bee  followed  at  East  Hampton  and  other  Places  if 
they  shall  finde  it  practicable  amongst  them. 

" '  Given  under  my  haud  in  New  Yorke,  the  28th  of  Novemb'r,  1672.' 

"  Upon  the  same  day  that  the  people  of  Southamption  passed  the  foregoing  order,  Governor 
Lovelace  also  issued  and  order  citing  that  in  consequence  of  great  abuse  to  his  Royal  Highness  in 
the  matter  of  drift- whales  upon  Long  Island,  he  had  thought  fit  to  appoint  Mr.  Wm.  Osborne  and 
Mr.  John  Smith,  of  Hempstead,  to  make  strict  inquiries  of  Indians  and  English  in  regard  to  the 
matter.! 

"  It  was  early  found  to  be  essential  that  all  important  contracts  and  agreements,  especially 
'  between  the  English  and  Indians,  relating  to  the  killing  of  whales  should  be  entered  upon  the 
town  books,  and  signed  by  the  parties  in  presence  of  the  clerk  and  certified  by  him.  Boat- 
whaling  was  so  generally  practiced,  and  was  considered  of  so  much  importance  by  the  whole 
community,  that  every  man  of  sufficient  ability  in  the  town  was  obliged  to  take  his  turn  in  watch- 
ing for  whales  from  some  elevated  position  on  the  beach,  and  to  sound  the  alarm  on  one  being 
seen  near  the  coast.'}:  Ju  April  (2d),  1668,  an  agreement  was  entered  on  the  records  of  Easthamp- 

'  J  >oc.  ->t'  Col.  Hist.  New  York,  III  p.  183.         t  N.  Y.  Col.,  MSS.,  General  Entries  iv,  p.  193,  Francis  Lovelace. 

t  HONVKI.L  :   Hint..  .Southampton. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  35 

ton,  binding  certain  Indians  of  Montauket  in  the  sum  of  £10  sterling  to  go  to  sea,  whaling,  on 
account  of  Jacobus  Skallenger  and  others,  of  Easthampton,  beginning  on  the  1st  of  November  and 
ending  on  the  1st  of  the  ensuing  April,  they  engaging  '  to  attend  dilligently  with  all  opportuuitie 
for  ye  killing  of  whales  or  other  fish,  for  ye  sum  of  three  shillings  a  day  for  every  Indian ;  ye  sayd 
Jacobus  Skalleuger  and  partners  to  furnish  all  necessarie  craft  and  tackling  convenient  for  ye 
designe.'  The  laws  governing  these  whaling-companies  were  based  on  justice  rather  than  selfish- 
ness. Among  the  provisions  was  one  passed  January  4,  1669,  whereby  a  member  of  one  company 
finding  a  dead  whale  killed  by  the  other  company  was  obliged  to  notify  the  latter.  A  prudent 
proviso  in  the  order  was  that  the  person  bringing  the  tidings  should  be  well  rewarded.  If  the 
whale  was  found  at  sea,  the  killers  and  finders  were  to  be  equal  sharers.  If  irons  were  found  in 
the  whale,  they  were  to  be  restored  to  the  owners.*  In  1672,  John  Cooper  desired  leave  to  employ 
some  'strange  Indians'  to  assist  him  in  whaling,  which  leave  was  granted ;t  but  these  Indian 
allies  required  tender  handling,  and  were  quite  apt  to  ignore  their  contracts  when  a  fair  excuse 
could  be  found,  especially  if  their  hands  had  already  closed  over  the  financial  consideration.  Two 
or  three  petitions  relating  to  cases  of  this  kind  are  on  file  at  New  York.  One  of  them  is  from 
'Jacob  Skallenger,  Stephen  Hand,  James  Loper  and  other  adjoined  with  them  in  the  Whale 
Designe  at  Easthampton,'  and  was  presented  in  1675.  It  sets  forth  that  they  had  associated 
together  for  the  purpose  of  whaling,  and  agreed  to  hire  twelve  Indians  and  man  two  boats. 
Having  seen  the  natives  yearly  employed  both  by  neighbors  and  those  in  surrounding  towns, 
they  thought  there  could  be  no  objection  to  their  doing  likewise.  Accordingly,  they  agreed  in 
June  with  twelve  Indians  to  whale  for  them  during  the  following  season.  '  But  it,  fell  out  soe  that 
foure  of  the  said  Indians  (competent  &  experienced  men)  belonged  to  Shelter-Island  whoe  with  the 
rest  received  of  your  petition™  in  pt.  of  their  hire  or  wages  25s.  a  peece  in  hand  at  the  time  of  the 
contract,  as  the  Indian  Custome  is  and  without  which  they  would  not  engage  themselves  to  goe  to 
Sea  as  aforesaid  for  your  Peticon™.'  Soon  after  this  there  came  an  order  from  the  governor  requir- 
ing, in  consequence  of  the  troubles  between  the  English  and  the  aborigines,  that  all  Indians  should 
remain  in  their  own  quarters  during'  the  winter.  'And  some  of  the  towne  of  Easthampton  wante- 
ing  Indians  to  make  up  theire  erne  for  whaleing  they  take  advantage  of  your  hon™  sd  Ordre  thereby 
to  hinder  your  peticon™  of  the  said  foure  Shelter-Island  Indians.  One  of  ye  Overseers  being  of  the 
Company  that  would  soe  hinder  your  petition™.  And  Mr.  Barker  warned  yor  peticon™  not  to  en- 
tertaine  the  said  foure  Indians  without  licence  from  your  honr.  And  although  some  of  your  peti- 
coners  opposites  in  this  matter  of  great  weight  to  them  seek  to  prevent  yor  peticon™  from  haveing 
those  foure  Indians  under  pretence  of  zeal  in  fulfilling  yr  hon™  order,  yet  it  is  more  then  apparent 
that  they  endeavor  to  break  yor  peticon™  Company  in  y*  maner  that  soe  they  themselves  may  have 
opportunity  out  of  the  other  eight  Easthampton  Indians  to  supply  theire  owne  wants.'  After  rep- 
resenting the  loss  liable  to  accrue  to  them  from  the  failure  of  their  design  and  the  inability  to  hire 
Easthampton  Indians,  on  account  of  their  being  already  engaged  by  other  companies,  they  ask 
relief  in  the  premises,J  which  Governor  Andross,  in  an  order  dated  November  18,  1675,  grants 
them,  by  allowing  them  to  employ  the  aforesaid  Shelter-Island  Indiaus.§ 

"Another  case  is  that  of  the  widow  of  one  Cooper,  who  in  1677  petitions  Andross  to  compel 
some  Indians  who  had  been  hired  and  paid  their  advance  by  her  late  husband  to  fulfill  to  her  the 
contract  made  with  him,  they  having  been  hiring  out  to  other  parties  since  his  decease.  || 

"  This  code  was  very  similar  to  that  afterward  adopted  in  the  Massachusetts  Bay. 

tN.  Y.,  Col.  MSS.;  General  Entries,  iv,  p.  •.':;:..  t  N.  Y.  Col.  MSS.,  xxv,  Sir  Ed.  Audross,  p.  41. 

^Warrants,  Orders,  Passes,  &c.,  K>74-lti79,  p.  161.  U  N.  Y.  Col.  MSS.,  xxvi,  p.  153. 


36  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

"The  trade  in  oil  from  Long  Island  early  gravitated  to  Boston  and  Connecticut,  and  this  was 
always  a  source  of  much  uneasiness  to  the  authorities  at  New  York.  The  people  inhabiting-  East- 
hamptou,  Southampton,  and  vicinity,  settling  under  a  patent  with  different  guarantees  from  those 
allowed  under  the  Duke  of  York,  had  little  in  sympathy  with  that  government,  and  always  turned 
toward  Connecticut  as  their  natural  ally  and  Massachusetts  as  their  foster  mother.  Scarcely  had 
what  they  looked  upon  as  the  tyrannies  of  the  New  York  governors  reduced  them  to  a  sort  of  sub- 
jection when  they  were  assailed  by  a  fresh  enemy.  A  sudden  turn  of  the  wheel  of  fortune  brought 
them,  in  1673,  a  second  time  under  the  control  of  the  Dutch.  During  this  interregnum,  which  lasted 
from  July,  1673,  to  November,  1674,  they  were  summoned,  by  their  then  conquerors,  to  send  dele- 
gates to  an  assembly  to  be  convened  by  the  temporary  rulers.  In  reply  the  inhabitants  of 
Easthamptou,  Southampton,  Southokl,  Seatoocook,  and  Huntington  returned  a  memorial  setting 
forth  that  up  to  1664  they  had  lived  quietly  and  prosperously  under  the  government  of  Connec- 
ticut. Now,  however,  the  Dutch  had  by  force  assumed  control,  and,  understanding  them  to  be 
well  disposed,  the  people  of  those  parts  proffer  a  series  of  ten  requests.  The  ninth  is  the  par. 
ticular  one  of  interest  in  this  connection,  and  is  the  only  one  not  granted.  In  it  they  ask,  '  That 
there  be  ffree  liberty  granted  ye  5  townes  aforesd  for  ye  procuring  from  any  of  ye  united  Collonies 
(without  molestation  on  either  side:)  warpes,  irons,  or  any  other  necessaries  ffor  ye  comfortable 
earring  on  the  whale  design.'  To  this  reply  is  made  that  it  'cannot  in  this  conjunction  of  time  be 
allowed.'  '  Why,'  says  Howell,*  "the  Council  of  Governor  Colve  chose  thus  to  snub  the  English 
in  these  five  towns  in  the  matter  of  providing  a  few  whale-irons  and  necessary  tackle  for  capturing 
the  whales  that  happened  along  the  coast,  is  inconceivable;"  but  it  must  be  remembered  that  the 
English  and  Dutch  had  long  been  rivals  in  this  pursuit,  even  carrying  their  rivalry  to  the  extreme 
of  personal  conflicts.  The  Dutch  assumed  to  be,  and  practically  were,  the  factors  of  Europe  in 
this  business  at  this  period,  and  would  naturally  be,  slow  to  encourage  any  proficiency  in  whaling 
by  a  people  upon  whom  they  probably  realized  that  their  lease  of  authority  would  be  brief. 
Hence,  although  they  were  willing  to  grant  them  every  other  right  in  common  with  those  of  their 
own  nationality,  maritime  jealousy  made  this  one  request  impracticable.  How  the  people  of  Long 
Island  enjoyed  this  state  of  affairs  is  easy  to  infer  from  their  petition  of  1672.  The  oppressions 
alike  of  New  York  governors  and  Dutch  conquerors  could  not  fail  to  increase  the  alienation  that 
difference  of  habits,  associations,  interests,  and  rights  had  implanted  within  them.  Among  other 
arbitrary  laws  was  one  compelling  them  to  carry  all  the  oil  they  desired  to  export  to  New  York  to  be 
cleared,  a  measure  which  produced  so  much  dissatisfaction  and  inconvenience  that  it  was  beyond 
a  doubt  "more  honored  in  the  breach  than  in  tue  observance."  At  times  some  captain,  more 
scrupulous  than  the  rest,  would  obey  the  letter  of  the  law  or  procure  a  remission  of  it.  Thus,  in 
April,  1678,  Benjamin  Alford,  of  Boston,  in  New  England,  merchant,  petitioned  Governor  Brock- 
holds  for  permission  to  clear  with  a  considerable  quantity  of  oil  that  he  had  bought  at  Southampton 
directly  from  that  port  t'>  London,  he  paying  all  duties  required  by  law.  This  he  desires  to  do  in 
order  to  avoid  the  hazard  of  the  voyage  to  New  York  and  the  extra  danger  of  leakage  thereby 
incurred.  He  was  accordingly  allowed  to  clear  as  he  desired,  t 

"Hist,  of  Southampton,  p.  62. 

t  N.  Y.  Col.  MSS.,  xxvii,  pp.  65,  66.  Accompanying  the  order  is  a  blank  clearance  reading  as  follows  :  "  Permit!. 
&  suffer  the  good  —  —  of  —  —  A.  B.  Commander,  bound  for  the  Port  of  London  in  Old  England  to  passe  from  the 
Harbor  at  the  North-Sea  near  South*0"  at  the  East  End  of  Long  Isl.  with  her  loading  of  Whale  Oyl  &  Whalebone 
without  any  manner  of  Lett  Hindrance  or  Molestation,  shee  having  bernc  rlc-aivd  by  order  from  the  Custom  house  here 
&  given  security  accordingly.  Given  under  my  hand  in  N.  Y.  this  20th  day  of  April  in  the  30th  yeare  of  his  Matie> 
raigne  A°  Domini  1(578. 

"  To  all  his  Ma*588  Offic™  whom  this  may  Coucerue." 


THE  WHALE  KISIIKHY.  37 

"  In  168-4  an  act  for  the  'Encouragement  of  Trade  and  Navigation'  within  the  province  of  New 
York  was  passed,  laying  a  duty  of  10  per  cent,  on  all  oil  and  bone  exported  from  New  York  to 
any  other  port  or  place  except  directly  to  England,  Jamaica,  Barbadoes,  or  some  other  of  the 
Caribbean  Islands. 

"In  May,  IfiSS,  the  Duke  of  York  instructs  his  agent,  John  Leven,  to  inquire  into  the  number 
of  whales  killed  during  the  past  six  years  within  the  province  of  New  York,  the  produce  of  oil 
ami  bone,  and  'about  his  share.'*  To  this  Leveu  makes  reply  that  there  has  been  no  record  kept, 
and  that  the  oil  and  bone  were  shared  by  the  companies  killing  the  fish.  To  Leven's  statement, 
Andross.  who  is  in  England  defending  his  colonial  government,  asserts  that  all  those  whales  tha 
were  driven  ashore  were  killed  and  claimed  by  the  whalers  or  Indiaus.f 

"  In  August,  1088,  we  find  the  first  record  of  an  intention  to  obtain  sperm  oil.  Among  the 
records  in  the  State  archives  at  Boston  is  a  petition  Irom  Timotheus  Vauderueu,  commander  of 
the  brigautiue  Happy  Return,  of  New  Yorke,  to  Governor  Audross,  praying  for  'Licence  and  Per- 
mission, with  one  Equipage  Consisting  in  twelve  mariners,  twelve,  whalemen  and  six  Diners — 
from  this  Port,  upon  a  fishing  design  about  the  Bohames  Islands,  And  Cap  florida,  for  sperma 
Coeti  whales  and  Racks:  And  so  to  returns  for  this  Port.'f  Whether  this  voyage  was  ever 
undertaken  or  not  we  have  no  means  of  knowing,  but  the  petition  is  conclusive  evidence  that 
there  were  men  in  the  country  familiar  even  then  with  some  of  the  haunts  of  the  sperm-whale  and 
with  his  capture. 

*'  Francis  Nicholson,  writing  from  Fort  James,  December,  1688,  says :  l  Our  whalers  have  had 
pretty  good  luck,  killing  about  Graves  End  three  large  whales.  On  the  Easte  End  aboute  five  or 
six  small  ones.'§  During  this  same  year  the  town  of  Easthatnptoii  being  short  of  money,  debtors 
were  compelled  to  pay  their  obligations  in  produce,  and  in  order  to  have  some  system  of  exchange 
the  trustees  of  the  town  'being  Legally  met  March  6,  1688-9  it  was  agreed  that  this  year's  Towne 
rate  should  be  held  to  be  good  pay  if  it  be  paid  as  Follows: 

£.  s.  d. 

Dry  merchantable  hides  att 0    0    6 

Indian  Corn 0    3    0 

Whale  Bone  3  feet  long  and  upwards 0    0    8. ' 

NOTE. — It  is  estimated  by  George  R.  Howells,  from  papers  on  tile  in  the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state  of  New 
York,  that  the  boat-whalemen  of  Southampton  in  1637  took  '2,148  barrels  of  oil. 

•'  In  July,  1708,  Lord  Cornbury  writes  again  to  the  board  of  trade  regarding  New  York 
affairs.||  In  his  letter  he  says :  '  The  quantity  of  Train  Oyl  made  in  Long  Island  is  very  uncer- 
tain, some  years  they  have  much  more  fish  than  others,  for  example  last  year  they  made  four 
thousand  Barrils  of  Oyl,  and  this  last  Season  they  have  not  made  above  Six  hundred:  About 
the  middle  of  October  they  begin  to  look  out  for  fish,  the  Season  lasts  all  November,  December, 
January,  February,  and  part  of  March;  a  Yearling  will  make  about  forty  Barils  of  Oyl,  a  Stunt 
or  Whale  two  years  old  will  make  sometimes  fifty,  sometimes  sixty  Barrils  of  Oyl,  and  the 
largest  whale  that  I  have  heard  of  in  these  Parts,  yielded  one  hundred  and  ten  barrels  of  Oyl, 
and  twelve  hundred  Weight  of  Bone.' 

"  In  170!)  the  fishery  had  attained  such  value  on  Long  Island  that  some  parties  attempted  to 
reduce  it,  so  far  as  possible,  to  a  monopoly,  and  grants  of  land  previously  made  by  Governor 
Fletcher  and  others,  in  a  reckless  and  somewhat  questionable  manner  were  improved  for  per- 
sonal benefit.  Earl  Bellomont,  in  commenting  on  these  irregular  practices,  writes  to  the  lords  of 
trade,  under  date  of  July  2  of  that  year,fl  citing,  among  others,  one  Colonel  Smith,  who,  he  states, 

'  \.  Y.  Col.  Records,  iii,  p.  282.  t  Ibid.,  p.  311.  t  Mass.  Col.  MSS.,  Usurpation,  vi,  p.  126. 

j  Ibid.,  iv,  p.  303.  ||  N.  Y.  Col.  Rec.,  v,  p.  60.  f  Ibid.,  iv,  p.  535. 


38  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

'  has  got  the  beach  on  the  sea  shore  for  fourty  miles  together,  after  an  odd  manner  as  I  have  been 
told  by  some  of  the  inhabitants  *  *  *  having  forced  the  town  of  Southampton  to  take  a 
poore  £10  for  the  greatest  part  of  the  said  beach,  which  is  not  a  valuable  consideration  in  law, 
for  Colonel  Smith  himself  own'd  to  me  that  that  beach  was  very  profitable  to  him  for  whale  fish- 
ing, and  that  one  year  he  cleared  £500,  by  whales  taken  there.' 

"  In  1716,  Samuel  Mulford,  of  Easthampton,  in  a  petition  to  the  King,  gave  a  sketch  of  the 
progress  of  this  industry  in  that  viciuity.*  In  the  recital  of  the  grievances  of  his  neighbors  and 
himself,  he  writes  that '  the  inhabitants  of  the  said  Township  and  parts  adjacent  did  from  the 
first  Establishment  of  the  said  Colony  of  New  Tork  enjoy  the  Privilege  &  Benefit  of  fishing  for 
whale  &  applying  ye  same  to  their  own  use  as  their  undoubted  right  and  property.'!  By  his 
petition  it  appears  further  that  in  1664  Governor  Nicolls  and  council  directed  that  drift-whales 
should  pay  a  duty  of  every  sixteenth  gallon  of  oil  to  the  government,  '  exempting  the  whales  that 
were  killed  at  Sea  by  persons  who  went  on  that  design  from  any  duty  or  imposition.'  Governor 
Dongan  also  claimed  duty  on  drift-whales,  and  he  also  exempted  those  killed  at  sea.  'There  was 
no  pretence,'  under  Dongau,  '  to  seize  such  whales  or  to  exact  anything  from  the  fishermen  on 
that  account,  being  their  ancient  right  and  property.  Thus  the  inhabitants  had  the  right  of  fish- 
ing preserved  to  them,  and  the  Crown  the  benefit  of  all  drift  Whales,  and  everything  seemed  well 
established  between  the  Crown  and  the  People,  who  continued  chearfully,  and  with  success,  to 
carry  on  the  said  fishing  trade.'  This  state  of  affairs  continued  until  1696,  when  Lord  Corubury 
(afterward  Earl  of  Clarendon)  became  governor.  It  was  theu  announced  by  those  in  authority 
that  the  whale  was  a  'Royal  Fish,'  and  belonged  to  the  Crown;  consequently  all  whalers  must 
be  licensed  '  for  that  purpose  which  he  was  sure  to  make  them  pay  for,  and  also  contribute  good 
part  of  the  fruit  of  their  labour ;  no  less  that  a  neat  14th  part  of  the  Oyle  and  Bone,  when  cut  up, 
and  to  bring  the  same  to  New  York  an  100  miles  distant  from  their  habitation,  an  exaction  so 
grievous,  that  few  people  did  ever  comply  for  it.'  \  The  result  of  this  policy  was  to  discourage 
the  fishery,  and  its  importance  was  sensibly  decreased.  In  1711  the  New  York  authorities  issued 
a  writ  to  the  sheriifs  directing-  them  to  seize  all  whales.  This  demand  created  much  disturbance, 
but  the  people,  knowing  no  remedy,  submitted  with  what  grace  they  could  to  what  they  felt  was 
a  grievous  wrong,  and  an  infringement  upon  their  rights  under  the  patent  under  which  their 
settlement  was  founded.  Since  that  time,  Mulford  continues,  a  formal  prosecution  had  been 
commenced  against  him  for  hiring  Indians  to  assist  him  in  whaling.  He  concludes  his  petition 
with  the  assertion  that,  unless  some  relief  was  aiforded,  the  fishery  must  be  ruined,  since  '  the 
person  concerned  will  not  be  brought  to  the  hardship  of  waiting  out  at  sea  many  months,  &  the 
difficulty  of  bringing  into  New  York  the  fish,  and  at  last  paying  so  great  a  share  of  their  profit.' 

"  Mulford,  during  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  was  continually  at  loggerheads  with  the  govern- 
ment at  New  York.  A  sturdy  representative  of  that  Puritan  opposition  to  injustice  and  wrong 
with  which  the  early  settlers  of  Eastern  Long  Island  were  so  thoroughly  imbued,  the  declining 
years  of  his  life  were  continual  eras  of  contention  against  the  tyrannies  and  exactions  of  governors, 
whose  only  interest  seemed  to  be  to  suck  the  life  blood  from  the  bodies  of  these  unfortunate  flies 
caught  in  their  spider's-uet,  and  cast  the  useless  remains  remorselessly  away.  He  was  one  of  the 

*N.  Y.  Col.  Kec.,  v,  p.  474. 
These  are  undoubtedly  what  the,  authorities  were  pleased  to  term  "Massachusetts  notions." 

t  It  was  these  outrageously  unjust  laws  that  brought  the  government  into  the  notorious  disrepute  it  attained 
with  its  outlying  dependencies  from  1675  to  1720.  In  March,  1693,  the  council  of  Lord  Cornbury  declared  certain 
drift-whales  the  property  of  the  Crown  (which  apparently  meant  a  minimum  amount  to  the  King  and  a  maximum 
share  to  the  governor),  "when  the  subject  can  make  no  just  claim  of  having  killed  them."  One  Richard  Floyd 
having  offered  a  reward  to  any  parties  bringing  him  information  of  such  whales,  the  council  ordered  an  inquiry  into 
the  matter  in  order  to  prevent  such  practices  in  the  future.  (Council  Minutes,  viii,  p.  6.) 


\viiALK  1'isiiKKY.  :;<.) 

remonstrants  against  flu-  annexation  of  the  eastern  towns  to  the  New  York  government,  and  irom 
1700  to  17L'0  was  the  delegate  from  these  towns  to  tbe  assembly.  In  1715  the  opposition  of  the 
government  to  his  constituency  reached  the  point  of  a  personal  conflict  with  him.  In  a  speech 
delivered  in  the  assembly  in  this  year  he  boldly  and  unsparingly  denounced  the  authorities  as 
tyrannical,  extravagant,  and  dishonest.  He  cited  numerous  instances  of  injustices  from  officers 
of  the  customs  to  the  traders  of  and  to  his  section.  While  grain  was  selling  in  Boston  at  6s.  per 
bushel,  and  .only  commanding  one-half  of  that  in  New  York,  his  people  were  compelled  by  existing 
laws  to  lose  this  difference  in  value.  While  the  government  was  complaining  of  poverty  and  the 
lack  of  disposition  on  the  part  of  the  people  to  furnish  means  for  its  subsistence,  the  governor  had 
received,  says  Mulford,  during  the  past  three  years,  three  times  the  combined  income  of  the 
governors  of  Massachusetts,  Ehode  Island,  and  Connecticut.  In  1716  the  assembly  ordered  this 
speech  to  be  put  into  the  hands  of  the  speaker,  but  Mulford,  without  hesitation,  caused  it  to  be 
published  and  circulated.*  From  this  time  forth  the  war  upon  him  was,  so  far  as  the  government 
was  concerned,  a  series  of  persecutions,  but  Mulford  undauntedly  braved  them  all  and  in  the  end 
was  triumphant.  Quite  a  number  of  letters  passed  between  the  governor  and  himself,  and  between 
them  both  and  the  lords  of  trade  in  London.  As  an  earnest  of  the  feeling  his  opposition  had 
stirred  up,  the  governor  commenced  a  suit  against  him  in  the  supreme  court,  the  judges  of  which 
owed  their  appointment  to  the  executive.  Shortly  after  this,  Governor  Hunter,  in  a  communi- 
cation to  the  lords  of  trade  regarding  the  state  of  affairs  in  the  province,  writes  that  he  is  informed 
that  Mulford,  who  'has  continually  flown  in  face  of  government,'  and  always  disputed  with  the 
Crown  the  right  of  whaling,  has  gone  to  London  to  urge  his  case.t  He  states  that '  that  poor, 
troublesome  old  man'  is  the  only  mutineer  in  a  province  otherwise  quiet  (an  assertion  that 
evidenced  either  a  reckless  disregard  for  truth,  or  a  want  of  knowledge  of  affairs  inexcusably 
culpable);  that  the  case  he  pleads  has  been  brought  before  the  supreme  court  and  decided  against 
him,  and  Mulford  is  the  only  man  who  disputes  the  Crown's  right,  and  the  good  governor 
charitably  recommends  their  lordships  to  '  bluff  him.'|  Still  later,  Hunter  states  that  it  was  the 
custom  long  before  his  arrival  to  take  out  whaling  licenses.  Many  came  voluntarily  and  did  so. 
If  whaling  is  '  decayed,'  it  was  not  for  want  of  whalemen,  for  the  number  increases  yearly ;  '  but 
the  truth  of  the  matter  is,  that  the  Town  of  Boston  is  the  Port  of  Trade  of  the  People  inhabiting 
that  end  of  Long  Island  of  late  years,  so  that  the  exportation  from  hence  of  that  commodity  must 
in  the  Books  be  less  than  formerly.'  The  perquisites  arising  from  the  sale  of  these  licenses  were  of 
no  account  in  themselves,  but  yielding  in  this  matter  would  only  open  a  gap  for  the  disputation  of 
every  perquisite  of  the  goverument.§ 

*  A  copy  of  this  speech  is  bound  in  an  old  volume  of  the  Boston  News-Letter,  in  the  library  of  the  Boston  Athenaum. 

tin  the  address  of  H.  P.  Hedges  at  the  Bi-Centennial  celebration  at  Easthaiupton,  iu  1850,  he  says,  whenMulford 
finally  repaired  to  London  to  present  the  case  to  the  King,  he  was  obliged  to  conceal  his  intention.  Leaving  South- 
ampton secretly,  he  landed  at  Newport,  walked  to  Boston,  and  from  thence  embarked  for  London.  Arrived  there,  he 
"  presented  his  memorial,  which  it  is  said  attracted  much  attention,  ami  was  read  by  him  in  the  House  of  Commons." 
He  returned  home  in  triumph,  having  obtained  the  desired  end.  Atthis  time  he  was  seventy-one  years  old.  "Songs 
and  rejoicings,"  says  . I.  Lyon  Gardiner  (vide  Hedge's  Address,  p.  21),  "took  place  among  the  whalemen  of  Suffolk 
County  upon  his  arrival,  on  account  of  his  having  succeeded  in  getting  ibe  King's  sharu  given  np."  It  is  related  of 
him  (Ibid.,  p.  68)  that  while  at  the  court  of  St.  James,  being  somewhat  verdant,  he  was  much  annoyed  by  pickpockets. 
As  a  palliative,  he  had  a  tailor  sew  several  fish-hooks  on  the  inside  of  his  pockets,  and  soon  after  one  of  the  fraternity 
was  caught.  This  incident  being  published  at  the  time  won  for  him  an  extensive  notoriety.  He  was  representative 
from  East  Hampton  from  1715  to  1720,  and  died  in  1725,  aged  eighty  years. 

t  N.  Y.  Col.  Eec.,  v,  460.  This  assertion  must  be  inexcusably  inaccurate,  for  it  was  unquestionably  on  the  ground 
of  his  sturdy  defense  of  their  rights  that  the  people  of  Easthainpton  so  steadily  returned  him  to  the  assembly. 

§  N.  Y.  Col.  Eec.,  v,  p.  484.  This  admission  of  Hunter's  of  the  smallness  of  the  revenue  is  indisputable  evidence  of 
his  incompetence,  and  of  the  truth  of  Mulford's  assertion  of  the  ultimate  ruin  of  the  whale-fishery  under  such  restric- 
tions. 


40  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

"To  this  the  lords  of  trade  reply  :*  'Ton  may  intimate  in  your  letter  to  our  Secretary  of  22d 
November  last  that  the  Whale  fishery  is  reserved  to  the  Crown  by  your  Pateuts  :  as  we  can  find  no 
such  thing  in  your  Commission,  you  will  explain  what  you  mean  by  it. '  Mulford  is  now  in  London, 
and  desires  dispatch  in  the  decision  in  regard  to  this  matter,  pending  which  the  lords  desire  to  know 
whether  dues  have  been  paid  by  any  one;  if  so,  what  amount  has  been  paid,  and  to  what  purpose 
this  revenue  has  been  applied.  They  close  their  letter  with  the  following  sentence,  which  would 
hardly  seeui  open  to  any  danger  of  misconstruction :  '  Upon  thin  occasion  we  must  observe  to  you, 
that  ire  hopeyou  trill  give  all  due  incovragement  to  that  Trade.'  Evidently  the  case  of  Mulford  vs.  Hunter 
looks  badly  for  the  governor.  Still,  Hunter  is  loth  to  yield  readily,  and  the  discussion  is  further 
prolonged. 

"It  is  now  1718.  Governor  Hunter,  in  his  answer  to  the  inquiries  of  their  lordships,  says 
Commission  was  issued  giving  power  '  Cognosceudi  de  Flotsam,  Jetsoin,  Lagon,  Deodandis,  &c.,' 
follows  '  et  de  Piscibus  Itegalibus  Sturgeonibus,  Balenis  Ccetis  Porpetiis  Delphinis  Eeggis.  &<•.' 
In  regard  to  the  income,  he  again  writes  that  it  is  inconsiderable;  that  only  the  danger  of  being 
accused  of  giving  up  the  Crown's  right  would  have  led  him  to  write  about  it.  In  amount,  it  was 
not  £20  per  annum  (corroboratory  of  Mulford's  assertion  of  its  decline),  and  as  the  fish  had  left 
this  coast,  he  should  not  further  trouble  them  about  it.  Up  to  the  present  time  all  but  Mulford 
had  paid  and  continued  to  pay.  The  subject  appears  to  have  been  finally  referred  to  the  attorney- 
general,  and  the  governor  says  (1719),  waiting  his  opinion,  he  has  surceased  all  demands  till  it 
comes.  The  question  must  have  been  left  in  a  state  of  considerable  mistiness, however,  for  in  1720 
Governor  Burnett  informs  the  lords,  in  a  letter  which  indicates  a  satisfied  feeling  of  compromise 
between  official  dignity  and  the  requirements  of  the  trade,  that  he  remits  the  5  per  centum  on  the 
whale  fishery,  but  asserts  the  King's  rights  by  still  requiring  licenses,  though  in  '  so  doing  he 
neglects  his  own  profit,'  ;  and  this,'  he  adds,  'has  a  good  effect  on  the  country.'  Under  his  admin- 
istration the  act  for  the  encouragement  of  the  whale  fishery  was  renewed."  t 

4.  BOAT  WHALING  IN  TSE  PRESENT  CENTURY. 

Within  the  present  century  shore  whaling  has  been  prosecuted  to  some  extent  at  .various 
points  on  the  Atlantic  coast,  from  Maine  to  South  Carolina.  The  business  has  been  profitable  at 
Provincetown,  Mass.,  and  at  Beaufort,  N.  C.  At  the  former  place  during  the  spring  of  1880,  forty- 
eight  whales,  valued  at  $14,037,  were  captured;  at  the  latter  place  the  average  annual  catch  is 
four  whales,  valued  at  $4,500.  The  total  value  of  the  shore  whaling  on  the  entire  coast  in  1880 
reached  about  $18,000,  which  is  far  above  the  average  year's  work.  We  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Earll 
for  facts  about  .this  fishery  at  Maine,  and  the  southern  North  Carolina  coast,  and  to  Captain 
Atwood  for  an  account  of  the  business  at  Provincetown. 

COAST    OF   MAINE. 

Shore-whaling  in  the  vicinity  of  Tremout  began  about  1840.  Mr.  Benjamin  Beaver  and  a 
small  crew  of  men  caught  three  or  more  whales  annually  for  about  twenty  years,  but  gave  up  the 
business  in  1860.  No  more  whales  were  taken  from  this  time  till  the  spring  of  1880,  when  one 
was  taken  and  brought  into  Bass  Harbor,  and  yielded  1,200  gallons  of  oil,  but  no  bone  of  value. 

*N.  Y.  Col.  Eec.,  v,  p.  510. 

t  ALEXANDER  STARBUCK:  Hist.  Am.  Whale  Fishery,  in  U.  S.  Fish  Com.  Report,  1875-76. 


THK   WHAL!<;   FISHERY.  41 

('apt.  .1.  r.ickford,  a  native  ol'  Winter  Harbor,  is  reported  by  Mr.  C.  P.  Guptil  to  have  cruised 
off  the  coast  in  lSl."i  in  schooner  IIn/,/a,  and  to  have  captured  eight  whales,  one  of  which  was  a 
finback,  the  rest  humpback  whales.  This  schoouer  made  only  one  season's  work,  but  in  1870  Cap- 
tain Hir.kford  again  tried  his  luck  in  a  vessel  from  Prospect  Harbor  and  captured  one  finback 
whale. 

Mr.  Harll  states  that  according  to  Capt.  George  A.  Clark  and  Captain  Bickford  whaling  was 
extensively  carried  on  from  Prospect  Harbor  for  many  years.  The  fishing  began  about  1810, 
when  Stephen  Clark  and  Mr.  L.  Ililler,  of  Rochester,  Mass.,  came  to  the  region,  and  built  try- 
works  on  the  shore,  having  their  lookout  station  on  the  top  of  an  adjoining  hill.  The  whales 
usually  followed  the  menhaden  to  the  shore,  arriving  about  the  first  of  June  and  remaining  till 
September.  When  one  was  seen  the  boats,  armed  with  harpoons  and  lances,  immediately  put 
out  from  the  land  and  gave  chase.  If  they  succeeded  in  killing  the  whale,  it  was  towed  to  the 
flats  of  the  harbor  at  high  water,  where  it  was  secured  and  left  to  be  cut  up  at  low  tide.  Ten 
years  later  they  began  using  small  vessels  in  the  fishery,  and  by  this  means  were  enabled  to  go 
farther  from  laud.  The  fishery  was  at  its  height  about  1835  to  1840,  when  an  average  of  six  or 
seven  whales  was  taken  yearly.  The  largest  number  taken  in  any  one  season  was  ten.  The 
-average  yield  of  oil  was  25  to  30  barrels  for  each  whale.  The  business  was  discontinued  about 
1860,  since  which  date  but  one  or  two  whales  have  been  taken. 

COAST   OF   MASSACHUSETTS. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  present  century  whales  were  abundant  along  this  coast,  and  Province- 
town  whalers  in  small  boats  frequently  captured  a  large  number  in  a  season.  The  Gloucester 
Telegraph  of  November  6,  1850,  says  :  "A  right  whale  was  taken  at  Provincetown  last  Thursday 
by  a  party  in  three  boats.  It  is  estimated  to  yield  GO  barrels  of  oil/' 

In  the  Barnstable  Patriot  of  November  12,  1861,  is  the  following  item : 

•'  Whale. — On  Saturday  morning  the  spout  of  a  whale  which  was  discovered  playing  around 
off  Nauset  in  the  midst  of  a  fleet  of  some  200  mackerel  fishermen  was  suddenly  cut  short  by  a 
Nantucket  fisherman,  the  Sam  Chase  making  fast  to  him.  This  is  the  fifth  whale  taken  by  Sam 
Chase  since  July  25,  and  will  make  about  25  barrels.  The  five  will  have  made  125  barrels,  worth 
$1,500." 

Whales  have  from  time  to  time  been  stranded  on  the  beaches  about  Cape  Ann;  several  have 
also  been  found  by  fishing  vessels  and  towed  into  Gloucester  Harbor.  In  July,  1833,  one  50  feet 
long,  and  measuring  10  feet  through,  was  towed  into  the  harbor  and  tried  out  on  Eastern  Point.  The 
Cape  Ann  Advertiser  of  October  21,  1870,  records  the  capture  off  Eastern  Point  of  a  whale  45  feet 
in  length.  In  the.  spring  of  1880  finback  whales  were  unusually  abundant  in  Ipswich  and  Massa- 
chusetts Bays,  so  that  fishermen  in  their  dories  were  in  some  cases  alarmed  for  their  own  safety, 
as  the  whales  were  darting  about  in  pursuit  of  schools  of  herring.  Six  of  this  species  of  whale 
were  found  dead  floating  in  the  bay  and  towed  into  Gloucester  harbor.  They  had  been  killed  by 
Provincetown  whalers.  Three  of  them  were  tried  out  at  Gloucester ;  the  remainder  were  allowed 
to  drift  to  sea  again. 

Captain  Atwood  writes  the  following  account  of  the  shore-whaling  at  Provincetown  in  1880: 
"Early  in  March  there  came  into  our  bay  and  harbor  immense  quantities  of  herring  and  shrimp. 
They  were  followed  by  a  great  number  of  finb  ack  whales,  that  remained  here  most  of  the  time  in 
greater  or  less  numbers  until  about  the  middle  of  May,  when  they  all  left  the  coast.  During  the 
time  they  were  here  many  of  them  were  killed  with  bomb-lances.  They  sank  when  killed,  and 


42  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

remained  on  the  bottom  some  two  or  three  days,  when  they  floated  on  the  surface,  and  as  they 
were  liable  to  come  up  in  the  night  or  during  rugged  weather,  when  the  whalemen  were  not  on 
hand  to  take  care  of  them,  many  drifted  out  to  sea,  and  were  lost  or  picked  up  by  Gloucester  fish- 
ing vessels  and  towed  to  that  port.  A  few  were  brought  to  Provincetown  by  these  vessels,  with 
whom  the  proceeds  for  the  oil  were  divided.  There  were  brought  in  and  landed  at  Jonathan 
Cook's  oil  works  on  Long  Point  38  whales,  from  which  the  blubber  was  stripped  and  the  oil 
extracted.  Two  other  whales  brought  in  were  sold  to  parties  who  tcok  them  away  for  exhibi- 
tion, one  to  Boston  and  the  other  to  New  York. 

"Early  in  June  immense  quantities  of  sand-eels  (Ammodytes)  came  n  our  harbor  and  bay  and 
remained  several  days.  About  the  10th  of  June  there  appeared  plenty  of  whales  feeding  on  the 
sand-eels.  They  were  again  attacked  "by  our  men,  when  a  number  of  them  were  killed  in  a  few 
days,  and  ten  were  saved  and  landed  at  the  oil  works.  Probably  as  many  more  that  were  not  killed 
outright  received  their  death  wound,  went  out  of  the  bay,  soon  after  died,  and  were  lost. 

"  The  forty-eight  whales  delivered  at  the  oil  works  yielded  about  950  barrels  of  oil,  that  sold 
at  an  average  price  of  40  cents  per  gallon. 

"  When  the  first  whales  were  killed  it  was  supposed  the  whalebone  in  their  mouths  was  worth- 
less, and  it  was  not  saved;  but  subsequently  some  was  saved  and  sold  at  15  cents  per  pound.  The 
average  quantity  of  bone  in  each  whale  is  about  250  pounds.  Probably  the  bone  of  thirty-five 
whales  has  been  saved,  making  an  aggregate  of  8,750. 

"No  whales  have  come  in  of  late;  our  men  are  still  anxiously  looking  for  another  school, 
hoping  they  will  come  again  and  give  them  another  benefit. 

"  Total  for  the  season's  work : 

48  whales,  29,925  gallons  of  oil,  at  40  cents $11,970  00 

1  whale,  sold  for  exhibit  in  Boston 350  00 

1  whale,  sold  for  exhibit  in  New  York 405  00 

8,750  pounds  of  whalebone  from  thirty-five  whales,  at  15  cents 1, 312  50 


14,037  50 

"Besides  the  whales  saved  and  taken  to  Provincetown,  many  of  those  lost  by  our  whalers 
were  towed  into  other  places ;  others  have  drifted  on  shore  at  different  points.  We  hear  of  four 
being  towed  into  Gloucester,  three  into  Boston,  one  to  Newburyport,  one  to  Cape  Porpoise,  one 
Portland,  one  Mount  Desert ;  two  drifted  ashore  at  Scituate,  two  at  Barnstable,  one  at  Brewster, 
one  at  Orleans,  two  at  Wellfleet,  one  on  the  back  of  Cape  Cod  ;  one  was  stripped  of  its  blubber 
at  sea  by  a  fishing  vessel,  that  sold  it  in  Boston.  The  entire  catch  from  March  to  July  was 
probably  one  hundred  whales,  of  which  number  nearly  all  were  killed  by  Provincetown  whalers. 
Three  of  these  whales  were  humpbacks ;  the  rest  were  of  the  finback  species." 

In  the  fall  of  1S80  a  finback  whale  about  50  feet  long  was  killed  in  Cape  Cod  Bay,  and  towed  to 
Boston,  where  it  was  sold  to  an  enterprising  Yankee,  who,  after  realizing  quite  a  profit  by  exhibit- 
ing it  in  Boston,  conceived  the  idea  of  transporting  it  to  Chicago  for  exhibition.  It  was  accordingly 
carefully  cleaned  and  loaded  upon  a  large  platform  car.  Salt  and  ice  were  freely  used  for  its 
preservation.  It  reached  Chicago,  and  was  shown  to  the  public  as  one  of  the  wonders  of  the  deep. 
The  enterprising  exhibitor  made  several  thousand  dollars  by  this  venture. 

The  following  graphic  description  of  whaling  in  Massachusetts  Bay  in  1881  was  written  for  a 
Boston  newspaper : 

"  The  denizens  of  Cape  Cod  have  always  been  an  amphibious  population,  largely  taking  their 
living  from,  and  making  their  fortunes  upon,  the  waters  of  the  oceans  of  the  world.  Especially  is 
this  the  case  with  the  people  of  the  lower  half  of  the  '  Right  Arm,'  who  are  fishers  indeed,  the 


Till';  \\  IIAU<;  nsiiKiiY.  4:l> 

majority  of  them  taking  to  the  water,  like  ,\  on  ng  ducks,  immediately  alter  their  advent  into  a  sandy 
world,  and  becoming  experts  in  the  navigation  of  its  depths  and  the  capture  of  its  treasures  even 
before  their  school  days  have  fully  passed. 

" Pro vincetown  occupies  the  extremity — the  curling  finger — of  this  cape,  and  its  situation  is 
in  every  way  peculiar.  With  the  exception  of  a  narrow  strip  or  neck  of  sand  heaps  which  unites 
it  to  the  main  cape,  it  is  surrounded  by  water — the  salt  water  of  the  Atlantic — which  rolls 
unchecked  between  its  outer  shores  and  those  of  Europe.  Its  outer  coast  line,  beginning  at  a  point 
opposite  the  narrow  neck  alluded  to,  sweeps  around  in  a  grand  circle  almost  the  entire  circuit  of 
the  compass,  its  outlines  nearly  resembling  those  of  a  gigantic  capital  O,  as  that  letter  is  usually 
found  in  manuscript.  The  inclosed  water  of  this  circle  is  the  harbor  of  Provincetown,  and  the 
town  is  built  along  the  inner  shore,  at  the  bottom  of  the  basin.  Outside  is  the  Kace,  Wood  End, 
and  sundry  interesting  points  of  light-house,  life-saving  station,  all  of  vast  moment  to  mariners 
and  ship-owners.  Inside  is  one  of  the  singular  harbors  of  the  world,  deep  enough  and  spacious 
enough  to  shelter  a  fleet  of  hundreds  of  the  largest  ships  of  the  world  at  one  time,  and  with  pecu- 
liarities belonging  to  itself  sufficient  to  make  it  famous  wherever  these  ships  may  sail. 

"If  there  are  any  kinds  of  fish,  or  any  methods  of  taking  them,  which  are  not  familiar  to  the 
waters  or  the  people  of  Provincetowu,  their  description  is  now  in  order.  From  the  fry  and  minnow 
for  pickerel  bait  up  to  the  100  barrel  right  whale,  Provincetown  watershave  witnessed  the  capture 
of  all  kinds,  and  have  frequently  contributed  specimens  over  which  savants  have  puzzled  and 
wondered.  '  The  beaches  of  her  shores  have  received  as  loot  mighty  carcases  of  whales  and  black- 
fish  ;  shoals  of  porgies  at  one  time,  which  all  the  teams  of  all  the  region  could  hardly  remove  soon 
enough,  so  immense  was  the  deposit,  while  fish-weirs  (one  of  them  took  700  barrels  of  mackerel  a 
few  mornings  since),  try-works,  and  the  implements  and  appliances  of  various  fisheries  mark  the 
scene  in  all  directions. 

"  Now,  it  has  been  no  unusual  thing,  at  any  time  since  the  establishment  of  this  exaggerated 
fish-net  yclept  Provincetown,  for  a  whale  of  some  variety  to  be  occasionally  stranded  upon  her 
beaches,  or  captured  by  her  cruisers  or  boatmen.  But  it  is  only  within  the  past  three  years  that 
the  systematic  pursuit  of  a  leviathan  within  her  waters  has  been  established  ;  in  other  words,  that 
the  home  whale-fishery  has  been  a  feature  of  her  business  operations.  A  whale  in  the  harbor  of 
Provincetown,  especially  at  certain  seasons,  is  almost  as  common  a  presence  as  that  of  a  turtle  in 
a  mill-pond ;  but  they  are  usually  representatives  of  a  class  disliked  and  scorned  by  old-school 
whalemen,  and  not  remunerative  to  their  capturers,  unless  the  latter  be  men  of  enthusiasm  and 
desperate  enterprise.  So  that,  although  there  are  plenty  of  veteran  whalers  in  the  region,  it  has 
been  left  to  the  young  Provincetowners  of  the  present  generation  to  inaugurate  and  establish  an 
enterprise  which  has  already  shown  good  results.  One  young  captain,  with  his  crew,  last  year 
took  upward  of  250  barrels  of  oil  off  Provincetown,  and  is  scoring  fair  results  the  present  season, 
though  the  conditions  have,  so  far,  been  very  unfavorable.  Some  of  his  whales  he  captured  in  the 
harbor;  but  mainly  his  game  was  chased  and  killed  in  the  water  outside  and  near  by. 

"The  variety  of  whale  mostly  found  in  Massachusetts  Bay  waters  is  the  finback,  a  long, 
clean,  perfectly  formed  creature,  growing  sometimes  to  75  or  80  feet  in  length,  but  usually  from 
45  to  55  feet.  He  is  the  most  complete  model  of  craft  for  speed  and  easy  working  in  the  water 
that  can  be  imagined,  and  his  tail  in  motion  the  most  perfect  development  of  the  screw  motor ; 
and,  indeed,  the  finback  moves  through  the  water  when  occasion  offers  as  the  most  rapid  express 
train  never  does  on  its  tracks  on  land.  It  is  timid  and  non-resistant,  and  it  is  principally  on 
account  of  its  great  speed  and  its  habit  of  immediate  fight  when  stricken  that  the  old  whalemen 
detest  it.  Tour  veteran  has  no  relish  for  being  drawn  to  the  bottom,  boat  and  all,  by  an  aqua- 
tic race-horse  possessing  the  traveling  qualities  of  a  meteor. 


44  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

"Therefore,  as  hinted  above,  the  youugsters  who  are  perpetually  learning  new  'kinks'  and 
confounding  their  progenitors,  have  stepped  into  a  new  order  of  things.  They  begin  with  an 
exact  reversal  of  the  old-time  processes,  which  were  to  harpoon  the  whale,  and  then  lance  him  to 
death.  The  Provincetowner  first  lances  his  prey,  and  immediately  after  harpoons  it,  for  reasons 
and  in  pursuance  of  methods  shortly  to  be  given. 

''The  finbacks  come  in  numbers  early  in  the  spring,  following  the  bait  which  is  their  food — 
herrings,  sand  eels,  mackerel,  and  the  like,  and  where  this  bait  is  found  in  reasonable  quantities 
the  whales  will  surely  be  found.  Wheu  feeding  this  whale  stretches  wide  open  his  jaws,  moves 
forward  among  the  bait  on  the  surface  with  velocity  until  he  has  pocketed  or  scooped  (in  his 
mouth)  a  quantity  (some  barrels),  when  he  snaps  together  his  front  doors  and  swallows  the  catch, 
having  no  teeth,  nor  need  of  any.  It  is  at  this  feeding  season  that  he  is  easiest  approached  and 
fastened  to.  Wheu  not  feeding  he  is  usually  lazily  sleeping,  or  disporting,  and,  indeed,  the  gam- 
bols of  this  variety  of  whale  seem  to  form  a  very  necessary  part  of  his  existence,  to  which  he  pays 
much  attention.  The  antics  of  a  calf  in  a  pasture,  or  a  young  puppy  in  a  back  yard,  are  hardly 
more  diverting  or  singular  than  are  those  of  a  pair  of  whales  in  their  festive  moments.  They  will 
stand  on  their  heads  and  flourish  their  tails  in  the  air ;  then  stand  upon  their  tails  and  snap  their 
jaws  in  the  air.  They  whirl  and  roll  and  swash  about,  sometimes  tearing  the  water  into  shreds, 
and  again  darting  about,  exhausting  every  possibility  of  whale  enjoyment.  They  are  as  full  of 
curiosity  as  a  deer,  or  as  are  many  of  the  fish  varieties,  and  this  they  evidence  frequently  by  play- 
ing about  the  boats  which  have  come  out  to  capture  them,  reconuoiteriug  and  viewing  these  boats 
from  all  sides,  and  sinking  a  few  feet  below  the  surface,  following  their  every  motion,  while  they 
occasionally  appear  at  the  surface  for  an  outside  observation. 

"  When  touched  or  struck  their  immediate  impulse  is  to  dash  off  like  a  rocket,  and  this 
impulse  they  obey  to  perfection.  To  test  their  marvelous  facility  of  speed,  a  harpoon  was  thrown 
into  one  off  the  Eace  (the  extremity  of  Gape  Cod),  when  he  started  off  across  the  bay  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Boston,  and  in  forty  minutes  had  dragged  the  boat  and  its  contents  of  crew  and  imple- 
ments within  full  view  of  Minot's  Ledge  light-house.  All  the  line  was  paid  out  by  the  boat's  crew 
and  they  <vere  finally  obliged  to  slip  for  their  lives. 

"  A  common  fishing  schooner  is  now  fitted  out  for  this  whale-catching  business,  carrying  a 
whale-boat  of  the  aucient  approved  construction,  with  sufficient  men  to  man  the  boat  and  leave 
some  one  or  two  on  board  to  follow  in  the  vessel  when  the  boat  is  actually  engaged.  The  captain 
usually  handles  the  lance  and  harpoon,  and  pulls  a  spare  oar  when  not  thus  engaged.  Besides 
himself,  four  oarsmen  and  a  boat-steerer  comprise  the  crew  of  the  boat  of  the  successful  captain 
alluded  to  above. 

"  The  bomb-lance  is  a  most  destructive  weapon.  The  gun  from  which  the  lance  is  fired  is  of 
very  thick  metal,  and  the  breech  is  made  heavy  with  lead  to  neutralize  the  recoil,  which  is  heavy 
with  this  kind  of  arm.  The  length  of  barrel  is  about  17  inches.  The  lance  itself  is  of  iron,  with  a 
chamber  6  or  7  inches  in  length  along  the  lower  center,  and  solid  between  the  chamber  and 
poiut,  the  latter  tapering,  and  filed  or  ground  to  three  edges.  About  the  base  of  the  lance  are  india- 
rubber  wings,  folded  when  the  lance  is  inserted  iu  the  gun,  and  acting  as  wad  to  make  the  lance 
fit  the  barrel  easily,  and  just  rest  upon  the  powder  charge  of  the  gun.  When  fired  these  rubber 
wings  expand,  and,  like  the  paper  feathers  of  a  boy's  dart,  preserve  the  poise  of  the  weapon.  The 
chamber  of  the  lance  is  filled  with  powder,  like  a  bomb-shell,  and  a  one-second,  or  thereabout,  fuse 
is  attached,  so  that,  when  the  weapon  is  discharged  into  the  body  of  a  whale,  it  explodes  within, 
inflicting  terrible  wounds.  Care  must  be  taken  not  to  discharge  the  lance  at  too  short  range,  as  in 
that  case  it  will  pass  through  and  through  the  whale's  carcase  without  exploding,  and  entail  no 


TIIK  WHALK   FISHERY.  45 

serious  injury.  About  30  feet  distance  is  the  range  usually  sought  for.  This  implement,  in  the 
hands  of  a  cool  and  skillful  sailor,  works  '  like  a  charm,'  and  great  is  its  destruction  of  the  life  of 
leviathan.  To  illustrate  this,  and  also  the  whole  matter,  an  actual  day's  work  of  the  captain 
foresaid  will  now  be  detailed: 

''The  present  year  the  season  lias  been  very  backward;  east  and  cold  winds  and  rough 
\\rather  have  prevailed,  and  the  bait  was  at  least  two  weeks  later  than  usual  in  the  bay.  On 
account  of  these  and  other  unfavorable  circumstances  the  whale  catch  in  Provineetown  neighbor- 
hood has  thus  far  been  small.  At  2  o'clock  on  a  morning  in  May  of  last  year  the  crew  of  the 
schooner  was  aroused  by  the  captain,  the  vessel  then  lying  near  the  wharves  in  Provineetown 
Harbor.  She  was  got  under  way,  and  the  spouting  or  'blowing'  of  a  whale  could  be  plainly 
heard  from  her  deck.  At  once  the  chase  began,  the  experienced  captain  working  in  the  dark,  at 
times  with  prospects  of  success,  but  without  its  attainment  as  the  hours  passed.  That  there  was 
more  than  one  whale  in  the  harbor  was  evident,  and  one  of  them  was  a  humpback,  a  prize,  indeed, 
and  much  more  valuable  than  a  finback,  yielding  twice  as  much  of  oil  for  the  same  size  of  creature. 
As  dawn  streaked  and  day  opened,  one  after  another  various  other  craft  in  the  harbor  became 
awakened  to  what  was  going  on,  and  numerous  boats' crews  put  off  from  the  shore  to  join  in  a  chase 
and  possible  capture,  with  the  details  of  which  they  were  perfectly  familiar,  and  the  tactics  of 
which  wen1  their  common  practice. 

"The  first  rays  of  the  sun  fell  upon  an  exciting  scene.  There  were  a  humpback  whale  and  a 
finback  coursing  about  the  harbor,  the  latter  fully  65  feet  in  length.  The  chasing  boats  and 
vessels  represented  a  great  variety  of  craft,  and  a  still  greater  variety  of  crews  and  individuals 
engaged.  There  were  tall,  short,  crooked,  lank,  old,  and  young  boat-steerers ;  fat  men  puffing  at 
paddles,  and  lean  men  tugging  at  long  oars.  Excitement,  emulation,  and  competition  roused  all 
these  men  to  prodigious  efforts,  and,  in  tlieir  anxiety  and  enthusiasm,  they  manifested  the  most 
singular  traits  and  cut  the  oddest  pranks.  The  finback  led  them  a  desperate  chase,  now  here,  now 
there,  until  hours  had  slipped  away,  and  he  was  not  caught,  although  the  very  elite  of  Cape 
Cod  skill  in  whale  capture,  aided  by  experienced  veterans  of  the  northern  and  Pacific  fleets,  had 
lent  a  hand.  Away  over  on  the  east  side  of  the  harbor  the  humpback  was  finally  stricken,  a  bomb- 
lance  entering  his  huge  body,  shattering  his  backbone  in  the  explosion,  and  the  monster  died 
instantly.  A  vigorous  and  triumphant  yell  announced  the  capture,  but  the  finback  escaped.  The 
schooner  then  proceeded  outside,  and  followed  the  shore  towards  the  Race. 

"From  the  time  of  leaving  the  harbor  until  noon  not  a  whale  was  sighted.  The  waters  of  a 
pond  inshore  were  apparently  no  more  free  of  the  creatures  than  was  Cape  Cod  Bay  at  that  time. 
About  noon  it  fell  flat  calm,  and  the  schooner  drifted  lazily.  But  as  the  early  afternoon  advanced 
the  cry  of  '  Blows !'  awoke  every  man  to  the  knowledge  that  an  immediate  change  in  the  status 
might  be  at  hand.  The  sun  was  burning  hot,  and  the  face  of  the  bay  like  a  mirror.  In  less  time 
after  the  first  cry  than  it  takes  to  tell  the  incident  no  less  than  fifteen  '  blows'  were  counted,  and 
whales  were  in  abundance  on  every  hand. 

"The  boat,  which  had  been  towing  astern,  was  at  once  occupied,  and  the  advance,  which 
promised  the  fairest  success,  was  made  without  delay.  The  spouting  columns  appeared  at  regular 
intervals,  and  soon  the  boat  was  in  close  proximity.  Headway  was  stopped,  the  oarsmen 
exchanged  their  oars  for  stumpy  paddles,  like  those  with  which  an  Indian  manages  his  canoe, 
and  every  one  of  them  took  his  seat  upon  the  gunwale  of  the  boat,  paddle  in  hand,  ready  for 
orders.  The  captain  took  his  stand  forward,  gun  in  hand,  ready  to  discharge  the  lance  at  the  first 
favorable  opportunity.  The  whales  (there  were  a  pair  of  them,  male  and  female,  as  it  proved) 

sportive,  and  at  once  began  a  reconnaissance  of  the  boat.    They  would  sink  about  10  feet  below 


46  HISTOEY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHEEIES. 

the  surface,  roll  partly  upon  one  side,  and  cast  an  eye  upward,  as  if  speculating  upon  the  apparition, 
and  occasionally  come  up,  blow,  and  roll  lazily  under  again.  Their  every  motion  could  be  plainly 
seen  while  they  were  under  water,  and  their  movements  anticipated.  The  captain  singled  out  the 
female,  the  largest  and  best  animal,  and  thenceforth  all  attention  was  paid  to  her  movements.  At 
last  she  came  slowly  to  the  surface,  just  moved  her  immense  tail  with  the  necessary  motion  to 
change  her  direction,  and  started  directly  across  the  bow  of  the  boat,  under  the  very  nose  of  the 
captain.  A  straightforward  bow  shot  was  what  he  had  been  waiting  for,  and  in  an  instant  the  gun 
was  at  his  shoulder.  Up  to  this  moment  the  men  had  all  been  guided  by  expressive  wavings  of  the 
captain's  hand ;  and  his  every  motion  was  watched  as  men  watch  for  a  drop  to  fall  during  an 
execution.  As  the  gigantic  finback  passed — she  proved  to  be  upwards  of  65  feet  in  length — she 
rolled  slightly  to  one  side,  and  threw  up  the  nipper  nearest  the  captain  as  a  man  would  throw  up 
the  elbow  of  his  bent  arm  to  a  level  with  the  shoulder.  Quick  as  thought  the  captain  fired,  the 
lance  struck  the  huge  carcass  just  under  the  nipper  and  entirely  disappeared,  and  the  empty  gun 
was  flung  along  the  bottom  of  the  boat. 

"  Instantly  the  captain  was  standing  on  the  bow  deck,  harpoon  in  hand.  The  whale  was 
motionless,  apparently  with  absolute  astonishment.  In  this  moment  of  quiet,  which  could  not  be 
prolonged,  the  boat  slightly  advanced,  the  captain's  both  hands  arose  high  in  the  air,  the  harpoon 
descended  directly  downward,  and  the  whale  was  transfixed,  the  iron  entering  her  body  near  the 
tail.  The  lance  had  seemingly  hardly  left  the  gun  at  greater  speed  than  the  initial  movement  of 
that  whale  when  consciousness  was  aroused.  The  whale  line  attached  to  the  harpoon  was  coiled 
with  characteristic  care  in  two  tubs  nearly  amidships,  led  aft  around  the  loggerhead  in  the  stern 
deck,  and  then  forward  through  a  notch  in  the  extreme  bow,  out  of  which  it  was  kept  from  slip- 
ping by  a  pin  passed  through  the  two  upper  parts  of  the  crotch.  Instantly  every  man  was  stand- 
ing along  this  line,  grasping  it  with  hat  in  hand  to  preserve  it  from  the  intense  friction.  The 
loggerhead  was  kept  constantly  wet,  and  a  man  stood  over  it,  hatchet  in  hand,  to  cut  upon  the  first 
'  foul,'  or  other  indication  of  extreme  danger.  And  now  appeared  the  wisdom  of  the  movements. 
The  lance  had  entered  the  vitals  of  the  whale,  inflicting,  it  was  well  known,  a  terrible  internal 
wound  upon  its  explosion.  Had  this  not  been  the  case,  and  only  the  harpoon  held  the  whale,  she 
would  have  finished  the  race  incontinently  by  obliging  the  crew  to  slip  the  line,  or  be  drawn 
under  water.  As  it  was,  she  must  soon  come  up  for  further  action.  To  appreciate  the  situation 
that  ensued,  you  should  have  seen  that  boat  go  through  the  water ;  that  is,  you  should  have  been 
seated  upon  one  of  her  thwarts  or  along  her  bottom.  The  whale  moved  forward  and  also  down- 
ward, and  the  water  was  then  many  fathoms  deep.  The  downward  movement,  of  course,  depressed 
the  bow  of  the  boat,  and  the  immediate  danger  was  from  being  drawn  under  by  motion  too  swift  to 
allow  the  cutting  of  the  surface.  At  once  a  great  trough  was  made  in  the  smooth  sea  by  the  flying 
craft,  the  boat  occupying  the  cavity,  and  from  both  her  sides  a  sloping  bank  of  water,  inclining 
outward  and  upward,  seemed  builded  about  her.  To  one  sitting  upon  a  thwart  and  looking  out- 
ward, the  surface  of  the  bay  seemed  just  opposite  the  line  of  his  eyes,  so  great  was  the  depression 
of  the  trough. 

"  Now,  then,  a  sheer  of  the  whale  and  the  boat  would  take  water  at  once  over  the  side.  The 
forward  movement  became  too  swift,  the  bow  too  much  depressed.  Fathom  after  fathom  was 
allowed  to  slip  around  the  loggerhead,  until  50,  60,  SO,  100  fathoms  had  been  paid  out,  and  three 
or  four  minutes  had  elapsed.  The  whale  had  been  struck  off  the  Eace,  and  had  started  across 
the  bay  in  the  direction  of  Plymouth. 

"At  the  end  of  the  time  indicated  the  line  began  to  slack  and  the  whale  to  move  upward  from 
the  bottom  of  the  bay.  Still,  however,  she  tore  onward.  As  fasl  us  could  be  the  line  was  hauled 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  47 

upoii,  and  all  possible  taken  in.  And  now  the  whale  is  upon  the  surface,  and  great  jets  of  almost 
pure  blood,  red  and  arterial,  rise  in  the  air  and  fall  backward  upon  her  head  and  shoulders. 
That  tells  the  story.  The  boat  rushes  forward,  and  now  seems  to  be  floating  in  blood,  so  thick 
have  the  waters  become  with  it,  and  the  smell  arising  is  deadly  sickening  and  almost  suffocating 
to  the  inexperienced. 

"  Down  again  the  creature  goes,  to  remain  about  the  same  time  as  at  first.  The  speed  hardly 
diminishes.  Up  again  she  comes,  and  now  the  noise  of  her  spouting  is  as  of  huge  pipes  obstructed, 
and  soon  great  clots  of  blood  and  substance  fall  as  before  upon  the  surface  of  the  water.  Every 
muscle  in  every  man  is  as  tense  as  whalebone,  and  every  nerve  like  steel.  Each  says  to  himself, 
Will  the  end  never  come  ? 

"A  breeze  is  rising  on  the  eastern  board,  but  its  outer  edge  is  still  far  from  the  schooner. 
The  two  men  left  on  board  the  latter  have  headed  her  in  chase  of  the  boat,  but  she  is  soon  hull- 
down  in  the  view  of  the  boat's  crew.  No  matter.  There  are  successive  risings  of  the  whale  at 
more  frequent  intervals,  and  now  it  is  largely  water  that  she  spouts,  and  the  wonder  is  if  she  has 
any  more  blood  left  in  her  carcass.  Usually  when  a  finback  is  killed  the  body  sinks  at  once,  and 
does  not  rise  again  for  forty-eight  hours;  and  every  lance  is  stamped  with  its  owner's  initials, 
that  carcasses  found  may  be  identified.  Other  varieties  of  whale,  having  more  blubber,  do  not 
sink,  at  least  not  so  readily. 

"An  idea  strikes  the  captain.  '  This  whale,'  he  says,  'has  lost  so  much  blood  that  I  do  not 
believe  she  will  sink,  and  I  will  try  an  experiment.'  He  means  that  he  will  not  haul  up  to  the 
animal  by  the  harpoon  line  and  dispatch  her  with  another  lance;  but  that  he  will  follow  her  till 
she  dies  of  exhaustion  and  her  present  wound. 

"Suddenly  the  whale  turns  square  about,  and  starts  back  toward  the  Race.  There  is  some 
confusion,  a  slacking  and  jerking  of  the  line,  and  all  at  once  the  harpoon  slips,  and  whale  and 
boat  are  parted.  And  now  the  men  growl  and  lower  at  the  captain,  for  allowing  their  hard-earned 
prize  thus  to  escape.  But  he  knows  that  a  shore  time  must  decide  the  contest  and  that  the  whale 
must  soon  die. 

"She  is  followed  by  her  frequent  spoutings  of  black  blood  and  matter,  and,  her  speed  slack- 
ing, the  chase  draws  upon  her.  She  stops.  Will  the  captain  give  her  another  lance?  The 
proposal  is  useless,  for  her  death  flurry  is  begun,  and  it  will  soon  be  seen  whether  the  experiment 
of  the  captain  is  to  result  favorably. 

"And  now  she  leaps  full  length  out  of  the  water,  and  falls  prone  upon  it  with  a  crash  like  a 
falling  building.  The  surface  is  streaked  and  torn  with  foam  mingled  with  blood.  She  stands 
now  upon  her  head,  now  upon  her  tail;  like  lightning  she  darts  hither  and  thither.  She  sinks 
and  rises,  spouts  and  half  rolls  over.  Every  man  is  iu  position  to  keep  clear  of  her,  if  in  her  frenzy 
she  blindly  comes  their  way.  '  For  God's  sake,  captain,  look  out!'  shouts  one ;  ' here  she  comes! ' 
The  warning  is  justified;  she  is  coming  full  head  toward  the  boat.  But  momently  she  staggers, 
ceases  effort;  her  motion  slows;  she  rolls  three-quarters  over,  and  lies  dead  in  the  middle  of  Mas- 
sachusetts Bay. 

"  The  schooner  is  out  of  sight.  From  3  o'clock  until  5  she  has  been  battling  for  life,  and  leading 
her  capturers  such  a  chase  as  the  world  cannot  equal  under  other  conditions.  The  breeze — a  stiff 
easter — has  arrived.  The  whale  must  be  towed  home,  but  it  is  a  serious  matter  with  oars  and 
only  the  boat.  Happily  she  has  shut  her  mouth  in  dying,  and  will  tow  easier  in  consequence. 
The  captain's  experiment  has  worked  well,  and  this  was  about  the  only  finback  captured  in  these 
•waters  that  season  without  sinking. 


48  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  TE1E  FISHERIES. 

"But  the  breeze  brings  the  schooner,  after  a  somewhat  blind  chase.  Provincetown  Harbor 
is  reached  next  morning,  and  the  whale  lauded  at  the  try-works.  There  is  no  room  here  for  further 
detail  or  description.  The  captain  is  at  this  very  moment  cruising  for  whales  oft'  Grand  Meuan, 
with  a  better  Proviucetown  schooner  than  he  had  la.st  year.  But  lie  has  taken  90  barrels  iu  Mas- 
sachusetts Bay  the  present  season  " 

COAST    OF    RHODE    ISLAND    AND   NEW   YORK. 

Whales  have  frequently  been  taken  by  vessels  soon  after  starting  on  their  voyages  from  New 
Bedford  and  other  ports,  and  sometimes  schools  of  wLales  are  seen  close  inshore.  Of  late  years 
no  organized  effort  has  been  made  to  engage  in  shore  whaling,  though  during  the  last  century  the 
coast  of  Long  Island  was  a  favorite  place  for  this  fishery. 

The  following  clippings  mention  the  capture  of  a  right  whale  at  Newport,  and  the  appearance 
of  a  school  of  whales  at  the  entrance  of  Long  Island  Sound : 

"The  whale,  which  for  several  days  had  been  sporting  in  our  river,  was  captured  on  Monday 
last  in  fine  style  by  a  boat's  crew  of  young  men  from  Newport.  Mr.  Oliver  Potter  laid  the  boat 
alongside  as  the  whale  came  up.  and  Mr.  Thomas  White  fastened  the  harpoon  into  her  side.  After 
running  the  boat  some  distance  she  was  lanced  and  carried  into  Newport.  The  whale  is  of  the 
right  sort,  about  44  feet  long,  and  rated  at  70  barrels  of  oil.  A  number  of  gentlemen  of  this  town 
have  made  arrangements  to  gratify  the  curiosity  of  those  who  may  wish  to  see  this  creature  of 
the  deep,  and  it  will  be  exhibited  for  several  days  in  a  convenient  place  at  Fox  Point." 

"A  Connecticut  paper,  dated  August  1G,  1873,  states  that  the  skipper  of  the  sloop  Annie,  of 
Saybrook,  Conn.,  reports  a  large  school  of  whales  iu  close  proximity  to  home.  Monday,  while 
midway  between  Southeast  Point,  Block  Island,  and  Moutauk,  a  school  of  whales,  numbering 
probably  thirty-five,  was  seen  from  the  Annie's  deck,  gamboling  near  the  Block  Island  shore, 
whence  they  had  been  lured,  it  is  supposed,  by  the  prospect  of  a  good  feeding-ground.  In  the 
school  very  few  finbacks  or  humpbacked  whales  were  to  be  seen.  The  majority  were  large  whales, 
some  of  them  being  not  less  than  70  feet  iu  length.  Boatmen  report  it  as  a  common  occurrence 
to  see  two  or  three  finbacks  in  company  in  the  race,  but  the  appearance  of  so  many  large  whales 
is  a  new  experience." 

COAST    OF    NEW   JERSEY. 

The  only  record  we  have  of  shore-whaling  on  this  coast  is  that  furnished  by  Mr.  Earll,  who, 
while  visiting  the  coast  in  1880,  learned  that  between  1810  and  1820  (Japt.  John  Sprague,  of 
Manahawkiu.  with  a  crew  of  seven  men,  followed  whaling  exclusively  for  a  few  years,  with  fair 
results.  They  had  a  camp  and  try- works  on  the  shore,  and  were  provided  with  a  whale-boat,  in 
which  they  put  off  from  the  beach  whenever  a  whale  was  seen. 

COAST   OF   NORTH   CAROLINA. 

The  whale-fisheries  of  Beaufort  seem  to  have  been  prosecuted  continuously  for  a  long  period 
of  years,  and  the  oldest  inhabitants  are  unable  to  give  any  information  of  their  origin.  There 
has  never  been  any  extensive  business,  aud  the  fishing  has  been  confined  wholly  to  small  boats 
going  out  from  the  shore,  with  the  exception  of  two  vessels  run  during  a  few  mouths  each.  The 
first  was  the  Daniel  Webster,  i'4.15*ons,  that  fitted  out  for  whaling  in  the  winter  of  1874-'75,  with 
a  crew  from  Proviucetown,  Mass.,  but  after  three  mouths'  cruising  she  gave  it  up  and  returned  to 
Proviucetowu,  having  taken  nothing.  The  next  vessel,  the  Seychille,  47.07  tons,  came  to  Beaufort 
in  the  winter  of  1878-'79,  but  was  lost  in  the  August  storm  of  1879,  having  taken  nothing. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  49 

The  usual  plan  is  for  tlie  fishermen  to  establish  cainps  among  the  sand  hills  along  the  shore 
between  Cape  Lookout  and  Little  River,  where  they  live  from  the  1st  of  February  to  the  last  of 
April.  When  the  season  arrives  tbr  whaling,  three  crews  of  six  men  each  unite  to  form  a  earn]), 
and  proceed  to  build  a  house  out  of  rushes  in  some  desirable  location  near  the  shore,  for  protection 
against  the  weather.  Their  boats,  usually  three  in  number,  and  their  implements,  an-  placed  in 
readiness  on  the  beach,  and  a  lookout  selected,  where  one  man  is  stationed,  to  give  the  signal  if 
the  whales  come  in  sight. 

At  this  season  of  the  year  the  whales  are  moving  northward,  and  in  their  migrations  often 
come  within  a  short  distance  of  the  shore,  where  they  are  pursued  and  often  captured  by  the. 
fishermen.  As  soon  as  the  whale  is  harpooned  the  "drug"  is  thrown  over,  and  when  he  turns  to 
tight  the  fishermen,  armed  with  gnus,  shoot  him  with  explosive  cartridges,  and,  after  killing  him 
with  their  lances,  tow  him  to  the  shore,  where  they  try  him  out. 

The  number  of  crews  varies  with  the  season,  it  formerly  averaging  but  two  or  three,  of 
eighteen  men  each.  In  the  spring  of  1879  four  crews  were  engaged  in  this  fishery,  and  five 
whales  \\ere  taken. 

In  the  spring  of  1880  there  were  six  crews  of  108  men  stationed  between  Cape  Hatteras  and 
Bear  Inlet,  but  the  season  being  unusually  open,  most  of  the  whales  had  passed  before  the  fisher- 
men came  on  the  shore,  and  but  one  was  taken,  the  bone  and  oil  selling  for  $408. 

The  yearly  catch  of  late  is  about  four  whales,  averaging  1,800  gallons  of  oil  and  550  pounds 
of  bone  each,  giving  the  catch  a  value  of  $4,500.  The  shares  usually  range  from  thirty  to  forty, 
as  follows:  Each  boat  one  share,  the  gun  two  shares,  the  gunner  an  extra  share,  and  each  steers- 
man an  additional  one-half  share,  the  men  all  receiving  one  share  each. 

The  whaling-gun  was  introduced  into  the  locality  by  the  schooner  Daniel  Webster,  of  Prov- 
iucetown,  in  1874. 

COAST  OF  SOUTH  CAROLINA  AND  GEORGIA. 

There  are  no  regular  whaling-camps  on  this  coast,  but  whaling  vessels  from  the  north  often 
cruise  a  short  distance  off  Port  Royal,  S.  C.,  and  Brunswick,  Ga.,  sometimes  meeting  with  good 
success.  These  vessels  are  of  the  smaller  class,  ranging  from  53  to  117  tons,  and  spend  the  winter 
and  early  spring  months  before  their  departure  for  the  off-shore  grounds  in  capturing  whales 
near  the  bars  off  this  coast.  They  were  formerly  in  the  habit  of  going  to  Fernaudina,  Fla.,  every 
fall  to  ship  their  oil  and  bone  to  the  STorth,  but  owing  to  the  yellow  fever  at  that  place  some  of 
them  came  to  Brunswick,  Ga.,  in  1876,  and  one  of  them  secured  a  whale  in  this  vicinity.  The 
following  year  two  vessels  came  in  January  and  remained  till  the  middle  of  March,  getting  one 
whale.  The  third  year  two  whales  were  caught  by  the  same  vessel,  and  in  1879  four  vessels 
visited  the  locality,  aud  had  taken  up  to  March  1,  five  whales  yielding  226  barrels  of  oil  and  2,750 
pounds  of  bone.  The  whaling-ground  is  on  a  bar  only  about  4  miles  from  the  shore.  A  whale 
after  being  captured  by  the  whalemen  in  boats,  is  towed  by  the  vessel  into  the  sound  aud  there 
stripped  of  blubber  aud  the  oil  tried  out. 

An  exciting  scene  occurred  at  Charleston  in  the  spring  of  1880,  which  is  thus  described  in  the 
Charleston  Xews  of  January  S  : 

"UNUSUAL  SPORT  IN  CHARLESTON  HARBOR.  — Several  days  ago  the  almost  unprecedented 
presence  of  a  whale  in  Charleston  Harbor  was  announced.  Whether  driven  here  by  stress  of 
weather,  seeking  misanthropic  seclusion  from  his  kind,  or  on  an  exploring  expedition,  will  never 
be  known,  but  his  presence  was  a  huge  black  verity.  Several  timid  and  ineffectual  attempts  had 
been  made  to  effect  his  capture  or  destruction,  but  all  were  futile,  until  a  regular  hunt  was 
SEC.  v,  VOL.  ii 4 


TO  HISTORY  AND  METHi-DS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

organized  yesterday,  Mr.  Armstrong  Hall,  engineer,  and  Captain  Smith,  of  the  tug  Eoyal  Arch, 
leading  it.  The  attacking  force  originally  consisted  of  two  of  Messrs.  Bangs  &  Dolby's  row-boats, 
each  manned  by  three  oarsmen,  an  experienced  and  trustworthy  coxswain,  and  a  man  in  the  bow  of 
each  armed  with  a  harpoon.  Other  boats  with  their  crews  joined  in  the  chase,  however,  when  the 
whale  was  seen  near  Fort  Sumter  at  about  9.45  a.  m.  He  had  been  first  met  and  struck  on  the 
bar,  however,  by  the  boats  above  mentioned  at  about  8  o'clock,  a  harpoon  and  line  being  made  fast 
in  his  body  near  the  tail.  Pursuit  was  continued,  one  of  the  boats  towing  after  the  whale  by  the 
line,  and  the  other  being  rowed  to  within  a  short  distance  of  him  as  he  would  rise  to  blow,  and  the 
harpoons  being  launched  at  him  whenever  a  favorable  opportunity  offered.  During  the  chase  he 
had  been  working  his  way  to  landward,  and  soon  got  in  the  shoal  water  near  Fort  Johnston,  on 
James  Island.  In  his  struggles  he  became  entangled  in  the  stout  line  attached  to  the  harpoon, 
and  wound  himself  in  it  so  that  it  held  firmly.  He  remained  in  the  shoal  water  during  the  morn- 
ing, the  line  having  been  cut  to  save  the  boat  during  a  "  flurry,''  and  in  the  afternoon,  at  about 
1.30  o'clock,  an  attempt  was  made  to  secure  him.  Four  steam  tugs — the  Morgan,  the  Eepublic, 
the  Wade  Hampton,  and  the  Eoyal  Arch — were  present,  besides  probably  fifty  or  sixty  row-boats, 
and  a  few  small  sailing  craft. 

"The  news  of  the  capture  had  spread  rapidly,  and  quite  a  crowd,  including  a  number  of  ladies, 
gathered  on  the  battery  and  watched  the  struggle  that  ensued.  The  line  was  taken  aboard  and 
made  fast  to  one  of  the  tugs,  which  attempted  to  coax  the  fish  toward  the  city.  But  the  steamer 
proved  to  be  too  unhandy  for  the  delicate  manipulation  required,  and  the  line  was  finally  snapped, 
a  piece  of  considerable  length  being  left  attached  to  the  whale  worn  en  traine.  Then  ensued  a 
series  of  exciting  maneuvers.  The  tugs  would  approach  him  in  turn  as  opportunity  offered,  and 
those  aboard  would  drive  lances  and  harpoons  at  him,  with  more  or  less  effect,  or  attempt  to  throw 
great  running  nooses  over  the  flukes  of  his  tail  as  they  were  thrust  above  the  surface  in  the 
creature's  struggles.  He  indulged  in  a  series  of  the  most  extraordinary  gymnastic  performances, 
turning  complete  somersaults,  and  occasionally  standing  on  his  head,  apparently  for  several 
moments,  with  from  2  to  6  feet  of  his  tail  projecting  above  the  water. 

"Meantime,  many  of  the  small  boats  were  dodging  about  him,  and  missiles  were  hurled  at 
him  whenever  a  fair  chance  was  offered.  Time  and  again  barbed  harpoons  and  the  long  keen 
blades  of  lances  were  plunged  into  his  sides  and  back,  and  time  and  again  did  they  fail  to  hold, 
being  drawn  back  by  the  lines  by  their  owners.  He  was  slowly  but  surely  scuffling  and  turning 
himself  through  the  mud,  which  was  seen  upon  his  head  several  times,  across  the  Ashley  Eiver 
toward  White  Point  Garden,  the  center  of  an  ever-varying  circle  of  all  sorts  of  craft,  armed  with 
all  sorts  of  weapons.  In  his  progress  he  ran  under  the  bow  of  the  schooner  Minnehaha,  where 
earnest  efforts  were  made  to  lasso  him,  a  compliment  which  he  returned  by  standing  on  his  head 
and  thrashing  her  with  his  tail  until  she  shook  from  stem  to  stern.  He  struck  sevenil  blows 
upon  her  jib-boom,  which  was  damaged  somewhat,  the  rigging  thereabout  being  badly  torn.  He 
would  lash  the  water  with  the  flukes  of  his  tail,  making  reports  like  the  discharge  of  a  musket, 
and  drenching  all  in  his  neighborhood.  He  came  to  the  surface  frequently  to  blow,  which  he 
did  with  a  noise  resembling  that  made  by  the  blowing  out  of  steam  from  an  engine,  sending  a 
fountain  from  each  of  his  nostrils.  At  one  time  he  got  beneath  the  bow  of  one  of  the  tugs,  lifting 
it  almost  clear  of  the  water,  and  a  stroke  of  his  tail  wrenched  off  one  of  the  cabin  doors  that 
stood  open.  It  is  impossible  to  describe,  and  almost  impossible  to  imagine,  the  tremendous  force 
of  one  of  these  strokes.  The  great  volumes  of  water  that  rose  after  each  showed  the  immense 
strength  that  was  put  forth  hi  them. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  51 

"Two  of  the  tugs  ran  over  him,  and  the  propeller  of  the  Wade  Hampton  gave  him  several 
blows,  the  effects  of  which  were  seen  upon  his  bleeding  back  as  he  next  rose.  The  line  had  also 
evidently  chafed  him  considerably,  the  skin  near  the  tail  being  perceptibly  raw  from  it.  It 
appeared  about  this  time  as  if  he  was  almost  exhausted.  He  would  now  and  then  cease  his 
struggles  entirely,  and  lie  placidly  upon  the  water  with  almost  his  entire  body  exposed,  as  it 
resting.  Observers  could  almost  imagine  that  they  could  see  him  pant,  and  hi*  snorts  came  in 
quick  succession,  and  seemed  to  have  a  ring  of  distress  or  despair  in  them.  His  motions,  too, 
were  slower  and  more  languid,  as  if  he  were  about  to  relinquish  the  unequal  struggle  and  die. 

"  All  this  time  the  two  boats  that  had  originated  the  chase  had  steadily  followed  him  up,  the 
men  in  the  bows  driving  their  long  lances  into  his  body  near  where  their  experience  taught  them 
was  a  vital  point.  Suddenly  there  was  a  cheer.  One  of  the  tugs  rather  involuntarily  had  gotten 
so  close  on  him  that  the  remainder  of  the  line  hanging  to  him  was  secured  by  a  boat-hook,  and 
quickly  spliced  to  another  line  on  board.  About  half  an  hour  of  playing  him  followed,  when  the 
line,  which  had  been  stranded  gradually,  again  parted.  Haifa  dozen  efforts  were  made  to  throw  a 
noose  over  his  tail  from  the  deck  of  the  Wade  Hampton,  from  which  place  such  trifles  as  a  rifle-bullet 
or  so  and  two  or  three  balls  from  a  large  revolver  were  fired  into  him  without  perceptible  effect.  One 
or  two  of  the  efforts  to  throw  the  noose  over  him  were  very  nearly  successful,  but  he  seemed  to 
dodge  beneath  the  water  as  it  fell  about  him. 

"  Another  cheer  announced  another  apparent  success.  A  lance  thrust  from  one  of  the  Bangs 
&  Colby  boats  had  evidently  struck  him  deeply,  and  the  men  in  her  yelled  exultantly  as  they  rap- 
idly backed  away.  The  blood  poured  out  and  dyed  the  water  around,  and  in  a  few  seconds  a 
gigantic  plume  of  crimson  spray  arose  as  he  came  up  to  blow.  As  he  lifted  his  side  from  the  water 
and  struck  another  gigantic  blow,  the  blood  could  be  seen  pouring  forth  in  a  stream  like  that  from 
a  small  hose.  He  lay  comparatively  quiet,  and  another  and  stronger  line  was  passed  about  him 
from  the  Morgan.  With  this  he  was  played  for  another  half  hour,  during  which  time  the  small 
boats  kept  steadily  striking  him  whenever  he  appeared.  He  had  by  this  time  changed  his  course 
somewhat,  turning  toward  the  center  of  the  harbor,  and  crossing  the  stream  across  the  bows  of 
the  bark  Framat,  which  he  narrowly  missed  striking. 

"The  confusion  of  boats  and  lines  was  very  great,  tugs,  bateaus,  and  row-boats  being  gath- 
ered about  the  fish,  alternately  advancing  and  backing,  amid  a  chaos  of  yells,  oaths,  cries  of  warn- 
ing, and  orders,  the  confusion  being  increased  when  the  object  of  all  attention  would  suddenly 
begin  to  lash  the  water  or  execute  some  fancy  movement,  causing  a  wild  scattering  of  craft  on  all 
sides.  That  some  one  was  not  drowned  or  knocked  in  the  head  is  a  subject  of  general  wonder. 

"  At  last,  when  just  alongside  the  Wade  Hampton,  the  whale,  who  had  lines  enough  about  him 
almost  for  a  ship's  rigging,  seemed  suddenly  to  decide  to  free  himself  by  one  mighty  effort.  In  a 
second  almost  the  water  for  many  feet  about  him  became  a  mass  of  seething,  heaving  foam.  He 
turned  over  and  over,  fairly  churned  the  sea  with  his  tail,  threw  first  his  ugly  head,  and  then  the 
great  black  rubber-looking  flukes  far  above  the  surface,  and  bent  himself  almost  double,  straight- 
ening out  again  with  terrific  violence.  When  the  spray  and  foam  were  gone  and  men  had  an 
opportunity  to  look,  the  Morgan's  line  was  found  slack  and  broken.  The  whale  had  freed  himself 
and  disappeared.  His  track  was  rapidly  followed,  the  struggle  having  by  this  time  been  brought 
to  a  point  opposite  the  Southern  wharves,  which  were  packed  with  people. 

"  The  game  appeared  once  or  twice  at  long  intervals,  and  was  finally  come  up  with  by  the 
pursuers,  now  greatly  diminished  in  numbers,  on  the  eastern  side  of  Cooper  Eiver,  near  the 
shore.  Again  the  chase  became  hot,  one  or  two  strokes  being  given,  and  the  Morgan  running 
over  the  whale  again.  About  this  time,  however,  he  ran  so  close  in  that  the  tugs  were  afraid  to 


52  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES, 

follow,  and  stood  idly  at  a  distance.  Only  about  seven  row-boats  were  now  engaged  in  he  hunt, 
the  others  having  retired  from  it,  among  the  few  which  still  followed  being  that  laid  hands  upon 
by  the  News  and  Courier  deputation.'  The  fish  turned  and  went  down  Hog  Island  Channel,  the 
oarsmen  pulling  steadily  and  cheerily  after  him. 

"Talk  of  sport!  What  sport  is  comparable  with  the  rush  through  the  water  after  such  huge 
game  as  this,  when  tired  muscles  forget  their  weariness  and  are  endowed  with  fresh  life  at  every 
sight  of  the  great  head  and  every  splash  of  the  monster's  body?  'Give  away!  Give  away  with  a 
will!'  And  with  oars  going,  the  gunwales  parting  the  smooth  water,  which  seemed  to  rush  by,  and 
every  nerve  and  sinew  tense  and  firm,  the  chase  followed,  no  one  knowing  fatigue  or  stopping  to 
measure  distances  iu  such  a  hunt.  At  last  the  boats  huddle  together,  and  spread  again  in  a  circle, 
as  the  fish  is  caught  up  with.  A  moment  and  he  appeal's,  and  in  that  moment  a  long-boat  shoots 
by  his  side,  and  the  man  in  the  bow,  cool  and  steady,  and  with  a  deliberation  that  looks  cruel, 
plunges  his  lance  into  the  mountain  of  flesh,  while  the  oars  are  backed  with  a  rush  and  surge,  and 
the  craft  glides  away.  Again  and  again  this  is  repeated,  the  lioats  moving  in  a  continual  semi- 
circle, hemming  the  great  fish  in,  and  forming  a  barrier,  which  he  could  burst  like  pack-thread  if 
he  knew  it,  to  the  deep  water  where  his  safety  and  rest  lie.  Slowly  he  works  out,  tacking  this 
way  and  that,  and  getting  the  merciless  steel  upon  almost  every  reappearance. 

"He  was  evidently  weakening  this  rime.  His  plunges  beneath  the  water  were  shorter  and 
shorter  in  duration,  and  he  seemed  to  gasp  for  breath  as  he  came  up.  At  last  a  bare-footed  sailor 
in  one  of  the  first  two  boats,  the  man  who  struck  the  first  blow  in  the  morning  (Garrison,  of  North 
Carolina),  drove  his  lance  home.  The  boat  backed  away,  but  there  was  no  need  for  it.  An  inert 
black  mass  lay  upon  the  surface,  moving  gently  with  the  motion  of  the  water.  Dead  at  last. 

"Then  the  boats  rushed  in  and  clustered  around  the  dead  giant.  The  Royal  Arch  came  up, 
and  from  her  deck  some  one  fired  a  rifle-ball  into  the  whale's  back.  There  was  something  like  a 
shudder,  a  feeble  serpentine  motion  of  the  body,  and  then  stillness.  This  was  just  at  sunset,  off 
Shem  Creek,  on  the  east  shore,  and  cheer  after  cheer  arose,  the  whistle  of  the  tug  joining  in  the 
triumphal  chorus.  Lines  were  quickly  made  fast  about  the  great  body,  and  it  was  towed  to  Sulli- 
van's Island,  where  it  will  remain  a  part  of  to-day. 

"  The  fish  is  a  '  right  whale.'  As  well  as  could  be  estimated  last  night  his  length  is  from  40  to 
50  feet,  and  the  thickness  of  his  body  from  10  to  15  feet.  His  captors  estimate  that  he  will  yield 
from  $600  to  $800  worth  of  oil.  When  examined  after  death  the  body  and  sides  of  the  monster 
•were  found  to  be  thickly  seamed  and  scarred  iu  every  direction  with  the  marks  of  the  lances, 
harpoons,  and  hooks,  showing  that  the  hunters  had  aimed  well." 

COAST  OF  CALIFORNIA. 

By  DAVID  S.  JORDAN. 

According  to  Captain  Scammon  "  shore-whaling  was  commenced  at  Monterey,  in  the  year 
1851,  by  Captain  Davenport,  formerly  a  whaling-master  of  much  experience  and  enterprise.  The 
whales  were  pursued  in  boats  from  the  shore,  and  when  captured  were  towed  to  the  beach  and 
flensed,  much  iu  the  same  manner,  doubtless,  as  it  had  been  done  by  our  New  England  whalers 
more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago.  At  the  point  where  the.  enormous  carcass  was 
stripped  of  its  fat,  arose  the  whaling-station,  where  try-pots  were  set  in  rude  furnaces,  formed  of 
rocks  and  clay,  and  capacious  vats  were  made  of  plauks,  to  receive  the  blubber.  Large  mincing- 
tubs,  with  mincing-horses  and  mincing-knives,  cutting-spades,  ladles,  bailers,  skimmers,  pikes,  and 
gaffs,  with  other  whaling  implements,  surrounded  the  try-works;  and  near  by,  a  low  structure, 


TIIK  WIIALK  F I  SHEET.  53 

covered  with  brushwood,  constituted  the  store-house  for  oil.  A  light  shanty,  with  four  com- 
partments, served  the  inupo.xe  of  wash  room,  drying-room,  store-room,  and  cooper's  shop,  and  a 
sort  of  capstans,  termed  -crabs,'  \MTC  used  in  lieu  of  tin- ship's  windlass,  whereli.y  the  falls  to  the 
heavy  cutting-tackles  were  hove  in,  when  fastened  to  the  blanket-piece,  which  served  to  roll  the 
massive  forms  of  the  captured  animals  on  the  beach  during  the  process  of  flensing." 

"From  tins  experiment  of  local  whaling,"  continues  Scammou,  "sprung  up  a  system  of  shore 
or  coast  whaling,  which  has  been  prosecuted  for  over  twenty  years  (1874),  and  which  extends 
from  Half-Moon  Bay  (latitude  .'!7°  30'),  on  the  north,  to  Point  Abauda  (latitude  32°  20'),  in  Lower 
California."  In  1874  there  were  "eleven  whaling  parties  scattered  along  this  belt  of  coast, 
located  at  Half-Moon  Bay,  Pigeon  Point,  Monterey  Bay  (two),  Carmel  Bay,  San  Simeon,  San 
Luis  Obispo,  Goleta,  Portuguese  Bend  (near  San  Pedro),  San  Diego,  and  Point  Abauda.  The 
organization  of  each  party  is  nearly  on  the  same  plan  as  that  of  the  whale-ship's  officers  and  crew, 
all  being  paid  a  certain  share,  or  'lay,'  which  corresponds  to  the  position  or  individual  services 
rendered  by  each  member.  A  'whaling  company,' as  it  is  termed,  consists  of  one  captain,  one 
mate,  a  cooper,  two  boat-steerers,  and  eleven  men  ;  from  these,  two  whale-boats  are  provided  with 
crews  of  six  men  each,  leaving  four  hands  on  shore,  who  take  their  turn  at  the  lookout  station,  to 
watch  for  whales,  and  attend  to  boiling  out  the  blubber  when  a  whale  is  caught.  The  stock  of 
the  company  consists  of  boats,  whaling  implements,  and  whaling  gear,  which  is  divided  into  six- 
teen equal  shares,  and  the  'lay'  of  each  member  is  the  same.  The  captain  and  mate,  however, 
are  paid  a  bonus  of  $200  or  $300  for  the  term  of  engagement,  which  is  one  year,  and  they  are  also 
exempt  from  all  expenses  of  the  company. 

"The  whaling  year  begins  on  the  1st  of  April,  this  being  about  the  time  that  the  California 
gray  whales  have  all  passed  toward  the  Arctic  Ocean,  and  the,  humpback  whales  begin  their 
noithern  passage.  The  cruisiug  limits  of  the  local  whalers  extend  from  near  the  shore  line  to  10 
miles  at  sea.  At  dawn  of  day  the  boats  may  be  seen,  careening  under  a  press  of  sail,  or  pro- 
pelled over  the  undulating  ground-swell  by  the  long  measured  strokes  of  oars,  until  they  reach 
the  usual  whaling-ground,  where  the  day  is  passed  plying  to  and  fro,  unless  the  objects  of  pursuit 
are  met  with.  Each  boat  is  furnished  with  Greener's  harpoon-gun,  mounted  at  the  bow,  besides 
tlie  bomb  gun  in  general  use,  which  imparts  to  fhem  more  of  a  military  appearance  than  the  usual 
aspect  of  a  whaling  craft.  Generally,  whales  are  first  seen  from  the  boats,  but  occasionally  they 
aie  discovered  by  the  man  on  watch  at  the  station,  who  signals  to  the  boats  by  means  of  a  flag 
elevated  upon  a  pole,  with  which  he  runs  toward  the  quarter  where  the  whales  are  seen ;  or  a 
Belies  of  signals  are  made  from  a  tall  flag  staif. 

"  The  cetaceous  animals  frequenting  the  coast,  having  been  so  long  and  constantly  pursued, 
are  exceedingly  wild  and  difficult  to  approach,  and  were  it  not  for  the  utility  of  Greener's  gun 
the  coast  fishery  would  be  abandoned,  it  being  now  next  to  impossible  to  '  strike'  with  the  hand- 
harpoon.  At  the  present  time  (1874)  if  the  whale  can  be  approached  within  30  yards  it  is  con- 
sidered to  be  in  reach  of  the  gun-hai-poon.  "When  the  gunner  fires,  if  he  hits  his  game,  the  next 
effort  made  is  to  haul  up  near  enough  to  shoot  a  bomb-lance  into  a  vital  part,  which,  if  it  explodes, 
completes  the  capture;  but  if  the  first  bomb  i'ails  the  second  or  third  one  does  the  fatal  work. 
The  prize  is  then  towed  to  the  station,  and,  if  it  be  night,  it  is  secured  to  one  of  the  buoys,  placed  for 
the  purpose,  a  little  way  from  the  surf,  where  it  remains  until  daylight,  or  until  such  time  as  it  is 
wanted  to  be  stripped  of  its  blubber.  The  whales  generally  taken  by  the  shore  parties  are  hump- 
backs and  California  grays;  but  occasionally  a  right  whale,  a  finback,  or  a  sulphur-bottom  ia 
captured. 


54  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHEEIES. 

"  The  localities  of  several  of  the  stations  are  quite  picturesque.  Some  of  them  are  nearly 
concealed  from  seaward  view,  being  inside  some  rocky  reef,  or  behind  a  jagged  point,  with  its  out- 
lyiug  rocks,  upon  which  each  successive  wave  dashes  its  foam,  as  if  forbidding  the  approach  of 
ship  or  boat.  The  one  which  most  interested  us  is  half  hidden  in  a  little  nook,  on  the  southern 
border  of  the  Bay  of  Carmel,  just  south  of  Point  Pinos.  Scattered  around  the  foothills,  which 
come  to  the  water's  edge,  are  the  neatly  whitewashed  cabins  of  the  whalers,  nearly  all  of  whom 
are  Portuguese,  from  the  Azores  or  Western  Islands  of  the  Atlantic.  They  have  their  families  with 
iliem,  and  keep  a  pig,  sheep,  goat,  or  cow  prowling  around  the  premises;  these,  with  a  small 
garden-patch,  yielding  principally  corn  and  pumpkins,  make  up  the  general  picture  of  the  hamlet, 
which  is  a  paradise  to  the  thrifty  clan  in  comparison  with  the  homes  of  their  childhood.  It  is  a 
pleasant  retreat  from  the  rough  voyages  experienced  on  board  the  whale-ship.  The  surrounding 
natural  scenery  is  broken  into  majestic  spurs  and  peaks,  like  their  own  native  isles,  with  the 
valley  of  the  Rio  Carmel  a  little  beyond,  expanded  into  landscape  loveliness. 

"  Under  a  precipitous  bluff,  close  to  the  water's  edge,  is  the  station,  where,  upon  a  stone-laid 
quay,  is  erected  the  whole  establishment  for  cutting-iu  and  trying-out  the  blubber  of  the  whales. 
Instead  of  rolling  them  upon  the  beach,  as  is  usually  done,  the  cutting-tackles  are  suspended  from 
an  elevated  beam,  whereby  the  carcass  is  rolled  over  in  the  water — when  undergoing  the  process 
of  flensing — in  a  manner  similar  to  that  alongside  a  ship.  Near  by  are  the  try- works,  sending 
forth  volumes  of  thick  black  smoke  from  the  scrap-fire  under  the  steaming  caldrons  of  boiling  oil 
A  little  to  one  side  is  the  primitive  storehouse,  covered  with  cypress  boughs.  Boats  are  hang- 
ing from  davits,  some  resting  on  the  quay,  while  others,  fully  equipped,  swing  at  their  moorings  in 
the  bay.  Seaward,  on  the  crest  of  a  cone-shaped  hill,  stands  the  signal-pole  of  the  lookout  station. 
Add  to  this  the  cutting  at  the  shapeless  and  half-putrid  mass  of  a  mutilated  whale,  together  with 
the  men  shouting  and  heaving  on  the  capstans,  the  screaming  of  gulls  and  other  sea  fowl,  mingled 
with  the  noise  of  the  surf  about  the  shores,  and  we  have  a  picture  of  the  general  life  at  a  California 
coast-whaling  station."* 

In  1879  shore  whale-fisheries  were,  or  had  lately  been,  in  operation  at  the  following  points  on 
the  coast  of  California : 

(a)  Santo  Tomas,  in  Lower  California,  about  35  miles  south  of  San  Diego. 

(I)  Cojo  Viejo,  in  Santa  Barbara  County,  just  south  of  Point  Conception  and  51  miles  west  of 
Santa  Barbara. 

(c)  Port  Starford,  in  San  Luis  Obispo  County. 

(d)  San  Simeon,  in  San  Luis  Obispo  County. 

(e)  Carmelo  Bay,  in  Monterey  County. 
(/)  Monterey,  in  Monterey  County. 

There  have  been  whale-fisheries  also  at  the  following  points : 

(a)  Ballast  Point,  at  San  Diego. 

(b)  Dead  Man's  Island,  in  San  Pedro  Bay,  Los  Angeles  County. 

(c)  Portuguese  Bend,  just  north  of  San  Pedro  Bay,  n  Los  Angeles  County. 

(d)  Goleta  or  Moore's  Lauding,  8  miles  west  of  Santa  Barbara,  in  the  same  county. 

(e)  Point  Sur,  in  San  Luis  Obispo  County. 
(/)  Pigeon  Point,  in  San  Mateo  County. 
(g)  Half-Moon  Bay,  in  San  Mateo  County. 

*  SCA.MMON  :    Marine  Mammalia,  pp.  247-250. 


THK  WFIAU-;   FISH  KEY.  55 

The  first  shore- whaling  camp  on  the  California  coast  was  established  by  Capt.  Joseph  Clark 
near  Monterey,  about  the  year  1851.*  From  Monterey  Captain  Clark  went  to  San  Diego  and 
thence  to  Portuguese  Bend.  He  went  to  San  Simeon  about  1864. 

Capt.  Frank  Anderson,  who  is  said  to  be  now  the  most  experienced  whaling  captain  on  the 
coast,  is  a  nat  ive  of  the  Azores  Islands,  his  Portuguese  name  having  been  dropped  on  naturalization 
in  the  United  States,  as  is  the  general  custom  among  the  natives  of  the  Azores.  He  was  at  first  a 
whaler  on  ships  from  New  Bedford,  then  came  to  California  in  1866,  .and  since  1873  he  has  had 
charge  of  whaling-camps  as  captain.  He  was  at  San  Luis  Obsipo  until  1874,  at  Portuguese 
Bend  till  1877,  and  at  Pigeon  Point  till  1879,  when  he  with  his  entire  company  removed  to  Cojo 
Viejo. 

Tho  San  Diego  fishery  was  established  by  Captain  Clark  about  1858.  In  1869  the  whalers 
were  driven  off  from  Ballast  Point  in  January,  the  laud  being  taken  for  Government  purposes. 
The  company  lost  the  rest  of  that  year;  then  they  went  to  Santo  Tomas,  in  Mexico,  at  which  point 
a  company  has  been  most  of  the  time  subsequently,  but  Captain  Anderson  is  informed  that  they 
have  now  suspended.  Before  the  arrival  of  this  party  at  Santo  Touias,  another  party,  under  Cap- 
tain Price,  had  been  there  in  1864  and  1865.  The  Mexican  Government  charged  a  fee  of  about 
$50  annually,  and  the  United  States  customs  officers  at  San  Francisco  admitted  the  oil  free  of  duty, 
although  shipped  from  a  Mexican  port,  "in  consideration  of  the  fact  that  they  were  Americans 
and  poor  men  who  worked  for  their  living."  This  privilege  was  afterwards  refused  to  certain  San 
Francisco  capitalists. 

In  1866  a  station  existed  for  a  short  time  on  Dead  Man's  Island,  a  circular  rock  rising  in  Sail 
Pedro  Bay. 

Portuguese  Bend  is  an  unusually  good  station  for  winter  whaling,  although  little  comes  there 
m  summer.  While  there  Mr.  Anderson  used  to  work  only  in  winters.  In  the  three  winters, 
December  to  April,  spent  there,  2,166  barrels  of  oil  were  obtained. 

Pigeon  Point  has  many  summer  whales,  but  the  water  is  too  rough  in  winter.  The  first  year 
1,000  barrels  were  obtained ;  the  second  year  564.  In  1877,  in  the  month  of  September,  a  whale 
120  feet  long  is  reported  by  the  New  Bedford  Standard  to  have  been  "  towed  into  Pigeon  Point 
for  the  whaling  company,  making  two  whales  at  anchor  at  that  port." 

Goleta  was  not  a  very  good  station.  The  camp  came  about  1870  and  broke  up  in  1878. 
There  were  three  companies  there  in  all,  the  first  of  Jamaica  negroes.  One  winter  450  barrels 
were  obtained  there. 

Whaling  was  practiced  is  Los  Angeles  County  for  a  time,  but  was  discontinued  in  1876. 

The  following  species  of  whales  are  found  on  the  Pacific  coast: 

(1)  Sperm  whale,  not  taken  by  shore  camps. 

(2)  Humpback  whale,  or  summer  whale. 

(3)  Gray  whale,  or  devil  fish,  so  called  because  it  fights  harder  than  the  others. 

(4)  Bight  whale,  not  often  seen. 

(5)  Sulphur-bottom  whale  (Sibbaldius  sulfureux  Cope).    Large,  80  to  110  feet  long.    Twelve 
of  them  were  taken  at  Pigeon  Point,  but  none  yet  at  Cojo.    They  pass  by  going  north  in  April 
and  south  in  the  fall.    They  are  hard  to  hold  or  tow,  because  when  dead  the  under  jaw  drops 
down. 

(6)  Finback.    Two  struck  at  Cojo,  but  lost  in  deep  water.    They  are  very  slim,  with  but 
little  blubber,  100  to  120  feet  long,  and  make  about  30  barrels  of  oil. 

*  Scauimcm  says  the  nrat  caiup  was  established  by  Captain  Davenport,  at  Mouterey,  in  1851. 


56  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

(7)  Bowheacl,  seen  only  in  Arctic  regions. 

(S)  Russian  wbale.     Scarce  and  only  in  Arctic  regions.     Very  large. 

The  humpback  whale  goes  north  in  summer,  returning  in  the  fall.  Some  migrate  as  far  as 
Alaska,  but  many  not  beyond  Point  Concepcion.  This  is  therefore  almost  the  only  species  taken 
in  summer.  Four  have  been  taken  at  Cojo  this  year.  The  cows  are  about  50  feet  long,  and  the  bull 
whales  about  45.  The  former  produce  about  70  barrels  of  oil,  the  bulls  about  half  as  much.  The 
four  taken  at  Cojo  produced  14S  barrels  of  oil.  This  species  was  formerly  much  more  abundant  than 
now.  Since  187.3  it  has  become  quite  scarce.  The  whalebone  of  this  species  is  black,  but  of  little 
value;  said  to  be  worth  .045  per  pound  in  Japan,  but  not  worth  snipping.  The  oil  of  this  species 
is  white  and  quite  thick.  The  reddish  and  thinner  oil  of  the  gray  whale  sells  more  readily,  but 
both  bring  the  same  price.  The  oil  of  the  sulphur-bottom  whale  is  like  lard,  and  becomes  solid 
iu  cold  weather.  All  these  oils  are  chiefly  used  in  rope-making;  some  of  it  in  leather  working. 
The  oil  made  from  blabber  is  more  valuable  than  that  taken  from  the,  inside,  and  is  kept  sep- 
arate from  the  latter.  The  gray  whale  is  usually  about  45  feet  long,  the  bulls  35.  They  gen- 
erally follow  the  line  of  the  edge  of  the  kelp  in  going  southward.  There  are  usually  two  or  three 
together.  "  They  feed  on  sardines  and  shrimps."  They  go  southward  from  December  to  February 
to  calve  in  the  Gulf  of  California.  Then  they  return  northward  from  the  latter  part  of  February 
to  May.  The  most  of  February  is  a  "slack  time,"  when  few  are  seen.  When  they  return  north- 
ward the  cows  and  calves  usually  keep  well  out  to  sea,  the  bulls  farther  toward  shore.  The 
whalebone  of  this  species  is  white,  scanty,  and  worthless.  A  gray  cow  whale  sometimes  yields 
about  90  barrels  of  oil ;  a  bull  less  than  half  as  much. 

CAMP  AT  COJQ  VIEJO. — The  company  consists  of  twenty  men  in  winter  and  eighteen  iu 
summer.  Fifteen  of  these  constitute  the  management,  own  the  property,  and  share  the  proceeds 
equally.  Captain  Anderson  is  employed  by  these,  receiving  $100  in  cash  and  one-seventeenth  of 
all  receipts  (above  freights  ;md  commission).  There  are  two  others  receiving  one  thirty-fifth  of 
the  proceeds,  one  one-fortieth,  and  another  one  fifty-fifth.  Two  Chinamen  also  accompany  the 
camp,  receiving  for  their  services  the  sinews  of  the  whale,  which  are  shipped  to  China,  supposably 
for  soup.  These  sinews  used  to  sell  at  50  cents  per  pound  to  the  Chinese  in  San  Francisco,  then 
at  40  cents,  and  afterwards  there  was  no  market.  They  are  now  worth  about  25  cents  per  pound 
in  San  Francisco,  and  are  said  to  sell  at  $1  per  pound  iu  China.  There  are  20  to  30  pounds  of 
sinews  in  a  whale. 

The  whole  company  at  Cojo  came  originally  from  the  Azores,  with  the  exception  of  two  or 
three  from  the  Madeiras.  The  same  persons  constituted  the  company  on  Pigeon  Point.  The  com- 
pany have  built  for  themselves  a  large  house,  in  which  they  eat  and  sleep,  and  store  their  guns 
and  harpoons.  Beside  this,  the  captain,  who  is  accompanied  by  his  wife,  has  a  separate  smaller 
house,  and  the  Chinese  another  after  their  fashion.  These  are  on  a  bluff  above  the  beach.  On  a 
cliff  above  is  a  signal-port,  where  two  men  watch  for  whales.  On  the  beach  below  are  the  kettles 
for  trying  the  oil,  the  barrels,  and  other  things  of  that  sort.  In  a  little  laguna  are  the  two  whale- 
boats  not  in  use. 

The  entire  outfit  cost  about  $2,000,  exclusive  of  the  houses,  &c.  The  total  expenses  of  the  camp 
are  $4,000  to  $5,000  yearly.  There  are  four  whaling-boats,  two  being  iu  use  each  half  of  the  year, 
while  the  others  are  being  repaired,  painted,  &c.  These  were  made  in  New  Bedford,  where  they 
cost  $145  each,  but  cost  $200  at  San  Francisco.  The  outfit  of  a  boat  when  ready  to  attack  a 
whale  is  worth  about  $600.  It  consists  of  eight  bomb-lances,  two  harpoons,  one  200-fathoin  line, 
two  guns,  a  swivel-gun,  worth  $200,  for  the  harpoons  and  large  bombs,  and  a  smaller  gun,  worth 
$55,  for  the  bomb-lances.  The  smaller  bomb-lances  are  made  in  Norway,  and  come  twenty-five  in 


THE  WHALK  FISH  KRY.  57 

a  box,  at  $94  per  box.  These  are  shot  at  the  whale  from  a  short  thick  gun,  held  at  the  shoulder. 
They  explode  in  the  flesh  of  the  whale,  ''disgusting  him,"  but  not  usually  killing  him.  Of  the 
sixteen  gray  whales  thus  far  taken  at  Cojo,  there  was  hut  one  which  did  not  have  scars  from 
bomb-lance  wounds.  The  whales  are  becoming  so  shy,  Ihat  these  things  can  rarely  be  shot  closely 
enough  to  prove  effectual.  These  bomb-lances  are  a  little  over  a  foot  long.  A  much  larger  bomb- 
lance,  holding  a  pound  of  powder,  invented  by  Anderson,  and  made  for  him  in  Norway,  is  used 
by  this  camp.  It  is  tired  from  the  swivel-gun,  and  usually  kills  the  whale.  They  cost  $5  each. 

The  harpoons  are  usually  much  more  effectual.  The  sort  used,  differing  somewhat  from  any  in 
use  in  the  Atlantic,  is  manufactured  in  Cambria,  in  San  Luis  Obispo  County.  A  rope  is  fastened 
to  this,  and  it  is  shot  from  the  large  swivel-gun  at  the  whale.  These  harpoons  tired  from  guns 
have  been  iu  use  on  the  coast  since  about  1868;  the  Cambria  harpoon  by  Anderson  since  about 
1S72.  The  harpoons  cost  $9  each.  Some  of  them  have  been  used  five  times,  but  occasionally 
one  is  hopelessly  bent,  or  the  rope  holding  it  is  broken.  The  swivel-gun  is  made  in  England.  It 
is  placed  in  the  bow  of  the  boat;  sometimes  men  are  killed  by  the  recoil.  One  man  in  Ander- 
son's camp  was  kicked  iu  the  chest  by  it  and  died  of  hemorrhage.  The  harpoon  weighs  7  to  9 
pounds,  the  rope  about  37  pounds.  The  gnu  will  not  shoot  well  more  than  150  feet,  the  deflec- 
tion of  the  projectile  preventing  it  from  striking  squarely  at  a  greater  distance.  At  a  distance  of 
more  than  90  feet  it  is  necessary  to  aim  above  the  whale.  Unless  the  whale  is  held  by  a  line,  it  is 
likely  to  sink  when  dead,  and  in  rough  weather  it  is  hard  to  prevent  them  from  sinking  even 
when  so  held.  Harpoons  are  thrown  by  hand  only  when  necessary  to  hold  up  dead  whales.  The 
whale-lines  are  brought  from  Xew  Bedford. 

The  company  arrived  at  Cojo  from  Pigeon  Point  April  25,  1879,  and  devoted  the  following 
summer  to  getting  ready  for  work.  The  following  are  the  dates  when  whales  were  caught ;  hump- 
back whales,  October  18  and  24,  two  on  each  day  ;  California  gray  whales,  on  December  14,21.  24, 
28,  and  29.  January  5,  9,  10,  12  (two  whales),  14,  17,  21.  22,  25,  February  1 ;  making  a  total  of 
twenty  whales  up  to  February  14.  A  camp  is  considered  to  do  well  if  obtaining  fifteen  whales 
per  year.  The  reut  of  the  land,  with  privilege  of  garden,  cow-pasture,  and  firewood,  is  usually 
about  $100  per  year,  but  is  only  $1  at  Cojo. 

The  oil  is  barreled,  and  being  rolled  into  the  surf  is  taken  on  a  lighter  and  transferred  to  a 
San  Francisco  steamer  and  consigned  to  parties  in  San  Francisco  for  sale.  On  January  23  there 
were  shipped  3,285  gallons;  February  2,  13,534i  gallons;  now  on  hand,  315  gallons ;  total  prod- 
uct, April  to  February,  17,134i  gallons,  worth  about  45  cents  per  gallon  in  San  Francisco.  The 
bones  of  the  whale  are  worth  about  $10  per  ton  for  soap-making  in  San  Francisco,  but  their 
shipment  from  Cojo  is  not  considered  profitable. 

CARMELO  CAMP. — At  the  south  end  of  the  Bay  of  Carmelo  is  a  whaling-camp,  consisting  of 
seventeen  men  all  told ;  all  Portuguese,  from  Azores  Islands,  commanded  by  Captain  Mariano. 
The  outfit  is  owned  by  a  company  of  four,  of  whom  Mariano  is  one,  and  the  rest  are  outside 
parties.  The  other  sixteen  are  hired  on  different  lays,  averaging  one-fiftieth.  The  captain  receives 
one-fifteenth.  During  the  past  year  they  have  caught  three  humpback,  one  finback,  and  three 
gray  whales,  one  of  the  humpback  whales  iu  the  spring,  which  is  unusual.  Two  hundred  barrels 
of  oil  have  been  obtained,  the  finback  yielding  .'ill  barrels  of  a  lighter  oil,  but  selling  for  no  more. 
This  company  runs  from  October  to  March  only,  the  men  then  disbanding  and  going  elsewhere. 
They  have  two  whaling-boats  only,  and  use  the  harpoons  made  by  (T.  W.  I'roctor.  at  Cambria  or 
San  Marcos,  and  also  sometimes  those  made  by  Merritt,  in  Monterey.  Carmelo  is  a  very  good 
whaling-station,  inferior  to  Monterey  only,  but  there  is  not  so  good  a  chance  for  long  chases  of 
whales.  Three  right  whales  were  seen  this  year,  but  none  caught.  Last  year  Mariano's  company 


58  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THF   FISHERIES. 

was  at  Point  Sor,  farther  south  in  Monterey  County.  There  are  many  whales  at  Point  Sur,  but 
the  coast  is  very  rugged  and  the  sea  runs  very  high,  so  that  for  much  of  the  winter  the  boats  had 
to  be  hauled  out  of  the  water  and  the  men  dared  not  venture  out.  In  1878-'79  at  Point  Sur,  one 
humpback,  three  gray,  and  a  right  whale  were  taken,  and  in  1877-'7#,  at  Point  Sur,  one  gray  and 
one-sulphur  bottom.  One  large  man-eater  shark  (Carcharodon  rondeleti)  was  taken  by  the  whalers 
at  Oarmelo  last  year. 

MONTEKEY  WHALING  COMPANY. — Another  whaling-camp  is  at  Monterey.  This  consists  of 
twenty-three  men  all  told,  all  Portuguese,  and  all  but  one  from  the  Azores.  This  company  has 
no  captain,  but  their  most  efficient  man,  Mr.  Verissimo,  is  made  secretary,  having  charge  of  all 
business  and  receiving  no  salary.  The  three  boat-headers  in  the  company  receive  a  lay  of  one 
twenty-third,  the  cook  is  hired  outright,  and  the  residue  of  receipts  are  divided  equally  among  the 
other  nineteen  who  own  the  outfit.  This  company,  with  changing  membership,  has  been  in 
Monterey  since  1855.  Verissimo  has  been  here  since  1867.  This  year  fourteen  whales  have  been 
obtained  from  September  to  April — seven  gray  whales  (three  down  and  four  up  whales),  six  hump- 
back whales,  and  one  right  whale — besides  two  basking  sharks  (Cetorhinus  ma^imus);  in  all  500 
barrels  of  whale-oil  and  8  of  shark-oil. 

The  basking  shark  is  rare  here,  sometimes  not  seen  for  twenty  years.  This  year  several  were 
seen  in  Monterey  Bay.  "  When  a  man  is  on  the  lookout  for  whales  he  can't  see  sharks."  The 
sharks  come  to  the  surface  at  times,  and  remain  quiet  for  a  while,  and  their  "  flukes  "  and  dorsal 
fins  may  be  seen  by  one  who  is  watching.  The  shark-oil  should  be  worth  60  to  75  cents  a  gallon, 
each  shark  yielding  125  gallons.  In  1878-'79  one  humpback  and  three  gray  whales  were  taken, 
making  185  barrels  of  oil,  and  in  1877-'7S  eight  whales,  making  500  barrels.  Years  ago  this  busi- 
ness paid  better,  for  whales  were  more  abundant,  and  higher  prices  were  paid  for  the  oil. 

This  company  own  three  good  boats,  New  Bedford  made,  and  four  guns  of  each  kind.  Their 
harpoons  are  mostly  made  by  Merritt,  a  blacksmith  in  Monterey.  They  are  thought  superior  to 
Proctor's,  in  that  they  are  less  likely  to  slip  out  of  the  whale ;  the  posterior  flange  of  the  head  is 
wider.  With  one  of  them  nineteen  whales  have  been  shot.  They  are  made  of  Swiss  iron,  and 
cost  $10  each. 

The  Monterey  Democrat  thus  describes  the  dangers  of  shore- whaling  in  that  vicinity :  "  On 
Friday  of  last  week  the  crew  of  one  of  our  whale-boats  narrowly  escaped  total  destruction.  They 
had  struck  and  made  fast  to  a  California  gray,  a  species  particularly  vicious,  and  were  approaching 
him  for  a  shot  with  the  bomb-gun.  There  were  a  lot  of  porpoises  around  the  creature,  which  sud- 
denly appeared  to  be  '  gallied '  by  them,  and  paused  in  his  race.  The  boat  under  sail  and  running 
swiftly,  got,  unawares,  within  the  sweep  of  the  leviathan's  tail,  and  when  the  shot  was  delivered 
a  stroke  in  response  from  that  tremendous  creature  crushed  like  an  egg-shell  the  timbers  of  its  bow. 
The  sea  rushed  in  through  the  fracture,  and  the  boat  being  weighted  down  with  her  crew,  an 
anchor,  and  two  heavy  guns,  sank  below  the  surface.  The  captain  had  been  struck  in  the  side  by 
a  fragment  of  the  broken  timbers,  and  was  almost  paralyzed.  In  the  confusion,  for  a  moment  or 
two,  no  one  thought  to  cut  the  rope  by  which  the  fish  was  fast,  and  it  had  resumed  its  fight.  A 
tragedy  was  imminent,  but  luckily  the  captain  recovering  himself,  ordered  the  rope  to  be  cut,  and 
the  immediate  and  most  pressing  danger  was  escaped.  The  peril  was,  however,  still  considerable. 
Two  of  the  crew  could  not  swim,  and  they  were  all  immersed  to  their  necks  in  ice-cold  water. 
Once  or  twice  the  boat  rolled  over,  and  they  were  in  that  perilous  condition  for  half  an  hour  before 
their  consort,  which  was  at  some  distance,  heard  their  cries,  and  came  to  their  rescue." 

The  following  item  about  whaling  at  Monterey  appeared  in  the  Monterey  Calif ornian: 


TIIK  WHALE   FISHKUY.  59 

"Last  week  our  Portuguese  fishermen  killed  a  large  female  whale  of  the  California  gray 
species  (Rhackianectes  ylni/cits),  about  GO  feet  in  length,  being  some  22  feet  larger  than  has  ever 
been  killed  here  before — the  average  of  females  killed  being  about  42  feet.  After  cutting  off  the 
blubber  they  found  inside  a  nearly  full-grown  male  calf,  which  measured  18  feet  from  the  end  of  its 
nose  to  the  tip  of  its  tail,  or  fluke,  as  the  whalers  call  it;  the  circumference  of  the  body  at  its 
center  9  feet ;  the  head  about  4  feet  in  length;  pectoral  tins  3  feet;  breadth  of  tail  3|  feet,  and  it 
had  two  ridges  on  the  lower  jaw.  When' brought  on  shore  it  still  had  3  feet  of  the  umbilical  cord 
attached  to  it.  The  whalebone  on  its  upper  jaw  was  soft  and  white;  the  tongue  large  and  soft; 
the  eyes  nearly  full  size,  about  as  large  as  a  cow's,  and  the  skin  was  of  a  dark  brown,  mottled 
white.  It  had  no  dorsal  fin.  The  females,  when  with  young,  generally  keep  off  shore  when  on 
their  way  down  south,  to  bring  them  forth  in  the  warm  waters  of  the  bays  of  Lower  California, 
where  they  remain  all  winter  and  go  north  in  the  spring.  The  females,  when  with  calf,  are  danger- 
ous, as  they  often  attack  the  boats  of  the  whalers.  The  writer  once  saw  a  boat  cut  completely  in 
two  by  the  flukes  of  one  of  these  whales,  and  it  looked  as  if  it  had  been  chopped  in  two  by  a  dull 
ax  ;  and  several  of  the  men  were  wounded.  The  term  of  gestation  is  about  one  year.  Formerly 
these  marine  monsters  were  so  numerous  in  Monterey  Bay  that  whalers  would  fill  up  lying  at 
anchor.  Oftentimes  they  would  be  seen  playing  in  the  surf  and  rolling  the  barnacles  out  of  their 
sides  and  backs  on  the  sand  beach — an  odd  way  of  scratching  themselves." 

SAN  SIMEON  WHALING  COMPANY. — The  men  in  this  company  are  all  Portuguese  but  one, 
and  most  of  them  are  from  the  Azores  Islands.  Captain  Clark  (nee  Machado)  is  from  the  Azores, 
whence  he  shipped  as  a  seaman  to  the  United  States.  He  began  whale-fishing  at  Monterey,  where 
an  American,  Captain  Davenport,  the  first  California  shore- whale  fisher,  was  engaged  before  him. 
In  1858  he  began  whaling  at  San  Diego.  In  1864  he  was  at  Portuguese  Bend,  and  in  1805 
started  the  San  Simeon  Camp,  where  he  has  ever  since  remained. 

There  are  twenty  men  in  the  camp  at  San  Simeon.  They  are  hired  by  Captain  Clark,  who 
owns  the  entire  outfit.  The  boat-pullers  receive  one-fiftieth  of  the  lay  (i.  e.,  all  receipts),  ihe 
boat-steerers  receive  one-fortieth,  and  the  strikers  one-sixteenth. 

Thirteen  whales  have  been  taken  this  season  (up  to  February  21).  One  summer  whale  or 
humpback,  November  15 ;  the  others  all  gray  whales.  No  other  kinds  have  ever  been  secured  by 
Clark,  and  the  humpback  whale  is  not  taken  later  than  December. 

The  last  whale  southward  bound  was  taken  January  29,  and  a  few  northward-bound  whales 
have  been  noticed — about  February  IS,  the  first  February  7. 

The  following  is  the  record  of  the  number  taken  each  year  at  San  Simeon  :  1865  to  1871,  20 
to  25  each  year,  never  less;  1872,  21  ;  1873,  22  ;  1874,  16;  1875,  12;  1876,  7;  1877,  13  ;  1878,  3; 
1879,  14=500  barrels;  1880,  13+. 

It  takes  about  ten  or  twelve  whales  per  year  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  camp,  especially  now 
when  oil  is  so  low.  Four  hundred  and  fifty  barrels  of  oil  have  been  obtained  this  year  and  shipped 
to  Charles  Sealy,  of  San  Francisco,  to  be  sold  on  commission.  Since  1865  the  whales  have  been 
growing  more  scarce  and  more  shy.  When  they  return  from  the  South  they  keep  out  farther  than 
when  they  come  down.  The  sea  is  often  rougher,  and  the  head  winds  render  it  difficult  to  follow 
them.  They  rarely  take  more  than  four  return  whales.  At  San  Diego  only  gray  whales,  and 
rarely  a  right  whale,  are  taken. 

The  camp  is  provided  with  four  whale-boats  made  in  New  Bedford,  costing  $200,  $175,  $150, 
and  $150  each.  Two  are  in  use  for  whaling  and  one  for  towing  all  the  time,  the  other  rests.  There 
are  also  two  swivel-guns,  made  in  England,  each  costing  $200;  two  bomb-guns,  made  in  New 
Haven  (T),  costing  $50;  and  some  bomb-lances,  made  in  Norway.  The  harpoons  are  made  by  G. 


60  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

W.  Proctor,  formerly  of  Cambria,  now  of  San  Marcos,  San  Luis  Obispo  County.  Mr.  Proctor  is  a 
blacksmith.  He  began  making  harpoons  in  1870  or  1871.  The  first  one  made  was  presented 
to  Captain  Clark,  who  struck  three  whales  witli  it  and  then  put  it  up  to  keep  for  luck.  Mr.  Proc- 
tor has  no  patent  on  the  harpoons,  and  no  warerooms  or  factory.  He  makes  them  out  of  the  very 
best  iron,  better  than  that  used  in  the  English  harpoon.  They  are  heavier  thau  the  latter,  and 
the  posterior  part  of  the  head  is  made  thick,  instead  of  thin  and  sharp.  There  is  also  a  little  con- 
trivance by  which  the  turning  of  the  head  in  the  flesh  is  made  more  certain.  They  are  now  used  by 
nearly  all  the  California  whalers,  and  are  considered  by  them  as  better  and  more  durable  than  the 
others.  The  harpoons  are  used  for  making  fast  to  the  whale;  the  bombs  for  killing.  Often  flint 
lance-heads  and  bone  harpoons  of  the  Eskimos  are  found  in  the  whales,  and  very  few  of  them  are 
unscathed.  The  neighboring  Chinamen  help  when  a  whale  is  brought  in,  receiving  the  sinews 
for  their  share.  The  total  outfit  is  worth  $1,000  to  $1,500;  the  houses  about  $300. 

Whales  going  down  are  fatter  than  when  returning.  A  south-bound  whale  makes  perhaps 
35  barrels  of  oil,  but  a  north  bound  only  25  barrels.  Mostly  bull  whales  are  taken.  On  the  south 
journey  the  larger  cows  come  nearest  shore  and  first.  When  they  return  the  cows  and  calves  are 
farthest  out,  the  bulls  and  dry  cows  near  shore. 

Portuguese  Bend  was  once  a  good  whaling-station,  but  lacked  wood  and  water.  San  Diego 
was  an  excellent  station  until  the  only  suitable  place  was  taken  by  the  Government.  Santo  Tomas 
is  a  good  place  from  the  chance  of  taking  sperm  whales. 

PORT  STAKFOED  CAMP. — This  camp  is  located  on  "  Whaler's  Point,"  about  a  mile  north  of 
the  landing  at  "Port  Stafford."  This  camp  consists  of  21  men,  all  but  one  Portuguese,  and  mostly 
from  the  Azores.  To  the  American,  Michael  Noon,  I  am  indebted  for  the  information  obtained, 
Captain  Marshall  (Marsiali)  being  away.  The  property  is  owned  by  four  or  five  shareholders,  the 
captain  being  one  of  them  and  the  others  are  hired  by  these,  each  man  receiving  a  particular  lay, 
the  oarsmen  one  sixty-fifth  to  one-seventieth,  the  boat-steerers  one  thirty-fifth  to  one-fortieth,  the 
strikers  one-seventeenth  to  one-twentieth.  The  station  is  usually  fairly  good  but  this  year  they 
have  had  poor  luck;  only  four  whales,  all  gray,  having  been  secured.  In  1879  nine,  in  1878 
eleven  were  taken.  Most  of  these  were  gray;  though  a  few  humpbacks  were  taken  in  the  fall. 
One  hundred  and  fifty  barrels  of  oil  have  been  shipped  to  San  Francisco  from  this  camp.  They 
have  three  whale-boats  here  made  at  New  Bedford.  The  other  items  of  outfit  are  the  same  as  at 
San  Simeon.  The  whole  cost  about  $1,500,  and  would  sell  for  about  half  that  amount. 

Captain  Marshall  established  the  station  here,  and  has  been  in  charge  all  the  time  since  its 
beginning  in  1868  or  1809.  The  men  in  this  company,  as  at  San  Simeon,  are  discharged  in  the 
summer,  and  a  new  set  hired  each  fall,  many  of  them  different.  Some  of  its  members  are  engaged 
in  summer  in  fishing  for  the  market  of  San  Luis  Obispo. 

STATISTICAL  RECAPITULATION. — The  aggregate  amount  of  oil  taken  by  the  several  shore  par- 
ties, prior  to  1874,  is  estimated  by  Scammon  at  not  less  than  95,600  barrels;  of  this  amount  75,600 
barrels  were  obtained  from  California  gray  whales,  and  20,000  barrels  from  humpbacks,  finbacks, 
and  sulphur-bottoms.  "The  value,  of  the  oil  may  be  placed  at  about  $13  a  barrel,  which  would  give 
a  gross  of  about  $1,242,800,  or  an  annual  product  for  twenty-two  years  of  $56,490.  To  obtain  this 
oil  not  less  than  2,160  California  grays  and  800  humpbacks  and  other  whalebone  whales  were 
robbed  of  their  fatty  coverings.  If  we  add  to  this  one-fifth  for  the  number  of  whales  that  escaped 
their  pursuers,  although  mortally  wounded,  or  were  lost  after  being  killed,  either  by  sinking  in 
deep  water  or  through  stress  of  weather,  we  shall  swell  the  catalogue  to  3,552.  To  this  add  one- 
eighth  for  unborn  young,  and  the  whole  number  of  animals  destroyed  would  be  3,996,  or  about 
181  annually.  This  may  be  regarded  as  a  low  estimate ;  doubtless,  the  number  of  these  creatures 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  61 

destroyed  every  year  by  the  enterprising  California  whalemen  far  exceeds  the  above  estimate."* 
The  production  of  the  various  whaling-camps  in  1ST!)  was  ii;5  whales,  yielding  58,084  gallons  of  oil, 
valued  at  si'iU.'lT.SO.  The  total  number  of  men  engaged  at  the  camps  was  101,  nearly  all  of  whom 

were  Portuguese. 

SlIOin'.-WHALINCf   BY   ESKIMOS   AND   INDIANS. 

The  Eskimos  of  Alaska  capture  whales  of  several  species,  using  their  flesh  for  food  and  from 
the  blubber  preparing  oil  for  domestic  use.  The  whalebone  is  saved  and  traded  with  the  whaling- 
vessels  coming  along  those  shores  in  the  summer  season.  The  beluga  or  white  whale  is  also  an 
object  of  pursuit. 

Mr.  Petroff,  in  his  census  report  on  Alaska,  says:  "The  oil  obtained  from  the  beluga  and  the 
large  seal  (Maklak)  is  a  vei\  impoiiant  article  of  trade  between  the  lowland  people  and  those  of 
the  mountains,  the  latter  depending  upon  it  entirely  for  lighting  their  semi-subterranean  dwell- 
ings during  the  winter,  and  to  supplement  their  scanty  stores  of  food.  The  oil  is  manufactured 
by  a  very  simple  process.  Iluge  drift-logs  are  fashioned  into  troughs,  much  in  the  same  manner 
as  the  Thlinket  tribes  make  their  wooden  canoes.  Into  these  troughs  filled  with  water  the  blubber 
is  thrown  in  lumps  of  from  1!  to  ."•  pounds  in  weight;  then  a  large  number  of  smooth  cobble-stones 
are  thrown  into  a  fire  until  they  are  thoroughly  heated,  when  they  are  picked  up  with  sticks 
fashioned  for  the  purpose,  and  deposited  in  the  water,  which  boils  up  at  once.  After  a  few 
minutes  these  stones  must  be  removed  and  replaced  by  fresh  ones,  this  laborious  process  being 
continued  until  the  oil  has  been  boiled  out  of  the  blubber  and  floats  on  the  surface,  when  it  is 
removed  with  flat  pieces  of  bone  or  roughly  fashioned  ladles,  and  decanted  into  bladders  or  whole 
seal  skius."t  Mr.  Petroff  sends  us  the  following  graphic  description  of  the  hunt: 

"  BELUGA  HUNTING  AT  ALASKA.—  Next  day  about  noon  I  was  invited  to  participate  in  a  canoe 
excursion  in  pursuit  of  some  beluga  or  white  grampus,  a  member  of  the  whale  family,  but  of  an  aver- 
age length  of  only  10  or  I'D  feet.  The  blubber  of  this  animal  is  considered  a  great  delicacy  by  the  In- 
dians in  this  neighborhood,  and  the  Laiada  chief  wished  to  get  a  supply  of  that  greasy  staff  of  life 
before  returning  home.  Accordingly  we  started  off  in  ten  bidarkas,  all  the  Indians  being  provided 
with  various  sizes  of  spears,  while  I  took  nothing  but  my  rifle.  In  half  an  hour  after  leaving  the 
mouth  of  the  river  the  proposed  hunting-ground  was  reached  and  the  canoes  separated  in  search 
of  the  game.  For  some  time  we  cruised  about  without  seeing  a  'blow,' but  finally  the  long  expected 
signal  shout  was  heard  from  one  of  the  canoes,  and  all  assembled  immediately  around  their  intended 
victim,  which  was  a  female  beluga,  with  a  calf  following  in  its  wake.  First  the  old  one  would  come 
up  and  blow,  and  in  a  few  seconds  after  the  young  one  would  follow  suit,  throwing  up  a  diminutive 
spout.  The  calf  was  attacked  first,  and  as  soon  as  its  blood  dyed  the  water,- the  dam  turned 
around  as  if  in  pursuit  of  the  murderer,  describing  circles  around  the  floating  body  of  its  offspring 
and  lashing  the  water  into  foam  with  its  tail  and  flukes.  While  racing  around  the  animal 
received  well-aimed  spears  from  the  bidarkas,  which  had  formed  a  circle,  and  as  these  weapons 
ate  provided  with  inflated  bladders  near  the  head,  the  beluga  was  soon  buoyed  up  on  the  surface 
of  the  water,  being  too  exhausted  to  draw  under  the  large  number  of  bladders  fastened  to  its  back 
and  sides,  and  in  that  position  was  easily  killed.  Three  more  were  killed  in  the  same  manner,  and 
the  party  was  preparing  to  return  to  the  village  when  I  thought  I  would  try  another  way  of  secur- 
ing the  game,  and  without  givingany  notice  to  the  men  in  the  other  canoes,  as  1  ought  to  have  done, 
I  aimed  my  rifle  at  a  beluga  which  was  showing  its  huge  white  back  above  the  water  a  short  dis- 
tance from  me.  The  shot  went  off  and  its  effect  was  instantaneous,  though  not  exactly  as  I  had 


'  SrAMM<>\  :  Marim-  M;iimn;ili:i.  p.  -•">!. 

t  Alaska,  its  Population,  Imlusin.-.s,  anil  Resources,  by  Ivan  IVtroff.     Tenth  CCIISUN  Vol.  VIII. 


62  HISTOEY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

expected.  The  shot  was  well  aimed  and  hit  the  spine  of  the  animal,  inflicting  a  mortal  wound ; 
but  while  the  beluga  was  floundering  about  in  its  death  struggles,  lashing  the  water  into  foam 
dyed  with  its  own  red  blood,  one  stroke  of  the"  tail  upset  one  of  the  canoes,  throwing  the  inmates 
into  the  water.  There  was  plenty  of  assistance  on  hand,  however;  the  canoe  was  righted,  and  the 
men  crawled  into  it,  very  wet  to  be  sure,  but  not  at  all  in  a  bad  humor.  The  accident  was  the  sub- 
ject of  jokes  innumerable  on  the  way  home.  When  the  last  beluga  had  been  secured,  and  its  body 
fastened  to  the  stern  of  our  canoe,  the  whole  squadron  was  set  in  motion.  With  the  tide  in  our 
favor,  we  glided  along  swiftly  in  spite  of  the  weighty  carcasses  we  had  in  tow,  and  as  we  drew 
near  to  the  village  the  monotonous  boat  song  was  chanted  by  the  men  as  they  plied  their  paddles. 
On  the  high  bank  of  the  river  the  old  chief  was  standing  ready  to  receive  us,  while  the  squaws 
were  sitting  in  the  grass  and  watching  our  approach,  joining  with  their  shrill  voices  in  the  song 
as  soon  as  we  were  near  enough  to  be  heard.  On  our  arrival  at  the  beach  the  whole  village  had 
assembled  to  view  and  admire  the  spoils  of  our  day's  sport.  As  soon  as  the  belugas  had  been 
dragged  ashore,  knives  were  drawn  on  all  sides  and  slices  of  the  blubber  cut  off  and  eaten  raw, 
apparently  with  great  gusto,  by  old  and  young.  I  tasted  a  small  morsel,  and  must  confess  that  it 
resembles  raw  bacon  fat  more  than  anything  I  ever  swallowed ;  but  that  is  only  the  case  imme- 
diately after  the  killing;  as  soon  as  the  blubber  is  half  a  day  old  the  rancid,  fishy  taste  is  there 
and  grows  stronger  every  day.  It  was  dark  before  all  tlie  blubber  had  been  cut  off  and  safely 
stored  out  of  reach  of  the  village  dogs,  but  late  as  it  was  the  chief's  house  was  prepared  for  a  con- 
tinuation of  yesterday's  feast  and  games.  I  was  not  prepared  for  a  second  siege  of  that  kind  and 
managed  to  slip  away  unobserved,  glad  to  escape  an  ordeal  which  would  have  been  more  trying 
on  a  Caucasian's  olfactory  nerves  than  that  of  the  day  before,  on  account  of  the  fresh  supply  of 
blubber  and  oil.  Before  I  arose  next  day  the  visiting  party  from  Laiada  had  taken  their  depart- 
ure to  set  some  other  village  in  commotion,  while  the  good  people  of  Chketuk  were  yet  reveling 
in  remembrance  of  the  joys  just  past." 

The  Indians  of  Cape  Flattery  are  said  to  derive  their  principal  subsistence  from  fishery 
products,  the  most  important  of  which  are  the  whale  and  halibut.  Mr.  James  G.  Swan,  in  a 
report  on  the  Makah  Indians,  in  No.  220  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Knowledge,  1869,  says: 
"Of  the  former  [whales]  there  are  several  varieties  which  are  taken  at  different  seasons  of  the 
year.  Some  are  killed  by  the  Indians;  others,  including  the  right  whale,  drift  ashore,  having 
been  killed  either  by  whalemen,  swordfish,  or  other  casualties.  The  various  species  of  whales 
are:  The  sperm  whale,  kots-k(§,  .which  is  very  rarely  seen ;  right  whale,  yakh'-yo-bad-di;  blackfish, 
klas-ko-kop-ph ;  finback,  kaii-wid;  sulphur-bottom,  kwa-kwau-yak'-t'hle ;  California  gray,  che- 
che-wid  or  chet'-a-puk;  killer,  se-hwau.  The  generic  name  of  whales  is  chet'-a-puk.  The 
California  gray  is  the  kiml  usually  taken  by  the  Indians,  the  others  being  but  rarely  attacked. 

''  Their  method  of  whaling,  being  both  novel  and  interesting,  will  require  a  minute  descrip- 
tion— not  only  the  implements  used,  but  the  mode  of  attack,  and  the  final  disposition  of  the  whale, 
being  entirely  different  from  the  practice  of  our  own  whalemen. 

"  From  information  I  obtained,  I  infer  that  formerly  the  Indians  were  more  successful  in  kill- 
ing whales  than  they  have  been  of  late  years.  Whether  the  whales  were  more  numerous,  or  that 
the  Indians,  being  now  able  to  procure  other  food  from  the  whites,  have  become  indifferent  to  the 
pursuit,  I  cannot  say  ;  but  I  have  not  noticed  any  marked  activity  among-  them,  and  when  they 
do  go  out  they  rarely  take  a  prize.  They  are  more  successful  in  their  whaling  in  some  seasons 
than  in  others,  and  whenever  a  surplus  of  oil  or  blubber  is  on  hand,  it  is  exchanged  or  traded 
with  Indians  of  other  tribes,  who  appear  quite  as  fond  of  the  luxury  as  the  Makahs.  The  oil  sold 
by  these  whalers  to  the  white  traders  is  dogfish  oil,  which  is  not  eaten  by  this  tribe,  although 


TI1K  WI1ALK   K1RIIKKY.  63 

the  Clyoquot  and  Nootkan  Indians  use  it  with  tlieir  food.  There  is  no  portion  of  a  whale,  except 
the  vertebra  and  offal,  which  is  useless  to  the  Indians.  The  blubber  and  flesh  serve  for  food;  the 
sinews  are  prepared  and  made  into  ropes,  cords,  and  bowstrings;  and  the  stomach  and  intestines 
are  can-fully  sorted  and  inflated,  and  when  dried  are  used  to  hold  oil.  Whale-oil  serves  the  same 
purpose  with  these  Indians  that  butter  does  with  civilized  people;  they  dip  their  dried  halibut 
into  it  while  eating,  and  use  it  with  bread,  potatoes,  and  various  kinds  of  berries.  When  fresh, 
it  is  by  no  means  unpalatable;  and  it  is  only  after  being  badly  boiled,  or  by  long  exposure,  that 
it  becomes  rancid  and  as  offensive  to  a  white  man's  palate  as  the  common  lamp-oil  of  the  shops." 

5.  DEVELOPMENT  OF  THE  SPERM-WHALE  FISHERY. 

EARLY  HISTORY  OF  WHALING  AT  NANTTJCKET. — The  fishery  for  sperm  whales  began  at  a 
much  later  period  than  that  for  right  whales,  but  the  exact  date  of  its  commencement  is 
unknown.  The  whales  taken  by  the  early  settlers  of  New  England  were  mostly  the  right  or  whale- 
bone species  and  the  first  spermaceti  whale  known  to  the  people  of  Nantncket  caused  great  excite- 
ment. It  was  found  dead  on  the  shore,  and  quite  a  dispute  arose  concerning  its  ownership,  "for 
the  sperm  procured  from  the  head  was  thought  to  be  of  great  value  for  medical  purposes."  It 
would  thus  appear  that  sperm  whales  had  been  heard  of  by  these  people,  but  had  not  been  seen  by 
them.  "  The  first  spermaceti  whale  taken  by  the  Nantucket  whalers,"  says  Macy,  "  was  killed  by 
Christopher  Hussey.  He  was  cruising  near  the  shore  for  right  whales,  and  was  blown  off  some  dis- 
tance from  the  land  by  a  strong  northerly  wind,  where  he  fell  in  with  a  school  of  that  species  of 
whales,  and  killed  one  and  brought  it  home.  At  what  date  this  adventure  took  place  is  not  fully 
ascertained,  but  it  is  supposed  to  be  not  far  from  1712.  This  event  gave  new  life  to  the  business, 
for  they  immediately  began  with  vessels  of  about  thirty  tons  to  whale  out  in  the  '  deep,'  as  it  was 
then  called,  to  distinguish  it  from  shore-whaling.  They  fitted  out  for  cruises  of  about  six  weeks, 
carried  a  few  hogsheads,  enough  probably  to  contain  the  blubbers  of  one  whale,  with  which,  after 
obtaining  it,  they  returned  home.  The  owners  then  took  charge  of  the  blubber,  and  tried  out  the 
oil,  and  immediately  sent  the  vessel  out  again.  In  1715  the  number  of  vessels  engaged  in  the 
whaling  business  was  six,  all  sloops  of  from  thirty  to  forty  tons  burden  each,  which  produced 
£1,100  sterling,  or  $4,888.88."  * 

BEALE'S  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  SPERM-WHALE  FISHERY.— The  history  of  the  sperm- 
whale  fishery  is  accurately  given  by  Thomas  Bealo,t  in  his  history  of  the  sperm-whale,  in  which 
he  says :  "  The  origin  of  the  sperm-whale  fishery,  that  is  before  it  became  organized  as  a  branch 
of  commerce — like  the  origin  of  other  fisheries  of  the  same  nature,  is  involved  in  such  deep 
mystery  as  almost  altogether  to  defy  the  searching  acumen  of  the  historian.  Without  looking  into 
the  ancient,  romancing,  and  classical  histories,  with  which  most  of  the  countries  of  Europe  abound, 
and  which  contain  wonderful  stories  of  the  appearance,  death,  or  capture  of  the  sperm-whale,  or 
other  creatures  of  the  same  order,  it  may  be  sufficient  for  some  of  us  to  know  that  during  the 
early  part  of  the  last  century  a  few  daring  individuals  who  inhabited  the  shores  of  the  American 
continent,  fitted  out  their  little  crafts,  furnished  with  wea,k  and  almost  impotent  weapons,  to 
attack  and  destroy  in  its  own  element  the  mighty  monarch  of  the  ocean,  in  order  to  rob  his 
immense  carcass  of  the  valuable  commodity  with  which  it  is  surrounded.  But  even  as  far  back  as 
the  year  1667  we  find  a  letter,  published  in  the  second  volume  of  the  Philosophical  Transactions, 
from  Mr.  Richard  Norwood,  who  resided  at  the  Bermudas,  which  states  that  the  whale-fishery  had 


•  .MAI'Y:  Hist. Nantncket,  )>|>.  :!•>,:!<;. 

t  The  Natural  History  of  I  he  S).nm-\Vhiilo  by  Tboiuas  I'.rjilr,  Surgeon:  London,  IWlli;   12uio.,pp.  383. 


64  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

been  carried  on  in  the  bays  of  those  islands  for  '  two  or  three  years,'  evidently  meaning  the  black- 
.  whale  fishery  ;  for  in  smother  part  he  says:  '  I  hear  not  that  they  have  found  any  spermaceti  in 
any  of  those  whales;'  but  subsequently  he  states  in  the  same  letter:  'I  have  heard  from  credible 
persons  that  there  is  a  kind  of  whale  having  great  teeth,  as  have  the  spermaceti,  at  Elentheria  and 
others  of  the  Bermuda  Islands.  One  of  this  place,  John  Perinchief,  found  one  there  dead,  driven 
upon  an  island,  and  though  I  think  ignorant  of  the  business,  yet  got  a  great  quantity  of  sperma^ 
ceti  out  of  it.'  He  says  again:  'It  seems  they  have  not  so  much  oil  as  ours  (meaning  the  black 
whale),  but  the  oil,  I  hear,  is  at  first  like  spermaceti,  but  they  clarify  it,  I  think,  by  the  fire.' 

"But  in  volume  iii,  Philosophical  Transactions,"  continues  Beale,  "in  a  letter  from  the 
same  place,  written  a  year  or  two  afterwards,  we  find  something  like  a  beginning  of  the  sperm- 
whale  fishery  threatened  by  a  Mr.  Richard  Stafford,  who  informs  us  that  he  has  killed  several 
black  whales  himself,  and  who  is  represented  as  a  very  intelligent  gentleman.  He  says :  '  Great 
stores  of  whales  make  use  of  our  coast ; '  but  in  another  part  he  states  :  '  But  here  have  been  seen 
spermaceti  whales  driven  upon  the  shore.  These  have  divers  teeth  about  the  bigness  of  a  man's 
wrist.  I  have  been,'  says  he,  'at  the  Bahama  Islands,  and  there  have  seen  of  this  same  sort  of 
whale,  dead  on  the  shore,  with  spenna  all  over  their  bodies.  Myself  and  about  twenty  others 
have  agreed  to  try  whether  we  can  master  and  kill  them,  for  I  could  never  hear  of  any  of  that 
sort  that  was  killed  by  any  man,  such  is  their  fierceness  and  swiftness.'  He  concludes  by  remark- 
ing that 'one  such  whale  would  be  worth  many  hundred  pounds.'  A  weighty  reason  for  the 
establishment  of  the  fishery,  no  doubt.  The  same  writer,  in  another  part  of  his  letter,  states: 
'  There  is  one  island  among  the  Bahamas,  which  some  of  our  people  are  settled  upon,  and  more 
are  coming  thither.  It  is  called  New  Providence,  where  many  rare  things  might  be  discovered, 
if  the  people  were  bui.  encouraged.'  This  same  New  Providence  afterwards  became  so  famous  as 
a  whale-fishing  station  by  the  exertions  of  our  American  descendants.  But  even  before  these 
needy  adventurers  commenced  their  career  of  spermaceti  hunting,  we  have  had  it  proved  to  us 
that  the  Indians  who  inhabited  the  shores  of  America  used  to  voyage  out  to  sea  and  attack  this 
animal  from  their  canoes,  and  pierce  him  with  their  lances  of  wood  or  other  instruments  of  the 
same  material,  which  were  barbed,  and  which,  before  they  were  plunged  into  his  flesh,  were 
fastened  by  a  short  warp,  or  piece  of  rope,  to  a  large  block  of  light  wood,  which  was  thrown  over 
board  the  moment  the  barbed  instrument  was  thrust  into  its  body,  which,  being  repeated  at  every 
rising  of  the  whale,  or  when  they  were  so  fortunate  as  to  get  near  enough  to  do  so,  in  a  few 
instances,  by  a  sort  of  worrying-to-death  system,  rewarded  the  enterprising  savage  with  the 
lifeless  body  of  his  victim,  but  which  in  most  cases  was  that  of  a  very  young  one ;  and  even  this, 
when  towed  to  the  shore,  it  was  impossible  for  them  to  turn  over,  so  that  they  were  obliged  to 
content  themselves  with  flinching  the  fat  from  one  side  of  the  body  only. 

"  But  although,  as  has  been  before  stated,  Mr.  Richard  Stafford  had  threatened  to  commence 
the  sperm-whale  fishery  at  the  Bahama  Islands,  it  appears  rather  doubtful  whether  he  did  so  or 
not,  when  we  come  to  peruse  the  letter  of  the  Hon.  Paul  Dudley,  F.  R.  S.,  published  in  17:34,  Phil. 
Trans.,  vol.  xxxiii,  an  extract  of  which  states:  'I  very  lately  received  from  Mr.  Atkins,  an  inhabit- 
ant of  Boston,  in  New  England,  who  used  the  whale-fishery  for  ten  or  twelve  years  (black  whales), 
and  was  one  of  the  first  that  went  out  a  fishing  for  the  spermaceti  whales  about  the  year  1720.' 
It  also  appears  in  this  account  that  the  fishery  even  then  was  very  little  understood,  for  Mr. 
Atkins  himself  says  'he  never  saw,  nor  certainly  heard  of  a  spermaceti  female  taken  in  his  life,' 
for  he  states  'the  cows  of  that  species  of  whale,  being  much  more  timorous  than  the  males,  and 
almost  impossible  to  come  at,  unless  when  haply  found  asleep  upon  the  water,  or  detained  by 
their  calves.'  In  another  part  of  this  letter  the  Hon.  Paul  Dudley  states:  '  Our  people  formerly 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY. 


65 


used  to  kill  the  whale  near  the  shore ;  but  now  they  go  off  to  sea  in  sloops  and  whale  boats  in  the 
months  of  May,  June,  and  July,  bet  wren  <  'ape  Cod  and  Bermuda,  where  they  lie  by  in  the  night, 
and  sail  to  and  again  in  the  day,  and  seldom  miss  of  them  ;  they  bring-  home  the  blubber  in  their 
sloops.  The  true  season  for  taking  the  right  or  whalebone  whale  is  from  the  beginning  of  .lime 
to  the  end  of  May;  for  the  spermaceti  whales,  from  the.  beginning  of  June  to  the  end  of  August.'" 

CONDITION  OF  THE  FISHERY  FROM  ITiio  TO  1775. — About  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tnr.\  the  value  of  oil  increased  by  the  opening  up  of  new  markets,  and  the  people  of  New  England 
pushed  forward  with  zeal  in  the  whaling-  industry.  The  English,  French,  and  Dutch  had  been 
very  successful  in  the  northern  fishery  for  whalebone  whales,  but  had  taken  no  part  in  the  capture 
of  sperm  whales,  leaving  this  work  for  the  American  fleet  which  began  to  grow  rapidly  in  the 
number  and  size  of  its  vessels.  In  1720  the  whaling  fleet  of  New  England  numbered  only  a  few 
sloops  of  about  30  tons  each,  making  voyages  east  to  Newfoundland  and  south  to  the  Gulf  Stream. 
T.y  1731  the  American  fleet  amounted  to  1,300  tons,  and  the  size  of  the  vessels  increased  so  that 
in  1746  schooners  and  brigs  from  100  to  130  tons  were  employed.  Just  before  the  Revolutionary 
war  the  whaling  industry  was  very  prosperous  in  New  England,  the  fleet  was  large,  and  the  profits 
considerable.  Voyages  were  made  to  the  north  and  south  for  sperm  and  right  whales,  but  the  chief 
object  of  pursuit  was  the  sperm  whale,  whose  oil  was  nearly  three  times  the  value  of  that  of  the 
right  whale.  The  principal  grounds  visited  for  the  sperm  whale  were  off  the  coast  of  Brazil  and 
Guiana,  various  parts  of  the  West  Indies,  the  Cape  Verde  and  Western  Islands,  and  eastward  of 
the  Banks  of  Newfoundland. 

Scammon  gives  the  following  statistics  to  show  the  condition  of  the  business  from  1762  to 
1770,  inclusive: 


Tear. 

Number  of 
vessels. 

Numhrr  of 
barrel.-!. 

Value  of  pro- 
duction. 

1762 

78 

9  440 

$109  518  40 

1763* 

60 

100  394  68 

1704 

7° 

11  983 

131  135  38 

1705  

101 

11  512 

125  020  32 

1766  

118 

11  969 

1°9  '1S3  °4 

1767  

108 

179  g52  46 

1768  

125 

15  439 

11)7  CO"  54 

1769  

119 

19  140 

40''  990  60 

1770  ..  . 

125 

14  331 

340  666  89 

900 

119,013 

1,  746,  165  51 

*  Scoresby,  in  his  account  of  the  Whale  Fishery  of  the  British  Colonies  iD  America,  stairs  there  were  eighty  vessels  employed  in  the 
American  fisheries  during  the  year  1763. 

''About  1774,"  says  Scatnnion,  "  the  fleet  was  augmented  by  still  larger  vessels,  some  of  which 
crossed  the  equator,  and  obtained  full  cargoes  upon  that  noted  ground  called  the  '  Brazil  Banks,' 
while  others  cruised  around  Cape  Verde  Islands  or  the  West  Indies,  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  Carib- 
bean Sea,  or  upon  the  coast  of  the  Spanish  Main.  Soon  after  they  extended  their  voyages  to  the 
South  Atlantic,  around  the  Falkland  Islands,  and  to  the  coast  of  Patagonia,  where  fur-seal  skins 
and  sea-elephant  oil  were  sometimes  obtained.  In  such  instances  these  whaling  and  sealing 
expeditions  were  called  '  mixed  voyages.'"* 

"Between  the.  years  1770  and  1775,"  says  Macy,  "the  whaling  business  increased  to  an  extent 
hitherto  unparalleled.  In  1770  there  were  a  little  more  than  one  hundred  vessels  engaged  ;  and 
in  177")  the  number  exceeded  one  hundred  and  fifty,  some  of  then:  large  brigs.  The  employment 


*  SCAMMOX:  Marine  Mammalia  and  American  Whale  Fishery,  p. 

SEC.  v,  VOL.  ii 5 


66  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

of  so  great  and  such  an  increasing  capital  may  lead  our  readers  to  suppose  that  a  corresponding 
profit  was  realized ;  but  a  careful  examination  of  the  circumstances  under  which  the  business  was 
carried  on  will  show  the  fallacy  of  such  a  conclusion.  Many  branches  of  labor  were  conducted  by 
those  who  were  immediately  interested  in  the  voyages.  The  young  men,  with  few  exceptions, 
were  brought  up  to  some  trade  necessary  to  the  business.  The  rope-maker,  the  cooper,  the  black- 
smith, the  carpenter,  in  fine,  the  workmen,  were  either  the  ship-owners  or  of  their  household  ;  so 
were  often  the  officers  and  men  who  navigated  the  vessels  and  killed  the  whales.  Whilst  a  ship 
was  at  sea,  the  owners  at  home  were  busily  employed  in  the  mamifactory  of  casks,  iron  work, 
cordage,  blocks,  and  other  articles  for  the  succeeding  voyage.  Thus  the  profits  of  the  labor  were 
enjoyed  by  those  interested  in  the  fishery,  and  voyages  were  rendered  advantageous  even  when 
the  oil  obtained  was  barely  sufficient  to  pay  the  outfits,  estimating  the  labor  as  a  part  thereof. 
This  mode  of  conducting  the  business  was  universal,  and  has  continued  to  a  very  considerable 
extent  to  the  present  day.  Experience  taught  the  people  how  to  take  advantage  of  the  different 
markets  for  their  oil.  Their  spermaceti  oil  was  mostly  sent  to  England  in  its  uusepaiated  state, 
the  head  matter  being  generally  mixed  with  the  body  oil;  for,  in  the  early  part  of  whaling  it 
would  bring  no  more  when  separated  than  when  mixed.  The  whale  oil,  which  is  the  kind  pro- 
cured from  the  species  called '  right  whale,'  was  shipped  to  Boston  or  elsewhere  in  the  colonies,  and 
there  sold  for  country  consumption!,  or  sent  to  the  West  Indies.'1* 

The  extraordinary  zeal  that  the  Americans  took  in  the  whale-fishery  at  this  time  called  forth 
from  Mr.  Burke  that  glowing  tribute  which  has  become  familiar  to  every  American.  "  Whether 
this  eloquent  address,"  says  Beale,  "  had  any  effect  or  not  upon  the  minds  of  our  own  merchants 
and  ship-owners  in  stimulating  them  to  fit  out  ships  lor  the  sperm  and  other  whale-fisheries, 
I  am  not  aware,  but  it  is  certain  that  in  the  followiug  year  (1775)  the  first  attempt  was  made  to 
establish  the  sperm  whale  fishery  from  Britain;  and  we  accordingly  find,  from  private  state- 
ments on  which  I  can  securely  rely,  that  ships  of  from  100  to  109  tons  burden  were  sent  to  South 
Greenland,  coast  of  Brazil,  Falkland  Islands,  and  the  Gulf  of  Guinea,  for  the  purpose  of  procuring- 
sperm  and  other  oils.  The  names  of  the  ships  which  were  thus  employed  in  these  distinct  expedi- 
tions were  the  Union,  Neptune,  Rockingham,  America,  Abigail,  Hanover,  Industry,  Dennis, 
Beaver,  and  Sparrow,  but  the  principal  places  of  resort  of  the  spermaceti  whale  not  having  been 
yet  discovered,  the  vessels  met  with  very  trifling  success. 

"BOUNTIES  GRANTED. — In  the  following  year,  1776,  the  Government,  with  a  view  to  stimulate 
all  persons  engaged  in  these  fisheries,  established  a  principle  of  reward  for  those  ships  which  were 
most  successsful  in  their  endeavors ;  in  accordance  with  which,  five  different  bounties  or  premiums 
were  offered,  forming  a  scale  of  prizes  for  those  who  were  so  fortunate  as  to  prove  the  five  grada- 
tions of  success,  the  sum  of  £500  being  the  maximum,  and  that  of  £100  being  the  minimum  prize. 
In  1781  four  ships  were  fitted  out  for  the  river  St.  Lawrence,  but  after  they  had  been  out  a 
considerable  time  they  returned  with  the  discouraging  announcement  of  having  only  procured  C 
gallons  of  sperm  oil  among  them  during  the  whole  time  of  their  absence. 

"SPERM  WHALES  FROM  FRANCE. — In  17S4,  France,  which  it  appears  had  preceded  the  other 
nations  of  Europe  in  the  whale-fishery,  but  had  for  many  years  past,  for  some  cause  or  other, 
hardly  had  any  share  in  it,  now  endeavored  to  revive  it,  and  with  this  view  Louis  XVI  fitted  out 
six  ships  from  Dunkirk  on  his  own  account,  which  were  furnished  at  a  great  expense  with  a 
number  of  experienced  harpooners  and  able  seamen  from  Nantucket.  The  adventure  was  more 
successful  than  could  have  been  reasonably  expected,  considering  theauspicies  under  which  it  was 
carried  on.  Several  private  individuals  followed  the  example  of  His  Majesty,  according  to  Mr. 

*  MACY  :  Hist.  Nantucket,  p.  68. 


THK  W!!AIJ<;  FISHERY.  67 

M  <•(  'ullock, '  and  in  1790  France  bad  about  forty  sbips  employed  in  tbe  fishery.  The  Revolutionary 
war  destroyed  every  vestige  of  this  rising  trade.  Since  the  peace  the  Government  has  made  great 
efforts  for  its  renewal,  but  hitherto  without  success  ;  aud  it  is  singular,  that  with  the  exception  of 
an  American  house  at  Dunkirk,  hardly  any  one  has  thought  of  sending  out  a  ship  from  France.' 

"A  PROSPEROUS  PERIOD.— In  the  year  1785  the  English  shipmasters  began  to  discover  the 
haunts  of  the  sperm  whale,  the  principal  object  of  pursuit,  for  we  find  that  after  they  had  been 
out  twelve  months  many  vessels  returned  with  from  20  to  SO  tons  of  sperm  oil  each,  so  that  in  the 
year  1780  we  find  321  tons  of  sperm  oil  was  brought  to  this  country,  and  which  sold  for  £43  per 
ton.  And  the  success  which  attended  our  whaling  expeditious  at  this  time  was  quite  equal  to 
that  which  the  American  whalers  met  with.  In  1786  the  bounties  were  increased  to  £700  maxi- 
mum and  £300  minimum,  which  had  the  effect  of  increasing  the  perseverance  and  activity  of  our 
whalers,  for  we  now  discover  them  staying  out  eighteen  and  even  twenty-eight  months,  and 
bringing  home  much  larger  quantities  of  sperm  oil.  During  the  year  1788  the  ships  that  were 
sent  out  were  much  increased  in  size,  so  that  they  were  frequently  of  from  150  to  300  tons  burden, 
and  they  still  continued,  like  the  Americans,  to  fish  on  this  side  Cape  Horn,  taking  the  common 
black,  as  well  as  the  sperm  whale,  at  such  places  as  the  Gulf  of  Guinea,  coast  of  Brazil,  Falkland 
Islands,  and,  for  sperm  whales  in  particular,  about  the  equinoctial  line.  But  if  the  Americans  had 
been  the  first  to  establish  the  fishery  ou  their  own  shores,  and  even  throughout  the  North  and 
South  Atlantic  Oceans,  it  was  the  destiny  of  the  mother  country  to  enjoy  the  honor  of  opening  the 
invaluable  sperm  fisheries  of  the  two  Pacifies,  the  discovery  of  which  formed  an  era  in  the  com- 
mercial history  of  this  country.  For  not  only  was  tbe  sperm-whale  fishery  by  this  discovery 
prodigiously  increased,  but  other  commercial  advantages  accrued  from  the  whalers  who  resorted 
to  these  seas  opening  a  trade  with  the  people  who  inhabited  the  extensive  shores  which  bound 
the  enormous  ocean."* 

"In  the  year  1789  a  gentleman  from  Cape  Cod,  who  had  returned  from  service  in  the  East 
India  Company,  having  seen  sperm  whales  near  Madagascar,  communicated  the  fact  to  some  of 
tbe  Nantucket  whalemen,  who,  profiting  by  the  knowledge,  in  due  time  dispatched  ships  to  that 
coast,  which  proved  to  be  a  rich  whaling  grouud."t 

The  American  whale  fishery,  just  before  the  Eevolutionary  war,  employed  a  total  of  not  less 
than  360  vessels  of  various  kinds,  with  an  aggregate  burden  of  nearly  33,000  tons,  and  produced 
about  45,000  barrels  of  spermaceti  oil,  8,500  barrels  of  whale  oil,  and  75,000  pounds  of  whalebone 
annually.  By  the  year  1789  this  large  fleet  bad  been  reduced  to  about  130  sail  of  vessels,  pro- 
ducing annually  scarcely  10,000  barrels  of  spermaceti  oil  aud  about  15,000  barrels  of  whale  oil, 
with  a  corresponding  proportion  of  whaleb< 

THE  BEGINNING  op  THE  PACIFIC  SPERM-WHALE  FISHERY. — " In  1788,"  says  Beale,  "the  grand 
mercantile  speculation  of  sending  ships  round  Cape  Horn  into  the  Pacific,  in  order  to  extend  the 
sperm-whale  fishery,  was  reserved  for  the  bold  and  enterprising  mind  of  Mr.  Enderby,  a  London 
merchant  and  ship-owner,  who  fitted  out,  at  a  vast  expense,  the  ship  Amelia,!  Captain  Shields, 
which  sailed  from  England  on. the  1st  of  September,  1788,  and  returned  on  the  12th  of  March, 
1790,  making  an  absence  of  one  year  and  seven  months,  but  bringing  home  the  enormous  cargo 
of  139  tons  of  sperm  oil,  and  likewise  having  the  good  fortune  to  receive  £800  more  by  way  of  an 
increased  bounty  in  consequence  of  the  peculiar  nature  of  the  expedition.  The  Amelia  having 
been  the  first  ship  of  any  country  which  had  entered  the  Pacific  in  search  of  whales,  her  suc- 

*BEAiE:  op.  tit.,  \>p.  144-141!.  tSCAMMON':  Marine  Mammalia,  p.  209. 

{The  Amelia  was  an  English  fitted  ship,  iiuinuud  by  the  Nantucket  colony  of  whalemen;  her  first  mate,  Archelua 
Hammond,  of  Nantucket,  killed  the  first  sperm  whale  known  to  have  been  taken  in  the  Pacific  Ocean. 


08  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

cess  gave  an  amazing  impulse  to  all  persons  engaged  in  the  fisheries,  so  that  several  ships,  both 
from  this  country  and  America,  immediately  followed  in  her  track,  for  on  her  return  in  1790  many 
vessels  were  directly  sent  off,  the  crews  of  which  continued  the  fishery  along  the  coasts  of  Chili 
and  Peru  with  great  advantage;  so  that  in  1791  we  had  a  great  addition  in  the  importation  of 
sperm  oil,  amounting  this  year  to  1,1!  .X  tons,  making  an  increase  over  the  importation  in  the  year 
178C  of  9.':H  tous.  In  1791  the  bounties  were  again  altered,  but  the  alteration  merely  related  to 
the  time  the  ships  should  remain  out.  The  ships  which  were  at  this  time  engaged  in  the  fishery 
carried  from  twenty-two  to  thirty  men  each.  This  enterprising  branch  of  commerce  was  carried- 
on  year  after  year  with  considerable  success,  subject  to  but  slight  variations  in  the  annual  and 
gradual  increase  in  the  importation  of  oil,  giving  employment  to  a  vast  number  of  persons,  many 
of  whom  were  enriched  to  an  immense  amount  by  the  success  which  attended  their  exertions  in 
this  now  profitable  pin  suit."* 

The  new  grounds  tor  sperm  whale  in  the  Pacific  discovered  by  American  whalemen  in 
English  vessels,  were  soon  resorted  to  by  vessels  from  Nautuckef.  The  first  vessels  sailed  in 
1791,  and  returned  "loaded  with  oil,  and  reported  that  whales  were  plenty,  the  coast  agreeable  to 
eiuise  on,  and  the  climate,  healthy.  Tin's  was  sufficient  encouragement,  notwithstanding  the 
length  of  the  voyages,  for  a  considerable  part  of  the  whaling  interest  to  be  directed  that  way. 
An  additional  number  of  vessels  was  then  fitted  out,  which  together  made  a  considerable  fleet."! 

Starbnek  says  that  six  ships  sailed  for  ihe  Pacific  fishery  in  17!H  from  Nantueket  and  one  from 
New  Bedford.  In  the  mean  time  ships  from  Dunkirk,  among  them  the  Falkland,  Canton,  and  the 
Harmony,  had  already  performed  their  voyages,  and  in  February,  1791',  arrived  at  Dunkirk  with 
full  cargoes.  It  was  the  custom  in  those  days  to  nearly  fill  with  sperm,  then  return  to  the 
Atlantic  Ocean  and  complete  their  load  on  the  coast  of  Patagonia  or  on  Brazil  Banks,  com- 
manders preferring  to  round  Cape  Horn  with  a  snugly-loaded  ship.  The  names  of  the  six  Nan- 
tucket  vessels  were  the  Beaver,  Washington,  Hector,  Warren.  Kebeeea.  and  Favorite.  "These 
ships,"  says  Scammon,  "  were  only  -•">()  tons  burden,  dull  sailers,  having  no  copper  on  their  bottoms, 
and  but  scantily  fitted  with  whaling  appliances  or  provisions.  The  scene  of  their  first  exploits  was 
upon  the  coast  of  Chili.  These  pioneer  voyages,  through  the  persistent  daring  of  the  hardy  men 
who  led  them,  were  eminently  successful,  which  induced  the  people  of  the  neighboring  settle- 
ments of  other  New  England  ports  to  extend  their  whaling  commerce,  and  but  few  years  passed 
before  a  numerous  fleet  were  plying  over  those  rough  waters.  Gradually,  however,  they  extended 
their  cruises  toward  the  more  distant  but  smiling  regions  of  the  tropics.  As  early  as  1SOO,| 
American  whalers  were  plowing  the  sparkling  waters  along  the  coast  of  Peru,  and  their  keels 
cut  the  equatorial  line,  north  and  south,  in  the  Pacific.  A  favorite  cruising-ground  was  from  the 
Spanish  Main  westward  around  the  Galapagos  Islands.  There  a  rich  harvest  rewarded  them,  where 
(hey  labored  in  a  genial  climate,  with  an  almost  uninterrupted  succession  of  fine  breezes  and 
pleasant  weather.  At  certain  seasons,  north  of  the  equator,  the  northeast  trades  blew  fresh,  and 
at  the  south  they  would  frequently  increase  to  a  brisk  gale;  but  these  periodical  breezes,  compared 
with  the  heavy  gales  of  the  Atlantic  and  the  tedious  weather  about  Cape  Horn,  served  only  to 
enliven  them  into  renewed  activity  under  the  heated  rays  of  a  tropical  sun,  when  in  pursuit  of 
the  vast  herds  of  cachalots  which  were  met  with,  bounding  over  or  through  the  crested  waves. 
During  these  long  voyages  it  became  unavoidably  necessary  to  occasionally  go  into  port,  in  order 
to  'recruit  ship.'  When  arrived  at  these  places  of  .supply,  good  store  of  fresh  meat,  water,  and 
vegetables  was  laid  in,  and  the  ship's  company  were  allowed  to  pass,  in  turn,  a  few  clays  of 
liberty  on  shore.  In  due  time  those  ports  along  the  coast  of  Chili  and  Peru,  which  were  suited 

*BEA_LK:  o/i.  <H.,  pp.  146-149.  t  MACY  :  Hisl    JM:itu<-Kct.  p.  141.  t  N:intiii-Kn  IMP  i 


TIII-:  \\II.\LK  KISIIKIIY.  69 

to   the  requirements  of  (lie  adventurers,  became,  famous  places  of  resort  for  American  \vhale  ships. 

The  principal  ones  were  Talralmano  and  Valparaiso,  in   Chili,  and   Payta,  Callao,  and  Tumhe/,  in  "*• 

Peru.      At  these  places  usually  could  be  obtained  any  needed  recruits,  and  the  picturesque  scenery, 

blended  with   those  sunny  climes,  together  with  the  charms  of  the  beautiful  women,  made  their 

periodical  visits  to  the  coast  peculiarly  atlractivc,  and  wrought  an  entire  temporary  change  from 

the  lifeou  -blue  water/     The  abrujn  and  lofty  group  of  islands,  the  Galapagos,  which  extend  into 

both  latitudes  from  the  equator,  and  the  little  island  of  Cocos,  situated  in  the  rainy  region  ou  the 

border  of  I'anaina  Hay,  were  frequently   visited,   and    became   more  familiar  to   the  whalemen,  in 

many  instances,  than    their  Atlantic  homes.     Every  rugged  mountain   and   verdant  valley  of  the 

former  were  Ira  versed  in  hunting  the  galapago.  or  'elephant  terrapin,'  which  furnished  them  with 

ample  supply  of  the   most  delicious  meat,  and   the  latter  was  resorted   to  for  fresh  water,  which 

was  dipped    from  cascades  flowing  out  of  their  natural  icservoir  beyond  the  wooded  bluffs.     And 

upon  the   rocks  about  the  beach  of  Chatham  Bay,  rudely  chiseled,  are  the  records  of  those  pioneer 

\\lialc  fishers,  with  the  dates  of  the  visits  of  transient  vessels,  from  the  pigmy  shallops  of  Drake's 

time  to   the    magnificent  national  ships  of  the  present  century."* 

SPERM  WHALING  AT  NEW  ZEALAND  AND  THE  OFFSHORE  GROUND.— The  sperm-whale 
lislicry  at  Xcw  Zea'and  began  about  the  year  ISO:.',  and  in  LS03,  according  to  Beale,  "  many  vessels 
were  plowing  the  Cliiua  Seas,  about  the  Molucca  Islands,  in  search  of  the  sperm  whale."t  In 
isist  ('apt.  George  Gardner,  in  the  ship  Globe,  of  Nantucket,  discovered  the  famous  "offshore 
ground  "  that  was  soon  visited  by  scores  of  sperm  whalers.  In  speaking  of  this  discovery  Scammon 
says:  "The  love  of  adventure  tempted  the  whalers  to  turn  their  prows  even  from  the  sunny  shores 
of  Peru,  and,  with  flowing  sheets,  they  coursed  over  the  Pacific  until,  in  latitude  5°  to  10°  south 
and  longitude  105°  to  11'.")°  west,  the  objects  of  pursuit  were  found  in  countless  numbers,  whose 
huge  forms  blackened  the  ^avcs  and  whose  spoutiugs  clouded  the  air  as  far  as  the  eye  could  dis- 
cern." 

THE  JAPAN  GROUND. — The  next  important  sperm-whale  ground  to  be  discovered  was  the 
Japan  Ground.  The  honor  of  opening  this  profitable  whaling  ground  is  claimed  by  both  Ameri- 
cans and  Englishmen.  According  to  8tarbuck,§  "having  received  word  from  Captain  Winship, 
of  Brighton,  Mass.,  who  had  friends  at  Nantucket,  that  on  a  recent  voyage  from  China  to  the 
Sandwich  Islands  he  had  seen  large  numbers  of  sperm  whales  on  that  coast,  Capt.  Joseph  Allen, 
in  the  ship  Mars,  was  dispatched  there."  The  Mars  sailed  from  Nantucket  October  2C,  1819,  arriv- 
ing home  March  10,  1822,  with  2,41'.")  barrels  of  sperm  oil,  and  within  two  or  three  years  a  licet  of 
thirty  sail  of  vessels  were  crui.Miigou  the  new  ground.  By  1835  there  were  cruising  in  the  North 
1'acilic,  between  the  coasts  of  New  Albion  ou  the  east  and  the  Japan  Islands  on  the  west,  near  a 
hundred  ships. ||  one-third  English,  and  the  others  Americans. 

The  first  English  whaling  vessel  to  visit  the  ne\v  lield  was  the  ship  Syren,  of  .7)00  tons  burden, 
commanded  by  Capt.  Frederick  Cotlin,  of  Nantucket,  and  carrying  a  crew  of  thirty-six  seamen. 
"The  Syren,'' says  Beale.  ••  sailed  from  England  on  the  3d  of  August,  1819,  and  arrived  off  the 
coast  of  Japan  on  the  r>th  of  April,  1821),  where  she  fell  in  with  immense  numbers  of  the  sperma- 
ceti whale,  which  her  crew  gave  chase  to  with  excellent  success;  for  they  returned  to  their  native 
land  ou  the  21st  of  April,  1822,  after  an  absence  of  about  two  years  and  eight  months,  during 
which  time  they  had  by  their  industry,  courage,  and  perseverance,  gathered  from  the  confines  of 
the  North  Pacific  Ocean  no  less  than  the  enormous  quantity  of  34'i  tons  [2,708  barrels]  of  sperm 

..MM.IX:  op.  ait.,  |.|p.  -,MO,  -,>11.  tliEALi::  up.  cit..  ]>.  \  \\<. 

}  Prnrrrilm.i;-  Ainrri,:iii  Ant  ,i|  11:11  i:i n  Society,  X<>.  57,  ]>.  '".'.  $Kepon.U.  S.  Fish  Commission,  ISTiVTC,  p.  96. 

||  MACY:  ili>i.  N.-nitucket,  p.  224. 


70  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

oil,  which  was  brought  into  the  port  of  London  in  safety  and  triumph,  showing  a  success  unprec- 
edented in  the  annals  of  whaling,  and  which  astonished  and  .stimulated,  to  exertion  all  those 
engaged  in  the  trade  throughout  Europe  and  America.  The  success  which  attended  this  expedi- 
tion not  only  rewarded  the  seamen  and  others  who  composed  the  crew,  but  the  spirited  owner 
who  had  sent  them  out  also  must  have  felt  the  solid  and  weighty  considerations  which  he  no 
doubt  received  in  return  for  the  great  and  successful  enterprise  to  which  he  had  given  origin. 
After  the  return  of  the  Syren  the  Japan  fishery  was  speedily  established,  and  remains  to  this  day 
[1839]  the  principal  one  in  both  ratifies ;  and  although  it  has  been  so  much  resorted  to  by  ships 
of  different  nations  ever  since,  which  have  carried  off  immense  quantities  of  sperm  oil,  yet  such  is 
the  boundless  space  of  ocean  throughout  which  it  exists,  that  the  whales  scarcely  appear  to  be 
reduced  in  number.  But  they  are  more  difficult  to  get  near  than  they  were  some  years  back,  on 
account  of  the  frequent  harassing  they  have  met  with  from  boats  and  ships,  so  that  they  have 
now  become  well  aware  of  the  reckless  nature  of  their  pursuers,  and  they  evince  great  caution  and 
instinctive  cunning  ia  avoiding  them."* 

SPERM  WHALING  IN  THE  INDIAN  OCEAN.— "In  1828,"  says  Scammori,  "four  ships  were  sent 
from  Nantucket  to  cruise  for  sperm  whales  off  the  coast  of  Zanzibar,  around  the  Seychelle  Islands, 
and  about  the  ujouth  of  the  Bed  Sea;  and  one  of  the  number,  with  the  very  appropriate  name  of  Co- 
lumbus, through  the  skill  and  energy  of  the  captain,  sailed  up  the  Red  Sea  in  quest  of  the  objects 
of  pursuit."  t  The  Seychelle  Islands  had  been  visited  by  the  English  whaler  Swan,  a  vessel  of  150 
tons,  in  1823,  for  the  purpose  of  searching  for  sperm  whales,  and  the  captain  had  been  directed  to 
prosecute  the  fishery,  it'  possible,  at  the  entrance  of  the  Red  Sea  and  Persian  Gulf.  The  expedition 
did  not  prove  as  successful  as  was  anticipated,  though  the  effect  of  opening  up  the  new  fields  was 
of  great  subsequent  advantage,  "for  although,"  says  Beale,  "  the  Swan  did  not  return  until  the  27th 
of  April,  1825,  and  had  only  procured  40  tons  of  sperm  oil  during  all  the  time  of  her  absence,  yet  her 
want  of  entire  success  was  not  owing  to  the  absence  of  whales  at  the  places  to  which  they  were 
sent,  for  the  crew  saw  immense  numbers,  but  from  a  series  of  misfortunes  which  befel  them,  and 
which  rendered  them  incapable  of  prosecuting  the  fishery  with  all  the  energy  and  entire  devotion 
which  it  requires  to  bring  about  a  successful  termination.  The  ships  which  resorted  to  the  Sey- 
chelles after  the  return  of  the  Swan  had  good  reason  to  be  well  satisfied  with  the  success  which 
attended  their  efforts,  not  only  from  the  number  of  whales  which  they  found  there,  but  from  its 
being  so  much  nearer  home  than  the  Japan  fishery,  by  which  much  time  was  saved  in  the  outward 
and  homeward  passages."  \ 

CONDITION  OF  THE  FISHERY,  1837  TO  1880. — In  the  year  1837  the  sperm-whale  fishery  was  at 
its  highest  point  of  prosperity.  The  production  of  the  American  fleet  that  year  was  5,329,138 
gallons  of  sperm  oil,  valued  at  $4,396,538.85.  Most  of  the  fleet  at  this  period  were  scattered  over 
the  various  grounds  in  the  North  and  South  Pacific  Oceans,  and  in  the  Japan  Sea,  and  cargoes  of 
over  3,000  barrels  were  not  uncommon  on  a  three  years'  cruise.  "  Most  of  our  whale  ships,"  says 
Macy.  in  1835,  in  his  History  of  Nantucket,  "  go  into  the  Pacific  by  the  way  of  Cape  Horn ;  some  by 
the  eastern  route  south  of  New  Holland  and  Van  Dieman's  Laud ;  others  after  cruising  awhile  in 
the  Indian  Ocean,  in  the.  neighborhood  of  Madagascar  and  mouth  of  the  Red  Sea,  pursue  their  way 
into  the  Pacific  Ocean  through  the  Straits  of  Timor,  between  New  Guinea  on  the  south  and  the 
Pelew  Islands  on  the  north,  touching  at  the  Ladroue  Islands,  and  then  onward  to  the  Japan  coast. 
They  there  meet  ships  which  sailed  from  home  about  the  same  time  with  themselves  and  came  by 
the  way  of  Cape  Horn.  Others,  too,  meet  at  the  same  place  that  came  by  the  route  south  of  New 

*  BEALE:  op.  cit.,  p.  149.  tScAMMON:  07).  cit.,  p.  212.  t  BEALE:  op.  cit.,  p.  152. 


THE  WTIAIJ-:    KIS1IF.[;\.  71 

Holland.  It  must  appear  obvious  that  our  whale  ships  are  exploring  in  a.  more  effectual  manner 
tliau  twenty  national  ships  could  every  part  of  the  vast  Pacific.  They  liavo  discovered  many 
islands,  reefs,  and  shoals,  which  navigators  sent  out  expressly  for  exploring  purposes  had  passed 
unseen." 

The  extraordinary  success  of  the  licet  of  whalers  led  to  a  rapid  increase  in  the  number  of 
vessels  engaged,  so  that  in  1839  the'  lleet  of  the  United  States  numbered  555  vessels,  whose  aggre- 
gate tonnage  was  ir>!),354  tons.  Nearly  500  of  these  vessels  were  ships  and  barks,  a  large  propor- 
tion of  which  were  in  the  Pacific  sperm  whale  fishery.  In  1842  the  number  was  594,  at  which 
time,  according  to  Scammon,  the  foreign  whaling  fleet  amounted  to  230  sail,  and  the  combined 
fleet  of  the  world  engaged  in  whaling  was  si'4  vessels.  The  fleet  from  the  United  States  reached 
its  highest  number  in  1841!,  when  078  .ships,  34  brigs,  and  17  schooners  and  sloops,  a  total  of 
729  vessels,  measuring  230,.'>3(!  tons,  were  engaged  in  this  industry.  It  is  impossible  to  give  the 
exact  number  of  these  vessels  that  were  engaged  in  sperm  whaling,  but  it  is  probable  from  a 
careful  estimate  that  nearly  one-half  of  the  entire  fleet  followed  this  branch  of  the  whale  fishery. 
In  1844  the  sperm-whale  fleet  of  the  United  States  numbered  315  vessels,  of  which  242  were  ships 
and  barks  in  the  Pacific-,  and  73  schooners  in  the  Atlantic  sperm  fishery.  At  about  this  time  the 
Few  Holland  branch  of  the  English  whale  fishery  was  rapidly  growing,  the  proximity  of  those 
whaling  ports  of  Australia  to  some  of  the  most  productive  cruising-grounds  enabling  the  ships 
fitted  out  there  to  perform  three  voyages  while  the  English  and  American  were  performing  two. 
The  number  of  whale  ships  from  French,  German,  and  Danish  ports  at  this  time,  according  to 
Cheever,  was  between  CO  and  70,  and  the  English  fleet,  which  in  1821  numbered  323  ships,  was 
reduced  to  85. 

The  fleet  from  the  United  States  began  now  to  decrease,  and  the  receipts  of  sperm  oil  became 
less  and  less,  until  in  1860  the  entire  production  of  sperm  oil  by  American  vessels  was  only 
2,306,934  gallons.  The  price  of  this  oil,  however,  had  advanced  from  82J  cents  in  1837  to  $1.41£ 
per  gallon,  and  the  entire  fleet  of  whaling  vessels  was  reduced  to  560  sail.  In  1870  the  receipts 
of  sperm  oil  had  further  decreased  to  1,738,265  gallons,  and  the  whaling  fleet  numbered  316  sail, 
of  which  number  231  were  principally  sperm  whaling  and  the  balance  right  whaling.  These 
sperm  whalers  were  distributed  over  the  various  grounds  as  follows:  125  in  the  North  and  South 
Atlantic,  41  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  and  65  in  the  Pacific  Ocean.  In  1875  the  sperm-whale  fleet 
numbered  134  sail  and  the  entire  whaling  fleet  163  vessels,  aud  the  receipts  of  sperm  oil  were 
1,342,435  gallons. 

The  general  decline  of  the  whale-fishery,  resulting  partly  from  the  scarcity  of  whales,  has  led 
to  the  abandonment  of  many  of  the  once  famous  grounds,  and  cargoes  of  sperm  oil  are  obtained 
only  after  the  most  energetic  efforts  in  scouring  the  oceans.  In  the  Western  Pacific  Ocean,  the 
Indian  Ocean,  and  the  Japan  Sea,  where  once  large  fleets  of  vessels  cruised,  there  are  now  but  few. 
The  results  of  this  branch  of  the  whale-fishery  during  the  year  is; 7  on  the  different  grounds  were 
varied.  In  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean  eighty-two  vessels  took  13,500  barrels,  the  largest  yield 
for  many  years.  Good  catches  were  also  taken  by  the  fleet  off  Chili,  on  the  Off-shore  Ground,  at 
New  Zealand,  and  the  Sooloo  Sea.  Vessels  in  the  South  Atlantic  had  fair  success,  while  but  little 
oil  was  taken  in  the  Indian  Ocean. 

In  18SO  the  Indian  Ocean  and  Sooloo  Sea  sperm-whale  grounds  were  abandoned  by  the  Ameri- 
can fleet. 

LENGTH  OF  VOYAGES. — The  length  of  a  sperm-whaling  voyage  in  the  North  Atlantic,  where 
it  is  generally  carried  on  in  the  smaller  class  of  vessels,  is  from  six  to  eighteen  months,  though 
occasionally  a  vessel  may  return  with  a  fair  cargo  in  five  months,  while  another  vessel  of  large  size 


HISTOEY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 


may  remain  from  home  for  three  years.  Voyages  to  the  South  Atlantic  and  Indian  Ocean  occupy 
from  two  to  four  years,  depending  largely  upon  the  abundance  of  whales.  These  vessels  are 
principally  ships  and  barks,  the  schooners  and  brigs  finding  employment  in  the  North  Atlantic 
fishery. 

The  Pacific  Ocean  whalers  remain  from  home  three  or  four  years,  or  even  a  greater  length  of 
time,  transshipping  their  oil  from  San  Francisco,  Honolulu,  and  South  American  ports,  and  taking 
sup] dies  from  time  to  time  at  convenient  places. 

STATISTICS  FOR  1880. — The  receipts  of  sperm  oil  from  the  American  fleet  in  the  year  1880 
were  1,184,841  gallons,  the  smallest  quantity,  with  the  exception  of  the  years  1865  and  1874,  received 
since  the  year  1826.  The  entire  yield  of  the  fleet  from  1804  to  1880  was  166,604,496  gallons,  and  the 
number  of  sperm  whales  taken,  allowing  25  barrels  to  each  whale  and  10  per  cent,  of  those  taken 
as  lost,  was  232,790.  The  receipts  of  sperm  oil  by  decades  since  the  year  1810  were  as  follows : 


Period. 

Quantity. 

1810  to  1820 

Gallons. 
-,  y-,9  495 

1820  to  1830 

22  848  336 

1830  to  1840  

41,241  310 

1840tol850  

39,  146  055 

1850  to  1860  

26  260  806 

I860  to  1870  

1C  305  377 

1870  <<>  1880           .                    

12,8111    in:: 

The  products  of  the  sperm-whale  fishery,  in  addition  to  the  oil  from  the  blubber  and  head, 
and  ivory  from  the  teeth,  includes  that  very  valuable  substance  ambergris,  which  when  pure  is 
worth  its  weight  in  gold.  A  full  discussion  of  the  manner  of  obtaining 'ambergris  and  the  value 
of  the  production  is  given  in  the  section  of  this  report  treating  of  Preparation  of  Products. 

CAPT.  H.  W.  SEABUEY  ON  SPERM  WHALES. — "  The  largest  sperm  whale  that  I  have  seen 
taken,"  says  Gapt.  H.  W.  Seabnry,  of  New  Bedford,  "  was  120  barrels ;  though  I  have  heard  of  one 
that  made  148  barrels.  The  male  or  bull,  when  full  grown,  varies  from  70  to  110  barrels,  very 
seldom  going  beyond  the  latter  amount,  and  is  from  50  to  70  feet  long.  Female  or  cow  sperm 
whales  have  been  caught  that  made  50  barrels,  though  they  do  not  often  yield  more  than  -35  barrels. 
They  vary  much  in  size  in  different  places.  In  the  Caribbean  Sea,  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  along  the 
Gulf  Stream  through  the  Atlantic,  they  run  small,  and  full-grown  cows  will  not  average  over  15 
barrels.  Those  caught  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  near  the  equator  as  far  as  longitude  135°  west,  average 
about  25  barrels  while  those  caught  farther  west  and  in  most  parts  of  the  Indian  Ocean  run 
smaller.  The  cows  with  their  young  give  from  nothing  up  to  35  barrels,  and  seem  to  go  in  schools 
together,  and  we  frequently  see  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  and  sometimes  one  hundred  or  more  in  a 
school,  with  occasionally  a  large  bull  among  them,  and  at  times,  though  seldom,  we  find  all 
sizes  together.  The  male  or  bull  whales  seem  to  separate  from  the  cows  and  calves  when 
about  the  size  of  35  barrels,  .is  we  seldom  get  them  in  the  schools  of  the  mother  and  its  young  to 
make  more  oil  than  that,  and  we  find  the  young  bulls  in  pods  or  schools  beyond  that  size  ;  we  find 
them  in  what  we  call  40-barrel  bulls,  where  they  generally  go  in  larger  numbers  than  they  do  as 
they  increase  in  size ;  we  find  them  again  in  smaller  schools  of  about  the  size  of  50  barrels,  and 
again  about  60  barrels,  where  we  sometimes  see  eight  or  ten  together,  and  70  barrels  four  or  five,  and 
beyond  that  one,  two,  and  three,  except  on  New  Zealand  Ground,  where  the  large  whales  go  in  larger 
bodies ;  many  times  we  raise  a  large  sperm  whale  alone,  or  sometimes  two  within  a  short  distance  of 
each  other,  going  their  regular  course  from  3  to  6  miles  per  hour ;  they  will  make  their  course  as 


Till',   \\1IALE   FISIIKUY.  7)3 

.straight  as  we  can  steer  a  ship,  and  make  I  heir  distances  very  regular  during  tlie  time  they  are  up 
and  down:  a  large  whale  will  usually  stay  down  when  not  disturbed  I'roui  forty  to  lif'ty  minutes;  have 
kuowu  them  to  stay  down  otic  hour;  their  time  on  the  top  of  the  water  about  fifteen  minutes — spout- 
ing during  that  time,  say  forty-live  times,  or  three  times  to  the  minute.    Schools  are  quite  often  seen 
going  off  their  regular  course.     The  small  whale  does  not  slay  down  so  long  as  the  large  one,  and 
is  not  quire  so  regular;  when  feeding  they  are  up  and  down  quite  often.     The  usual  way  of  raising 
or  discovering  the  whale  is  from   the  mast   heads,   where  men  are  stationed  all  the  time  in  good 
weather  during  the  day  ;   the  spoilt  is  generally  seen  first,  unless  they  are  breaching  or  lap-tailing, 
which  makes  white  water  and  is  more  easily  seen  than  the  spoilt,  and  can  be  seen  farther  off.    In  a  very 
clear  day  with  a  moderate  bree/.e  a  spoilt  can  be  seen  G  miles,  and  sometimes  7  miles,  and  a  breach 
11'  when  a  large  one.    A  breach  is  when  the  whale  comes  out  of  water ;  he  generally  comes  out  head- 
foremost two-thirds  of  his  length  and   falls  over  on  his  side,  which  throws  up  a  large  amount  of 
water  :  the  size  of  the  breach  is  in  proportion  to  the  whale.     A  lap-tail  is  when  the  whale  throws 
his  tail  out  of  water,  and  when  he  lets  it  down  it  usually  throws  up  a  great  deal  of  water,  and 
experienced  whalemen  can  tell  the  different  kind  of  whales  very  readily  shortly  after  they  see  them 
spout,  or  by  their  breach;  the  sperm-whale  spout  is  blown  out  forward  and  from  the  forward  end 
of  the  head,  and  is  thick  and  bushy,  while  the  finback  is  straight  up  and  thin  ;  the  right  is  forked 
forming  two  spouts  at  the  top  ;  the  humpback  is  lower  and  thin  ;  the  breach  of  a  sperm  whale,  when 
made  regular,  will  be  like  a  cone  and  be  much  higher  than  other  whales,  which  are  lower,  and 
makes  more  of  a  splash— spreading  out;  the  length  of  the  sperm  whale  are  according  to  their 
si/.e;  the  longest  I  should  think  would  not  exceed  70  feet,  the  head  forming  about  one-third  of  the 
length,  arid  making  about  one-third  of  the  oil.    There  are  some  exceptions  as  to  this;  the  lar.c 
whale  will  usually  make  3S  per  cent,  head,  while  the  smaller  one  will  not  make  over  30  per  cent., 
so  that  it  makes  some  difference  in  a  cargo  that  is  obtained  of  large  whales  or  small  ones.    The  case 
of  a  large  whale,  which  is  the  top  of  the  head,  will  yield  from  8  to  lii  barrels  pure  spermaceti.    In 
former  years  it  was  the  custom  to  hang  the  same  in  the  ship's  tackles,  and  bail  the  oil  out  in  buckets; 
the  practice  is  still  in  use  now  in  small  vessels,  but  large  ones,  since  the  patent  gear  to  the  wind- 
lass has  been  in  use,  have  usually  hove  the  whale  head  in  on  deck,  first  separating  the  junk  from 
the  case,  and  taking  the  junk  first,  then  the  case,  and  bail  the  oil  out  while  the  same  lies  on  deck: 
(much  more  is  saved  in  this  way  than  in  the  old  process  of  bailing  them  alongside  ;)  the  outside,  or 
white  horse,  as  it  is  termed,  is  then  thrown  overboard,  the  junk  is  cut  up  into  horse-pieces,  as  they 
are  called  by  whalemen,  and  put  into  casks  on  deck,  or  tanks  below  deck,  if  the  ship  is  provided 
with  one  preparatory  to  bailing  out  the   same.   The  jaw  of  a.  large  sperm  whale  is  about  18  feet 
long,  meaning  the  longest  ones,  and  projects  out  of  the  head  about  10  feet,  and  the  prongs  or  pans 
are  inside  about  8  feet.    There  are  generally  about  torty-lbur  teeth  to  a  jaw.  a  row  being  formed  on 
each  side.    On  the  upper  jaw  there  are  no  teeth,  the  teeth  to  the  lower  jaw  going  into  sockets  in 
the  upper  when  the  mouth  is  dosed.    Their  food  is  a  fish  called  squid,  at  times  said  to  be  very  large  ; 
we  often  see  small  ones  on  the  top  of  the  water,  and  pieces  of  the  larger  ones  floating  about  on  the 
surface  from  the  size  of  a  bucket  to  the  size  of  a  barrel ;  while  in  the  act  of  killing  them  they  some- 
times throw  up  pieces  of  the  squid." 

li.  THE  DEVELOPMENT  OF  THE   NOL'TI.l  1'ACIFIC  AND  ARCTIC  WHALE  FISHEKY. 
THE  >-(»I;TH  i-AciKH1  AND  PACIFIC-AUCTIC  FISHERY. 

THE  BEGINNING  OF  THE  FISHERY. — The  history  of  whaling  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  north  of 
Bering  Strait,  begins  in  the  year  1848,  when  Captain  Boys,  of  the  bark  Superior,  of  Sag  Harbor, 
-N.  Y..  cruised  there  and  took  many  large  whales.  The  Honolulu  Friend  gives  the  following 


74  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

account  by  Captain  Roys  of  the  opening  up  of  this  profitable  whaling  region:  "I  entered  the 
Arctic  Ocean  about  the  middle  of  July,  and  cruised  from  continent  to  continent,  going  as  high  as 
latitude  70,  and  saw  whales  wherever  I  went,  cutting  in  my  last  whale  on  the  23d  of  August,  and 
returning,  through  Bering  Strait,  on  the  28th  of  the  same  month.  On  account  of  powerful  currents, 
thick  fogs,  the  near  vicinity  of  land  and  ice,  combined  with  the  imperfection  of  charts  and  want 
of  information  respecting  this  region,  I  found  it  both  difficult  and  dangerous  to  get  oil,  although 
there  were  plenty  of  whales.  Hereafter,  doubtless,  many  ships  will  go  there,  and  I  think  there 
ought  to  be  some  provision  made  to  save  the  lives  of  those  who  go  there  should  they  be  cast 
away."  * 

The  whales  taken  by  Captain  Roys  were  of  the  bowhead  species,  which  is  peculiar  to  Arctic 
regions.  Vessels  had  been  taking  the  right  whale  in  the  Okhotsk  Sea  and  neighboring  waters  for 
some  years  prior  to  the  inauguration  of  the  Bering  Strait  fishery,  but  it  was  not  until  about  this 
time  that  whalemen  began  to  take  notice  of  the  bowhead  or  Greenland  whale  that  had  been  looked 
upon  as  of  no  more  importance  than  the  finback  Or  sulphur-bottom  whales.  They  were  greatly 
surprised  when  they  discovered  with  what  ease  the  bowhead  could  be  killed,  and  the  great  amount 
of  oil  and  bone  it  yielded.  According  to  Starbnck,  the  first  bowheads  were  taken  in  the  year  1843 
on  the  coast  of  Kamchatka  by  ships  Hercules,  Captain  Ricketson,  and  Janus,  Captain  Turner, 
both  of  New  Bedford.  This  species  of  whale  was  first  taken  in  the  Okhotsk  Sea  about  1847,  or,  as 
Captain  Roys  thiuks,  in  1848  or  1849.t 

CAPTAIN  BARNES  ON  ARCTIC  WHALING  IN  1877. — The  following  account  of  Arctic  whaling 
during  the  season  of  1877  is  kindly  furnished  by  Capt.  William  M.  Barnes,  of  bark  Sea  Breeze,  of 
New  Bedford.  The  letter  was  written  to  Capt.  H.  W.  Seabury,  and  published  in  the  New  Bedford 
Evening  Standard  of  November  21,  1877. 

"We  came  yesterday  (October  22)  through  the  Aleutian  Islands  by  the  172°  west  longitude 
pass.  Better  charts  and  a  greater  familiarity  with  these  islands  than  we  formerly  possessed  have 
deprived  them  of  much  of  the  dread  we  formerly  entertained  for  them,  and  I  do  not  think  that 
any  vessel  has  lately  taken  the  old  route  on  the  down  passage  to  the  west  of  the  islands.  In  going 
.north  last  spring  we  passed  the  chain  at  the  same  place  on  May  4,  and  three  days  later  came  up 
to  ice  in  latitude  56°  30'  north.  From  that  time  till  the  23d  of  the  same  month  we  skirted  the  ice 
to  westward,  attempting  in  different  places  to  penetrate  it,  but  ever  finding  it  too  compact.  On 
May  24  we  were  in  sight  of  land,  250  miles  west-southwest  from  Cape  Navarin,  and  on  that  day  we 
entered  the  ice  in  company  with  barks  Roman  and  Mount  Wollastou.  In  a  week  we  had  worked 
through  a  belt  of  ice  of  some  40  miles  in  width,  and  had  come  into  a  strip  of  clear  water,  inshore 
of  the  ice,  and  extending  all  the  way  to  Cape  Navarin.  It  was  the  luck  of  the  Sea  Breeze  to  get 
into  this  water  a  few  hours  ahead  of  the  other  two  vessels,  and  with  a  good  breeze  we  soon  were 
a  long  way  from  them,  but  before  they  lost  sight  of  us  whales  had  made  their  appearance  in  the 
loose  ice  around  their  ships,  and  each  vessel  succeeded  in  taking  two  large  ones. 

"On  the  6th  of  June  we  were  off  Cape  Navarin,  and  on  the  10th  off  Plover  Bay,  not  having 
seen  a  single  whale.  On  the  following  day,  off  Cape  Chaplin,  we  saw  and  chased  a  whale  going 
quick  north,  and  on  the  same  day  spoke  Captain  Redfield,  of  a  trading  schooner,  who  reported  the 
eastern  part  of  the  sea  quite  free  from  ice,  and  that  he  had  seen  quite  a  number  of  whales  off  St. 
Lawrence  Island.  So  we,  going  by  our  experience  in  these  last  few  years,  supposed  that  the 
whales  had  already  gone  to  the  north,  and  made  the  best  of  our  way  into  the  Arctic.  It  proved, 
however,  that  there  was  still  a  large  body  of  whalers  somewhere  in  the  southern  ice  that  came  up 
through  the  straits  after  nearly  all  the  whales  had  passed  through.  The  several  trading  vessels 

"  Whale  and  his  Captors,  p.  105.          tSee  Scammnn's  Marine  Mammalia,  p.  GO,  ami  Niinrod  of  the  Sea,  p.  388. 


TDK  WHAM:  HSIIKRY.  75 

report  seeing  many  whales,  and  that  quite  a  number  woe  taken  1>\  (lie  nativesat  different  places. 
At  this  time  most  of  the  whalers  were  walrusing,  hut  a  few  that  were  in  the  line  of  whales  in  the 
Arctic  took  one  or  more.  In  two  or  three  days  they  had  all  gone  past  and  no  more  whales  were 
seen  till  the  ships  were  off  Point  Harrow. 

"From  the  middle  of  June  till  the  last  of  July  we  were  engaged  in  catching  walruses.  The 
past  season  was  rather  a  poor  one  for  this  branch  of  business,  as  it  was  later  than  usual  before  the 
walruses  were  found  in  large  numbers.  We  took  2,000.  that  yielded  1,200  barrels  of  oil.  There 
does  not  yet  appear  any  diminution  in  the  number  of  these  animals:  still  if  the  ships  continue  to 
catch  them  as  they  have  done  for  the  last  few  years  it  cannot  be  long  before  there  will  be  a  great 
decrease.  This  season  a  schooner  was  fitted  from  San  Francisco  expressly  for  walrus  catching, 
and  doubtless  the  fair  success  she  met  with  will  prompt  the  fitting  away  of  others  next  year,  so  I 
fear  the  poor  walruses  are  destined  to  suffer. 

"  Early  in  August  we  arrived  off  Point  Barrow.  We  found  a  number  of  whalers  already  there, 
and  some  of  them  boiling.  The  ice,  when  we  passed  np,  was  some  10  miles  offshore,  at  the  Sea 
Horse  Islands,  and  from  there  to  Point  Barrow,  70  miles,  there  was  a  strip  of  clear  water  20  miles 
wide,  but  which  will  almost  be  closed  up  if  the  wind  came  a  few  hours  from  the  west.  From  Cape 
Smith  to  Point  Barrow  there  was  a  body  of  ice  aground,  and  on  the  western  edge  of  the  bank  that 
extends  to  the  north  from  the  point  there  was  a  wall  of  ice  some  6  miles  long  and  60  feet  or  more 
in  height,  so  high  that  there  were  only  a  few  places  where  it  was  possible  from  the  "  crow's  nest" 
to  look  over  it.  This  wall,  however,  was  quite  narrow,  and  probably  was  formed  when  a  pack 
moving  from  the  west  took  the  ground  on  this  bank,  in  some  7  fathoms  of  water,  the  pressure 
behind  piling  the  succeeding  ice  upon  that  which  was  grounded.  We  found  the  ships  anchored 
near  the  end  of  this  wall.  To  the  northeast  there  was  an  opening  in  the  ice  of  several  miles  of 
greater  or  less  extent,  according  to  the  wind,  while  to  the  eastward  of  the  point  the  ice  lay  in 
huge  floes  many  miles  m  extent,  and  but  little  separated.  Only  near  the  point  was  there  much 
small  ice,  and  among  this  there  was  much  that  was  so  large  as  to  make  navigation  among  it  unsafe 
and  difficult.  The  whales  were  already  coming  from  the  east,  and  would  cross  the  open  water 
near  the  end  of  the  ground  ice  and  bury  themselves  in  the  western  pack. 

"  On  August  15  five  vessels  started  to  the  eastward,  and  the  next  day  passed  out  of  sight. 
One  vessel  after  another  would  follow,  and  by  the  last  of  the  month  the  whole  fleet  was  to  the  east 
of  Point  Barrow.  To  the  north  was  an  unknown  amount  of  ice,  but  it  was  possible,  with  care 
and  with  a  favoring  wind,  to  thread  one's  way  along  the  land  among  the  floes  of  ice.  In  this  diffi- 
cult navigation  the  Eoman  and  Milton  caine  to  grief,  and  returned  to  the  point.  Some  of  the 
vessels  report  haviug  gone  as  far  east  as  Beturn  Eeef.  The  Sea  Breeze  went  no  farther  than 
Smith's  Bay.  The  vessels  that  first  went  east  found  whales  off  Point  Tangent,  40  miles  from 
Point  Barrow,  but  farther  east  very  few  whales  were  seen— fortunately,  as  it  proved— as  it  is 
acknowledged  that  if  whales  had  been  found  and  the  fleet  been  detained  a  few  days  to  the  east- 
ward Xew  Bedford  would  again  have  had  to  deplore  the  loss  of  her  northern  fleet. 

"Early  in  September  the  ships  were  all  back  to  Point  Barrow.  The  weather  was  now  quite 
cold,  and  the  ice  encroaching  fast  on  our  open  space.  On  the  Cth  of  September,  in  company  with 
bark  Mercury,  we  steered  to  the  southwest  and  run  SO  miles  between  the  ice  and  land,  and  then 
to  the  west  of  Herald  Island.  We  found  much  open  ice  over  the  usual  whaling-ground.  Septem- 
ber 13  we  were  in  the  longitude  of  Herald  Island,  but  SO  miles  to  the  south  of  it,  and  the  ice 
trending  to  the  southwest,  so  we  turned  again  to  the  east.  Here  we  spoke  bark  Cleone,*  Captain 
iNye,  who  was  also  working  east  and  reported  the  Eainbow  working  up  towards  Herald  Island. 

'  Cleone  wrecked  the  same  year  in  R.-iint  t,a\vtvrm>  Bay,  Captain  Nye  afterwards  lost  in  Mt.  Wollaston. 


76  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

In  a  few  days  we  were  back  among-  the  eastern  ships,  and  on  the  17th  of  the  mouth  learned  that 
the  Three  Brothers  had  been  abandoned  in  the  ice  around  Point  Barrow,  and  that  the  ships  that 
brought  down  her  crew  barely  escaped  the  double  danger  of  being  inclosed  by  the  ice  and  of  being 
frozen  in.  We  had  now  northeast  wind,  quite  cold,  and  snowy.  A  few  nights  after  the  W.  A. 
Farnsworth  was  lost,  her  crew  barely  having  time  to  escape  as  they  stood. 

"At  this  time  there  was  more  young  ice  than  I  have  ever  before  seen  in  the  Arctic.  On  the 
20th  of  September,  in  latitude  70°  20',  the  whole  ocean  appeared  to  be  frozen  over,  the  young  ice 
being  nearly  an  inch  thick,  so  that  the  .ship  needed  a  fresh  breeze  to  force  her  way  through  it;  and 
a  few  days  later  we  found  ice  nearly  2  inches  thick  still  farther  south. 

"  About  the  20th  of  September  several  vessels  left,  some  it  is  reported  leaving  the  sea  to  look 
for  right  whales.  Others  went  westward. 

"The  northeast  wind  freshened  to  a  gale,  and  on  the  25th  of  September  we  had  drifted  to  south 
of  Cape  Lisburne,  and  in  company  with  the  Mount  Wollaston  anchored  under  the  lee  of  Point 
Hope.  Next  day  took  our  anchors  and  steered  south  to  leave,  the  sea,  but  before  we  had  reached 
East  Cape  met  a  south  wind  and  swung  off  again  for  Herald  Island.  October  1,  sighted  Herald 
Island,  also  vessels  whaling,  and  soon  after  whales.  The  south  wind,  with  a  current  running  north, 
had  carried  the  ice  so  Jar  that  ships  were  now  whaling  close  to  the  island  in  clear  water.  Learned 
soon  atter  that  there  had  been  many  whales  here;  that  the  Rainbow  had  worked  up  through  80 
miles  of  ice  and  found  them  here  about  the  middle  of  September,  and  that  all  the  vessels  here  had 
been  doing  well.  There  were  in  sight  here  nine  sails;  if  any  more,  not  immediately  around  the 
island,  and  it  was  thought  that  all  the  others  had  left  the  sea.  The  last  whales  were  taken  here 
October  10,  by  barks  Cleone  and  Helen  Mar.  We  took  three  only,  making  330  barrels.  For  many 
years  I  have  not  seen  so  many  or  such  large  whales  as  about  here  for  the  first  week  iu  October. 

"  Left  Herald  Island  October  10.  On  the  12th  anchored  in  Saint  Lawrence  Bay.  Found  here 
the  Rainbow,  17  whales;  Norman,  1-4  whales  ;  and  Mount  Wollaston,  S  whales.  Soon  after  arrived 
there  the  Pacific  11  whales,  the  Northern  Light  9  whales,  the  Progress  S  whales,  the  Helen  Mar  13 
whales,  and  the  Cleone  11  whales. 

"  We  sailed  from  Saint  Lawrence  Bay  October  18,  leaving  five  vessels  there.  Two  days  later 
we  killed  and  lost  a  right  whale,  near  Saint  Matthew's  Island,  by  the  sinking  of  the  whale.  And 
now  the  season  seems  closed,  and  nothing  remains  but  to  make  the  best  of  our  way  to  port.  *  *  * 

"  Long  before  you  will  receive  this,  in  all  probability  you  have  learned  all  that  is  to  be  known 
concerning  the  vessels  abandoned  last  season.  Only  two  vessels  survived  the  winter.  There 
were,  I  believe,  iive  men,  Hawaiian  natives,  who  made  their  way  over  the  ice  to  the  Acors  Barns, 
the  vessel  that  lay  nearest  the  land,  away  to  the  east  of  Point  Barrow.  It  chanced  that  in  the 
gale  that  soon  came  on,  after  the  fleet  was  abandoned,  that  this  vessel  was  driven  through  a  break 
in  the  gnmnd-ice  that  wal'c.d  the  northern  shore,  and  these  men  succeeded  in  reaching  the  land 
and  Point  Barrow  soon  afler  the  departure  of  the  vessels  that  were  saved.  Three  of  these  men 
were  badly  frozen  and  si  on  died.  The  two  others  were  kindly  cared  for  by  the  natives  on  the  point, 
and  when  I  saw  them  on  board  Hawaiian  brig  William  H.  Allen  were  fat  and  hearty.  The  bark 
Clara  Bell  was  abandoned  a  few  miles  south  from  Cape  Smith.  She  was  found  lying  at  her  anchor, 
wholly  clear  from  ice,  and  with  no  further  damage  than  was  dime  by  the  natives,  who  took  what- 
ever was  of  any  use  to  them,  and  cut  and  hacked  till  they  had  made  a  bad  looking  vessel  of  her. 
The  first  few  vessels  helped  themselves  to  whatever  was  left  of  value,  and  the  schooner  Newton 
Booth,  of  San  Francisco,  took  the  remaining  oil.  The  Clara  Bell  lay  (here  at  her  anchor  till  about 
the  20th  of  September,  when  she  broke  adrift  and  came  up  with  the  current  and  went  out  of  sight- 
in  the  ice  to  the  northeast.  She  was  last  seen  off  Harrison's  Bay. 


THE  WHALK  FISHERY.  77 

"I  cannot  learn  that  any  tiling  certain  is  known  concerning  the  other  abandoned  ships.  There 
was  a  report'  that  sonic  trading  vessel  understood  from  the  natives,  at  Point  Hope,  that  during  the 
winter  a  ship  made  her  appearance  off  the  point,  among  the  ice;  that  they  (the  natives)  hoarded 
her:  that  they  found  no  one  on  her;  lint  on  the  ice  near  her  the  bodies  of  two  men  who  had 
perished  while  trying  to  reach  the  land.  It  seems  probable  to  me  that  in  the  strong  northeast 
gales  of  the  fall  the  abandoned  ships  were  driven  to  the  southwest,  and  were  drifting  around  with 
the  ice  through  the  winter,  and  if  not  sooner  broken  to  pieces,  were  carried  a  way  in  the  spring  among 
the  ice  moving  north.  The  Acors  P.arus  was  burned  by  the  natives. 

"The  men  that  spent  the  winter  among  the  natives  report  most  kind  treatment.  They  say, 
however,  that  occasionally  they  had  to  flee  from  one  house  to  another,  when  the  inmates  of  the 
first  were  ha\  ing  a  drunken  frolic,  as  at  such  times  they  could  not  be  sure  of  their  lives.  A  few 
years  ago  these  people  did  not  know  the  use  of  intoxicating  liquors.  "What  a  comment  on  our 
boasted  civilization  ami  on  the  genuineness  of  our  Christianity  that  this  little  colony  of  people,  in 
this  most  remote  corner  of  the  earth,  must  suffer  and  be  imbrnted  because  of  us  !  It  is  a  grievous 
shame,  and  one  that  I  hope  will  soon  come  to  an  end."  [The  Sea  freeze  arrived  at  San  Francisco 
November  11,  having  had  a  long  and  rough  passage  down — a  succession  of  southerly  gales — 
with  1,450  baircls  oil.  5,000  pounds  whalebone,  and  0,000  pounds  ivory.] 

CAPTAIN  PEASE  ox  ARCTIC  •WHALING-.— Captain  Pease,  of  the  ship  Champion,  of  Edgartowu, 
in  a  letter  published  in  the  New  lied  ford  Shipping  List,  of  November  29, 1870,  thus  describes 
some  of  the  incidents  of  Arctic  whaling  : 

•'  We  made  and  entered  the  ice  on  the  17th  day  of  May.  about  40  miles  south  of  Cape  Xavarin, 
weather  thick  and  snowing;  on  the  20th  the  weather  cleared  up,  showing  about  a  dozen  ships  in 
the  ice.  The  weather  having  every  appearance  of  a  gale.  I  worked  out  of  the  ice.  and  soon  found 
myself  surrounded  by  fifty  ships.  Saw  but  one  whale  in  the  ice.  On  the  23d,  weather  pleasant, 
two  or  three  ships  worked  a  short  distance  in  the  ice  ;  the  next  day  the  fleet  commenced  following 
and  in  a  few  hours  fifty  ships  were  on  a  race  to  Cape  Thaddeus ;  it  was  oak  against  ice,  and  like 
ail  heavy  moving  bodies  which  come  in  collision.  •  the  weakest  structure  always  gives  way ;'  so 
with  the  ships,  they  all  came  out  more  or  less  damaged  in  copper  and  sheathing — the  Champion 
four  days  ahead  to  Cape,  Thaddeus,  in  clear  water. 

"Unfortunately,  for  the  first  time  since  whaling,  there  were  no  whales.  On  the  13th  of  June 
we  lowered  for  a  whale  going  quick  into  the  ice.  Cape  Agcheu  bearing  southwest  00  miles,  and 
before  getting  the  boats  clear  the  ice  packed  around  us.  From  that  time  until  the  2litli,  so  close 
and  heavy  was  the  ice  packed  around  us,  that  we  found  it  impossible  to  move  the  ship.  With  our 
sails  furled,  we  drifted  with  the  ice  about  12  miles  per  day  toward  Cape  Agchen,  the  ship  lying 
as  quiet  as  in  a  dock,  but  on  the  22d,  when  close  under  the  cape,  a  gale  set  in  from  the  southward, 
producing  a  heavy  swell  and  causing  the  ship  to  strike  heavily  against  the  ice.  We  saved  our 
rudder  by  hooking  our  blubber-hooks  to  it  and  heaving  them  well  taut  with  hawsers  to  our 
quarters.  Had  the  current  not  taken  an  easterly  shore  course,  the  ship  must  have  gone  on  shore. 
The  wind  blowing  on  shore,  which  was  distant  less  than  half  a  mile,  5  to  (i  fathoms  of  water  under 
us,  ship  rolling  and  pounding  heavily  against  the  ice,  weather  so  thick  we  could  not  see  5<i  yards. 
made  it  rather  an  anxious  time.  For  thirty-six  hours  I  was  expecting  some  sharp  pointed  rock 
would  crash  through  her  sides.  On  the  24th,  finding  only  4.\  fathoms  water,  little  current,  with 
the  larger  pieces  of  ice  around,  we  let  go  an  anchor  and  held  her  to  a  large  floe  of  ice.  Here  we 
broke  our  sampson  post  off  in  the  deck.  On  the  morning  of  the  25th  the  weather  cleared  up. 
showing  our  position  to  be  at  the  head  of  a  small  bay  about  15  miles  east  of  Cape  Agchen.  Here 
for  two  days  we  lay  becalmed  and  ice-bound.  On  the  second  day  the  ice  loosened,  when  we  took 


78  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

our  anchor  and  by  eighteen  hoars'  hard  work  succeeded  in  kedging  about  4  miles  seaward ;  a 
breeze  then  springing  up  from  off  shore,  we  spread  sail  arid  passed  into  clear  water.  We  spent  a 
short  time  in  the  straits,  but  saw  nothing  of  the  bowhead  kind.  Passed  into  the  Arctic  July  — , 
and  found  most  of  the  fleet  catching  walrus ;  about  a  dozen  ships  (this  one  among  the  number) 
went  cruising  along  the  northern  ice  for  bowheads.  After  prospecting  from  Icy  Cape  to  near 
Herald  Island,  and  seeing  not  a  whale,  I  returned  to  the  walrus  fleet.  The  first  ship  I  saw  was 
the  Yineyard,  with  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  walrus;  since  then  I  have  not  seen  or  heard 
from  her.  This  walrusing  is  quite  a  new  business,  and  ships  which  had  engaged  in  it  the  previous 
seaspn  and  came  up  prepared  were  very  successful.  While  at  it,  we  drove  business  as  hard  as  the 
best  of  them,  but  soon  became  convinced  that  tlie  ship's  company  (taken  collectively)  were  much 
inferior  to  many  others ;  they  could  not  endure  the  cold  and  exposure  expected  of  them.  I  have 
seen  boats'  crews  that  were  properly  rigged,  kill  and  strip  a  boat  load  of  walrus  in  the  same  length 
of  time  another  (not  rigged)  would  be  in  killing  one  and  hauling  him  on  the  ice.  We  took  some 
four  hundred,  making  about  230  barrels.  About  August  5  all  the  ships  went  in  pursuit  of  bow- 
heads  (most  of  them  to  Point  Barrow).  When  off  the  Sea  Horse  Islands  we  saw  a  few  whales 
working  to  the  westward,  just  enough  to  detain  us  ;  we  took  two  making  200  barrels ;  the  weather 
cold,  and  a  gale  all  the  time.  In  September  I  worked  up  about  70  miles  from  Point  Barrow;  saw 
quite  a  show  of  small  whales  in  the  sea ;  took  four  which  made  about  100  barrels.  As  that  was  a 
fair  sample,  and  not.  having  the  right  boys  to  whale  in  that  ice,  where  the  thermometer  stood  only 
8- above  zero,  I  went  back  to  the  westward.  Ships  that  had  from  forty  to  fifty  men  (clad  in  skins) 
and  officers  accustomed  to  that  particular  kind  of  whaling,  did  well.  In  going  back  the  fourth 
mate  struck  a  whale  which  made  about  70  barrels.  From  the  28th  of  September  to  the  4th  of 
October  we  saw  a  good  chance  to  get  oil,  had  the  weather  been  good,  and  a  well,  hardy  crew. 
We  could  not  cut  and  whale  at  the  same  time.  We  took  four  whales  which  would  have  made  500 
barrels  had  we  had  good  weather  to  boil  them.  On  the  4th  of  October  we  put  away  for  the  straits, 
in  company  with  the  Seneca,  John  Howland,  and  John  Wells— a  gale  from  the  northeast,  and 
snowing.  On  the  evening  of  the  7th  it  blew  almost  a  hurricane ;  hove  the  ship  to  south  of  Point 
Hope,  with  main -topsail  furled;  lost  starboard  bow  boat,  with  davits — ship  covered  with  ice  and 
oil.  On  the  10th  entered  the  straits  in  a  heavy  gale ;  when  about  8  m  iles  south  of  the  Diomedes, 
had  to  heave  to  under  bare  poles,  blowing  furiously,  and  the  heaviest  sea  I  ever  saw ;  ship  making- 
bad  weather  of  it;  we  had  about  125  barrels  of  oil  on  deck,  and  all  our  fresh  water;  our  blubber 
between  decks  in  horse  pieces,  and  going  from  the  forecastle  to  the  mainmast  every  time  she 
pitched,  and  impossible  to  stop  it;  ship  covered  with  ice  and  oil ;  could  only  muster  four  men  in 
a  watch ;  decks  flooded  with  water  all  the  time ;  no  fire  to  cook  with  or  to  warm  by,  made  it  the 
most  anxious  and  miserable  time  I  ever  experienced  in  all  my  sea  service.  During  the  night 
shipped  a  heavy  sea,  which  took  off  bow  and  waist  boats,  davits,  slide-boards,  and  everything 
attacked,  staving  about  20  barrels  of  oil.  At  daylight  on  the  second  day  we  found  ourselves  in  17 
fathoms  of  water,  and  about  6  miles  from  the  center  cape  of  Saiut  Lawrence  Island.  Fortunately 
the  gale  moderated  a  little,  so  that  we  got  two  close-reefed  topsails  and  reefed  courses  on  her, 
and  by  sundown  were  clear  of  the  west  end  of  the  island.  Had  it  not  moderated  as  soon  as  it  did, 
we  should,  by  10  a.  m.,  have  been  shaking  hands  with  our  departed  friends." 

Another  difficulty  of  North  Pacific  navigation  is  mentioned  in  a  letter  from  Capt.  William  H. 
Kelley,  of  the  bark  James  Allen,  of  New  Bedford,  to  the  Hawaiian  Gazette,  in  1874.*  He  says : 
"  One  of  the  perplexities  of  the  navigator  cruising  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  is  the  singular  effect  northerly 
and  southerly  winds  seem  to  have  upon  the  mariner's  compass.  Captains  have  noticed  this  singu- 

*  See  New  Bedford  "  Shipping  List,"  January  5,  1876. 


THE   WHALE  FISHERY.  79 

larity  for  years,  and  no  solution  of  the  matter,  as  far  as  I  have  learned,  has  yet  been  arrived  at. 
Navigators  have  noticed  that  with  a  north  or  northeast  wind  they  can  tack  in  eight  points,  while 
with  the  wind  south  or  southwest  in  from  fourteen  to  sixteen  points.  All  navigators  know  that  for 
a  square-rigged  vessel  to  lie  within  four  points  of  the  wind  is  an  utter  impossibility,  the  average 
with  square-rigged  vessels  being  six  points.  This  peculiar  action  of  the  compass  renders  the  navi- 
gation of  the  Arctic  ditlieult  and  at  times  dangerous,  especially  in  thick,  foggy  weather.  Naviga- 
tors in  these  regions  have  proved  to  their  satisfaction  that  on  the  American  coast,  north  and  east 
of  Point  Barrow,  to  steer  a  laud  course  by  the  compass  and  allow  the  variations  given  by  the 
chart,  -14°  15'  east,  with  the  wind  at  north  or  northeast,  icoidd  run  the  ship  axhore,  steering  either 
cunt  or  icest.  *  *  Experience,  therefore,  has  obliged  navigators  to  ignore  the  variations 
marked  upon  the  charts,  and  lay  the  ship's  course  by  the  compass  alone  to  make  a  land-course  safe  in 
thick  weather.  *  *  With  an  east  or  west  wind'  the  effect  on  the  compass  is  not  so  great  as 
with  other  winds.  I  have  said  this  much  to  show  the  working  of  the  compass  in  the  Arctic  Ocean 
during  different  winds,  not  that  I  admit  that  the  wind  has  any  effect  whatever  upon  the  compass. 
I  give  the  facts  as  they  came  under  my  observation,  and  corroborative  testimony  will  be  borne  by 
any  shipmaster  who  has  cruised  in  the  Arctic  Ocean." 

THE  DANGERS  OF  THE  FISHERY. — Whaling  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  is  attended  with  uncertain  ty 
iu  every  particular,  both  in  regard  to  the  condition  and  movement  of  the  ice,  and  the  movement  of 
the  whales.  The  early  departure  of  the  animals  to  inaccessible  regions  among  the  ice,  and  the 
anxious  weeks  spent  in  awaiting  their  return,  make  this  ground  one  of  the  most  exciting  regions 
that  whalemen  can  find,  and  the  surroundings  are  of  more  than  usual  interest.  Much  has  been 
written  in  the  accounts  of  Arctic  expeditions  descriptive  of  the  icy  regions,  and  much  is  said  of  the 
dangers  attending  navigation  in  those  seas.  Nothing  can  exceed  the  daring  and  pluck  of  the 
whalemen  in  their  endeavors  to  search  out  and  capture  their  prey.  Forgetful  of  surrounding 
dangers,  they  pursue  the  spouting  animal  far  up  among  the  ice-floes,  and  many  a  vessel  has  been 
crushed  to  pieces  by  the  ice  as  she  was  tracking  out  a  whale.  Anxious  to  secure  full  fares,  they 
remain  amid  the  freezing  waters  until  early  winter  stares  them  in  the  face,  when  they  plow  their 
way  homeward.  Several  disasters  have  overtaken  the  fleet  in  their  zeal  to  catch  the  whale,  as  in 
1871,  when  thirty-two  noble  craft  were  left  at  anchor  in  sight  of  certain  destruction,  the  crews, 
after  arduous  labor,  saving  themselves  in  boats. 

The  story  of  the  disaster  of  1871,  as  also  that  of  1876,  is  told  as  follows  by  Starbuck : 

"In  the  fall  of  1871  came  news  of  a  terrible  disaster  to  the  Arctic  fleet,  rivaling  in  its  extent 
the  depredations  of  the  rebel  cruiser.  Off  Point  Belcher  thirty-four  vessels  lay  crushed  and 
mangled  in  the  ice;  in  Honolulu  were  over  twelve  hundred  seamen  who  by  this  catastrophe  were 
shipwrecked. 

"Early  in  May  the  fleet  arrived  south  of  Cape  Thaddeus,  where  they  found  the  ice  closely 
packed,  and  the  wind  blowing  strong  from  the  northeast.*  This  state  of  affairs  continued  during 
the  most  of  the  month.  June  came  in  with  light  and  variable  winds  and  foggy  weather;  but  the 
ice  opening  somewhat,  the  ships  pushed  through  in  sight  of  (-'ape  Navarin,  where  they  took  five 
or  six  whales,  and  for  a -short  time  heard  many  more  spouting  among  the  ice.  About  the  middle 
of  June  the  ice  opened  still  more,  and  the  fleet  passed  on  through  Anadir  Sea,  taking  a  few  whales 
as  they  went.  By  the  30th  of  June  the  vessels  had  passed  through  Bering  Strait,  preceded 
by  the  whales.  Waiting  the  further  1-reakiug  up  of  the  ice,  they  commenced  catching  walruses, 
but  with  comparatively  poor  success.  During  the  latter  part  of  July,  the  ice  disappearing  from, 
the  east  shore  south  of  Cape  Lisburne,  the  fleet  pushed  on  to  the  eastward,  following  the  ice,  the 

•Harprr's  \V<-rk]y,  Di crniln-r  2,  Io71. 


80  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

principal  portion  of  which  was  in  latitude  69°  10'.  A  clear  strip  of  water  appearing  on  the  east 
shore,  leading  along  the  land  to  the  northeast,  they  worked  along  through  it  to  within  a  few  miles 
of  Icy  Cape.  Here  some  of  tin-  vessels  anchored,  unable  to  proceed  farther  on  account  of  the  ice 
lying  on  Blossom  Shoals. 

"About  the  Cth  of  August  the  ice  cm  the  shoals  started,  and  several  ships  got  under  way. 
In  a  few  days  most  of  the  fleet  was  north  of  the  shoals,  and,  aided  by  favorable  weather,  they 
worked  to  the  northeast  as  far  as  Wainwright  Inlet,  eight  vessels  reaching  there  on  the  7th, 
Here  the  ships  either  anchored  or  made  fast  to  the  ice,  which  was  very  heavy  and  densely  packed, 
and  whaling  was  carried  on  briskly  for  several  days,  and  every  encouragement  was  given  for  a 
favorable  catch.  On  the  lith  of  August  a  sadden  change  of  wind  set  the  ice  inshore,  catching  a 
huge  number  of  boats  which  were  cruising  for  whales  in  the  open  ice,  and  forcing  the  ships  to  get 
under  way  1o  avoid  being  crushed.  The  vessels  worked  inshore  under  the  lee  of  the  ground  ice, 
and  succeeded,  despite  the  difficulties  of  the  situation,  in  saving  their  boats  by  hauling  them  for 
long  distances  over  the  ice,  some  of  them,  however,  being  badly  stoven.  On  the  13th  the  ice 
grounded,  leaving  a  narrow  strip  of  water  along  the  laud  up  to  Point  Belcher.  In  this  open 
water  lay  the  fleet  anchored  or  fast  to  the  ice,  waiting  for  the  expected  northeast  wind  that  was 
to  relieve  them  of  their  icy  barrier,  whaling  constantly  being  carried  on  by  the  boats,  though 
necessarily  under  many  adversities. 

"On  the  15th  of  August  the  wind  came  around  to  the  westward,  driving  the  ice  still  closer 
to  the  shore  and  compelling  the  vessels  to  work  close  in  to  the  land.  The  drift  of  the  ice  inland 
was  so  rapid  that  some  of  the  vessels  were  compelled  to  slip  their  cables,  there  being  no  time  to 
weigh  anchor.  By  this  event  the  fleet  was  driven  into  a  narrow  strip  of  water  not  over  a  half 
a  mile  in  width  at  its  widest  part.  Here,  scattered  along  the  coast  for  20  miles,  they  lay,  the  water 
from  14  to  24  feet  deep,  and  ice  as  far  as  the  lookouts  at  the  mastheads  could  see.  Whaling  was 
still  carried  on  with  the  boats  off  Sea-Horse  Island  and  Point  Franklin,  although  the  men  were 
obliged  to  cut  up  the  whales  on  the  ice  and  tow  the  blubber  to  the  ships. 

"  On  the  -5th  a  strong  northeast  gale  set  in  and  drove  the  ice  to  a  distance  of  from  4  to  8 
miles  offshore,  and  renewed  attention  was  given  to  the  pursuit  of  the  whale.  Up  to  this  time  no 
immediate  danger  had  been  anticipated  by  the  captains  beyond  that  incidental  to  their  usual 
sojourn  in  these  seas.  The  Eskimo,  nevertheless,  with  the  utmost  friendliness,  advised  theni  to 
get  away  with  all  possible  speed,  as  the  sea  would  not  again  open;  but  this  was  contrary  to  the 
Arctic  experience  of  the  whalemen,  and  they  resolved  to  hold  their  position. 

"On  the  29th  began  the  series  of  conflicting  circumstances  resulting  in  the  destruction  of  the 
fleet.  A  southwest  wind  sprang  up,  light  in  the  morning,  but  freshening  so  toward  evening  that 
the  ice  returned  inshore  with  such  rapidity  as  to  catch  some  of  the  ships  in  the  pack.  The  rest  of 
the  fleet  retreated  ahead  of  the  ice,  and  anchored  in  from.  3  to  4  fathoms  of  water,  the  ice  still 
coming  in  and  small  ice  packing  around  them.  The  heavy  floe-ice  grounded  in  shoal  water  and 
between  it  and  the  shore  lay  the  ships,  with  scarcely  room  to  swing  at  their  anchors. 

"On  the  2d  of  September  the  brig  Comet  was  caught  by  the  heavy  ice  and  completely  crushed, 
her  crew  barely  making  their  escape  vo  the  other  vessels.  She  was  pinched  until  her  timbers  all 
snapped  and  the  stern  was  forced  out.  and  hung  suspended  for  three  or  four  days,  being  in  the 
mean  time  thoroughly  wrecked  by  the  other  vessels ;  then  the  ice  relaxed  its  iron  grip  and  she 
sunk.  Still  our  hardy  whalemen  hoped  that  the  looked-for  northeasterly  gale  would  come,  and 
t'clt  greater  uneasiness  on  account  of  the  loss  of  time .than  because  of  their  present  peril.  Their 
experience  could  not  point  io  the  time  when  the  favoring  gale  had  Tailed  to  assure  their  egress. 
Nothing  but  ice  was  visible  oil'  shore,  however,  the  only  clear  water  being  where  they  lay,  and 


THE  VYIIAU     FISIIHHY.  Si 

that  narrowed  to  a  strip  from  L'OO  yards  to  liiilf'ii  mile  in  width,  and  extending  from  Point  lielcher 
in  L'  or  .'!  miles  south  of  AVainwright  Inlet.  The  southeast  and  southwest  winds  still  continued, 
light  from  the  former  and  fresh  from  the  hitter  direction,  and  every  day  the  ice  packed  more  and 
more  closely  around  the  doomed  vessels.' 

"On  the  7th  of  September  the  bark  Koman.  while  cutting  in  a  whale,  was  caught  between 
two  immense  Hoes  of  ice  oil'  Sea  Horse  Islands,  whence  she  had  helplessly  drifted,  and  crushed  to 
atoms,  the  olliccrs  and  crew  escaping  over  the  ice,  saving  scarcely  anything  but  their  lives. 

"The  next  day  beheld  the  bark  Awashonks  meet  a  similar  fate,  and  a  third  fugitive  crew 
was  distributed  among  the  remaining  ships.  The  peril  was  now  apparent  to  all  :  the  season  was 
rapidly  approaching  the  end;  the  ice  showed  no  signs  of  starting,  but  on  the  contrary  the  little 
clear  water  that  remained  was  rapidly  filling  with  ice  and  closing  around  them.  Frequent  and 
serious  were  the  consultations  held  by  the  captains  of  the  beleaguered  vessels.  One  thing  at 
least  was  evident  without  discussion;  if  the  vessels  could  not  be  extricated,  the  crews  must  be 
got  away  before  winter  set  in,  or  the  scanty  stock  of  provisions  they  had  could  only  postpone  an 
inevitable  starvation.  As  a  precautionary  measure,  pending  a  decision  on  the  best  course  to 
adopt,  men  were  set  to  work  to  build  up  the  boats,  that  is,  to  raise  the  gunwales  so  as  to  enable 
them  the  better  to  surmount  the  waves.  Shoes*  were  also  put  on  them,  to  prevent,  as  far  as  pos- 
sible, injury  from  the  ice.  The  brig  Kohola  was  lightened  in  order  to  get  her  over  the  bar  at 
"\Yain\viight  Inlet,  upon  which  there  were  only  5  or  6  feet  of  water.  Her  oil  and  stores  were 
transferred  to  the  deck  of  the  Charlotte,  of  San  Francisco,  but  when  discharged  it  was  found  that 
she  still  drew  1)  feet  of  water,  and  the  attempt  to  get  her  over  the  shoal  water  was  abandoned.! 
An  expedition  of  three  boats,  under  the  command  of  Capt.  D.  E.  Frazer,  was  now  sent  down  the 
coast  to  ascertain  how  far  the  ice  extended;  what  chances  there  were  of  getting  throngh  the 
barrier;  what  vessels,'  if  any,  were  outside,  and  what  relief  conld  be  relied  upon.  Captain 
Frazer  returned  on  the  12th,  and  leported  that  it  was  utterly  impracticable  to  get  any  of  the 
main  body  of  the  fleet  out  ;  that  the  Arctic  and  another  vessel  were  in  clear  water  below  the 
field,  which  extended  to  the  south  of  Blossom  Shoals,  80  miles  from  the  imprisoned  crafts  :  and 
that  five  more  vessels,  then  fast  in  the  lower  edge  of  the  ice,  were  likely  to  get  out  soon.  He  also 
reported,  what  every  man  then  probably  took  for  granted,  that  these  free  vessels  would  lay  by  to 
aid  their  distressed  comrades.  It  is  a  part  of  the  whaleman's  creed  to  stand  by  his  mates.  On 
healing  this  reported,  it  was  decided  to  abandon  the  fleet,  and  make  the  best  of  their  way,  while 
they  could,  to  the  rescuing  vessels.  It  was  merely  a  question  whether  they  should  leave  their 
>hips  and  save  then1  lives,  or  stand  by  their  ships  and  perish  with  them. 

••The  morning  of  the  14th  of  September  came,  and  a  sad  day  it  was  to  the  crews  of  .the  ice- 
bound crafts.  At  noon  the  signals,  flags  at  the  mast  heads,  union  down,  were  set,  which  told 

them  the  time  had  come  when  they  must  sever  themselves  from  their  vessels.  f    As  a  stricken  family 

• 

"A  sheathing  —  in  this  case  copper  —  bring  used. 

tThe  same  experiment,  with  the  same  rr.xult,  was  tried   liy  Captain  Kedlield,  of  the  brig  Victoiia. 
t  The  following  protect  was  written  on  the  lath  of  September,  and  signed  by  all  tlie  captains  on  the  follow  ing  day 
.iliaiidoiiing  their  vessels  : 


••1'oixT   lir.LCHKi:,    .in-ll<-  /let/in,  S<  /ilnn/m   ]'!,  1871. 

••  Kim«  all  men  by  these  presents,  I  hat   we,  the  iindi-t  signed,  masters  of  whale  ships  now  lying  at  Point    I'.eh  her, 
afiei  imldiii".  a  i  .....  -i  ing  coiieeniing  o,;i  dreadful  -it  aai  ,on,  have  all  eome  to  tin?  conclusion  that  our  ships  cannot  be 
•  lit  Uiia  year,  and  there  beiog  no  harboi  thai    '  els  into,  and   mil  lia\ing  provisions  enough  to 

teed  our  crews  to  exceed  three  nmnth^.  and  being  in  a  iiauvn  country,  where  there  is  neither  food  nor  fuel  to  be 
obtained,  we  feel  mirsel\e>  under  the  painful  necessity  of  abandoning  our  vessels,  and  trying  to  work  our  way  south 
with  our  boats,  and.  if  po~-.il  >le.  4,1  on  ln.aid  of  .--hips  thai  an-  -onih  of  the  ice.  We  think  it  w  mild  not  be  prudent  to 
leave  a  single  soul  to  look  after  onr  vessels,  as  the  first  ale  will  crowd,  ile  ice  ashon  and  eithei  cue-: 

SEC.  v,  VOL.  11  -  6 


82  HISTORY  AOT)  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

feels  when  the  devouring  flames  destroy  the  home  which  was  their  shelter,  and  with  it  the  little 
souvenirs  and  priceless  memorials  which  had  been  so  carefully  collected  and  so  earnestly  treasured, 
so  feels  the  mariner  when  compelled  to  tear  himself  from  the  ship,  which  seems  to  him  at  once  parent, 
friend,  and  shelter.  In  these  vessels  lay  the  result  of  all  the  toil  and  danger  encountered  by  them 
since  leaving  home.  Their  chests  contained  those  little  tokens  received  from  or  reserved  for  friends 
thousands  of  miles  away,  and  nothing  could  be  taken  with  them  save  certain  prescribed  and 
indispensable  articles.  With  heavy  hearts  they  entered  their  boats  and  pulled  away,  a  mournful, 
almost  funereal,  flotilla,  toward  where  the  vessels  lay  that  were  to  prove  their  salvation.  Tender 
women  and  children  were  there,  who,  by  their  presence,  sought  to  relieve  the  tedium  of  a  long 
voyage  to  their  husbands  and  fathers,  and  the  cold  north  wind  blew  pitilessly  over  the  frozen  sea, 
chilling  to  the  marrow  the  unfortunate  fugitives.  * 

"  The  first  night  out  the  wanderers  encamped  on  the  beach  behind  the  sand-hills.  A  scanty 
supply  of  fire- wood  they  had  with  them  and  such  drift-wood  as  they  could  collect  sufficed  to  make 
a  fire  to  protect  them  somewhat  from  the  chilling  frost.  The  sailors  dragged  boats  over  the  hills, 
and  by  turning  them  bottom  upward  and  covering  them  with  sails,  made  quite  comfortable  habi- 
tations for  the  women  and  children.  The  rest  made  themselves  comfortable  as  best  they  could. 

"  On  the  second  day  out,"  says  Captain  Preble,  "  the  boats  reached  Blossom  Shoals,  and  there 
spied  the  refuge-vessels  lying  5  miles  out  from  shore,  and  behind  a  tongue  of  ice  that  stretched 
like  a  great  peninsula  10  miles  farther  down  the  coast,  and  around  the  point  of  which  the  weary 
crews  were  obliged  to  pull  before  thej  could  get  aboard.  The  weather  here  was  very  bad,  the 
wind  blowing  fresh  from  the  southwest,  causing  a  sea  that  threatened  the  little  craft  with  annihi- 
lation. Still  the  hazardous  journey  had  to  be  performed,  and  there  was  no  time  to  be  lost  in  setting 
about  it.  *  *  *  All  submitted  to  this  new  danger  with  becoming  cheerfulness,  and  the  little 
boats  started  on  their  almost  hopeless  voyage,  even  the  women  and  children  smothering  their 
apprehensions  as  best  they  could.  On  the  voyage  along  the  inside  of  the  icy  point  of  the  peninsula 
everything  went  moderately  well ;  but  on  rounding  it  they  encountered  the  full  force  of  a  tremen- 
dous southwest  gale  and  a  sea  that  would  have  made  the  stoutest  ship  tremble.  In  this  fearful 
sea  the  whale-boats  were  tossed  about  like  pieces  of  cork.  They  shipped  quantities  of  water  from 
every  wave  which  struck  them,  requiring  the  utmost  diligence  of  all  hands  at  bailing  to  keep 
them  afloat.  Everybody's  clothing  was  thoroughly  saturated  with  the  freezing  brine,  while  all 
the  bread  and  flour  in  the  boats  was  completely  spoiled.  The  strength  of  the  gale  was  such  that 
the  ship  Arctic,  after  getting  her  portion  of  the  refugees  on  board,  parted  her  chain-cable  and  lost 
her  port  anchor,  but  brought  up  again  with  her  starboard  anchor,  which  held  until  the  little  fleet 
was  ready  to  sail. 

"By  four  o'clock  in  the  afte/noon  of  the  second  day  all  were  distributed  among  the  seven 
vessels  that  formed  the  remnant  of  the  fleet  that  sailed  for  the  Arctic  Ocean  the  previous  spring. 
Not  a  person  was  lost  to  add  to  the  grief  already  felt  or  to  increase  the  gloom  of  their  situation. 

ships  or  drive  them  high  upon  the  beach.  Three  of  the  fleet  have  already  been  crushed,  and  two  are  now  lyiug  hove 
out,  which  have  heen  crushed  by  the  ice,  and  are  leaking  badly.  We  have  now  five  wrecked  crews  distributed  among 
us.  We  have  barely  room  to  swing  at  anchor!  paekot'i  h.  and  we  are  lying  iu  three  fathoms 

of  water.  Should  we  be  cast  on  the  beach  il  would  be  at  least  eleven  mouths  before  we  could  look  for  assistance,  and 
in  all  probability  nine  out  often  would  die  of  .starvation  or  scurvy  brfore  the  opening  of  spring. 

"Therefore,  we  have  arrived  at  these  conclusions:  After  the  ivtnrn  of  our  expedition  under  command  of  Capt. 
D.  R.  Frazer,  of  the  Florida,  he  having  with  whale-boats  worked  to  the  southward  as  far  as  Blossom  Shoals,  and 
found  that  the  ice  pressed  anhoiv  the  entire  di  iur  position  to  the  shoals,  leaving  iu  several  places  only 

sufficient  water  for  our  boa  is  t..  IM,,H  thiongh,  and  this  liable  at  any  moment  to  be  frozen  over  during  the  twenty-four 
hours,  which  would  •  vm  by  111.  •  r  had  to  work  through  a  considerable 

qtia.in  M  ',  I'inm  i.c<-  during  1]  IUKIH,  lian 

(Signed  h\,  the  masters.) 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  83 

To  the  Europa  were  assigned  280;  to  the  Arctic,  250;  to  the  Progress,  221 ;  to  the  Lagoda,  195; 
to  the  Daniel  Webster,  113;  to  the  Midas,  100;  and  to  the  Chance,  60;  in  all  1,219  souls  in  addi- 
tion to  their  regular  crews.  On  tho  24th  of  October  the  larger  portion  of  these  vessels  reached 
Honolulu,  and  the  remaining  ones  of  the  seven  speedily  followed. 

"  On  the  receipt  of  the  news  of  this  disaster,  more  particularly  in  New  Bedford,  great  excite- 
ment was  occasioned.  The  value  of  the  wrecked  vessels  sailing  from  that  port  alone  exceeded, 
with  their  cargoes,  $  1,000,000.  But  the  owners  of  whaling-vessels  were  not  the  men  to  yield 
supinely  to  a  single  misfortune,  however  overpowering  it  might  seem,  and  the  ensuing  year  twenty- 
seven  ships  were  busy  in  the  Arctic,  and  in  1873  twenty-nine  visited  that  precarious  sea. 

"The  names  of  the  beleaguered  lleet  were:  from  New  Bedford,  barks  Awashonks,  value 
.*.->S,000;  Concordia,  $75,000;  Contest,  $40,000;  Elizabeth,  $60,000;  Emily  Morgan,  $60,000; 
Eugenia,  $56,000;  Fanny,  $58,000;  Gay  Head,  $40,000;  George,  $40,000;  Henry  Taber,  $52,000; 
John  Wells,  $40,000;  Massachusetts,  $46,000;  Minerva,  $50,000;  Navy,  $48,000;  Oliver  Crocker, 
*4S,000;  Seneca,  $70,000;  William  Botch,  $43,000;  ships  George  Howland,  $43,000;  Reindeer, 
$40,000 ;  Roman,  $60,000;  Thomas  Dickason,  $50,000.  From  New  London,  bark  J.  D.  Thompson, 
value  $45,000 ;  and  ship  Monticello,  $45,000.  From  San  Francisco,  barks  Carlotta,  value  $52,000 ; 
Florida,  $51,000;  and  Victoria,  $30,000.  From  Edgartown,  ships  Champion,  value  $40,000;  and 
Mary,  $"i7,000.  And  from  Honolulu,  Sandwich  Islands,  barks  Paira  Kohola,  $20,000;  Comet, 
$20,000 ;  and  Victoria  2d  and  ship  Julian,  $40.000.  The  Honolulu  vessels  had  generally  Ameri- 
can owners,  having  been  placed  under  the  Hawaiian  flag  to  protect  them  from  rebel  cruisers. 

"  Capt.  William  H.  Kelley,  who  commanded  the  Gay  Head,  visited  the  locality  the  following 
year,  and  wrote  home  the  condition  of  such  of  the  vessels  as  still  remained.  The  Minerva  lay  at 
the  entrance  to  Waiuwright  Inlet,  as  good  in  hull  as  when  abandoned.  The  T.  Dickason  lay  on 
her  beam-ends  on  the  bank,  bilged  and  full  of  water.  The  Seneca  was  dragged  by  the  ice  up 
the  coast  some  distance;  her  bowsprit  was  gone,  bulwarks  stove,  and  rudder  carried  away,  and 
she  was  frozen  in  solid.  The  Reindeer  sank,  and  the  Florida  was  ashore  on  Sea  Horse  Islands, 
burned  to  the  water's  edge.  The  rest  of  the  fleet  were  either  carried  away  by  the  ice,  crushed  to 
pieces,  or  burned  by  the  natives.  The  Gay  Head  and  Concordia  were  burned  where  they  lay. 
1  The  bark  Massachusetts  went  arouud  Point  Barrow.  There  was  one  white  man  on  board  her 
who  staid  up  here  last  winter.  He  made  his  escape  over  the  ice  this  summer,  and  was  five  days 
getting  back  to  the  ships.  He  was  about  used  up  when  they  found  him  this  summer.  The 
natives  set  out  to  kill  him,  but  the  women  saved  him,  and  afterward  the  old  chief  took  care  of 
him.  He  saved  a  large  quantity  of  bone,  but  the  natives  took  it  away  from  him,  except  a  small 
quantity.  He  said  $150,000  would  not  tempt  him  to  try  another  winter  in  the  Arctic.  He  said 
that  four  days  after  we  left  the  ships  last  year  the  water  froze  over  and  the  natives  walked  off  to 
the  ships ;  and  fourteen  days  after  there  came  on  a  heavy  northeast  gale  and  drove  all  but  the 
ground-ice  away  (that  never  moved).  Shortly  after  there  blew  another  northeast  gale,  and  he 
said  that  of  all  the  butting  and  smashing  lie  ever  saw,  the  worst  .was  among  those  ships  driving 
into  each  other  during  those  gales.  Some  were  ground  to  atoms,  and  what  the  ice  spared  the 
natives  soon  destroyed,  after  pillaging  them  of  everything  they  pleased.'" 

In  the  season  of  1S76  the  fleet  met  with  another  disaster  of  less  pecuniary  extent  but  more 
appalling  in  its  effect  on  human  life.  The  fleet  consisted  of  eighteen  American  ships  and  barks 
and  two  foreign  vessels.  Of  these,  twelve  were  lost  or  abandoned  in  the  Arctic.  "Much  of  the 
melancholy  story  seems  a  duplicate  description  of  that  of  1871.  Again  the  fleet  had  entered  that 
fatal  ocean  early  in  August,  and  again  commenced  the  season's  whaling  with  prospects  of  fair 


84 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 


success;  again  the  ice  commenced  dosing  ;i round  them  ;  again  they  cherished  delusive  hopes  that 
a  strong  gale  would  drive  it  oil'  shore  and  afford  them  a  means  of  escape,  and  again  these  hopes 
were  doomed  to  a  bitter  disappointment.  Again  the  masters  decided  it  was  necessary  to  abandon 
their  vessels,  and  again  the  abandonment  was  accomplished.  Here  the  parallel  ceases.  Several 
men  perished  from  exposure  in  journeying  from  one  beleaguered  vessel  to  another  apparently  more 
safe,  and  many  died  on  the  toilsome,  perilous  march  and  voyage  to  the  rescuing  ships.  Many 
more  preferred  to  stay  by  the  ships  and  risk  their  chances  of  surviving  during  the  terrible  Arctic 
winter  to  assuming  the  nearer  and,  to  them,  apparently  no  less  dangerous  alternative  of  an  imme- 
diate escape."*  Three  hundred  men  escaped,  and  fifty-three  remained  among  the  natives.  There 
was  no  feasible  way  to  communicate  with  them  until  the  summer  of  1877.  Provisions  and  fuel  were 
reported  amply  sufficient  for  them,  and  with  the  first  clear  water  of  1877  ready  hands  and  willing 
hearts  hastened  to  their  assistance.  The  experiences  of  these  men  during  the  winter  and  until 
their  rescue  in  the  summer  of  1877  are  told  by  Captain  Barnes  on  page  77,  above ;  only  two  of 
the  abandoned  vessels  survived  the  winter:  one  of  these  was  burned  by  the  natives  and  the  other 
was  lost  in  September,  1877.  The  names  of  the  lost  and  abandoned  vessels  with  their  approx- 
imate values,  not  including  cargoes,  were  as  follows  :  (Of  these  the  Arctic  was  lost ;  the  others  aban- 
doned.) From  New  Bedford,  the  Acors  Barns,  $36,000;  Camilla,  $36,000;  Cornelius  Howland, 
$40,000;  James  Allen,  $36,000;  Java  2d,  $25,001) ;  Josephine,  $40,000  ;  Mareugo,  $40,000  ;  Mount 
Wollaston,  $32,000;  Onward,  $40,000;  and  St.  George,  $36,000.  From  San  Francisco,  the  Clara 
Bell,  $24,000.  And  from  Honolulu,  the  Arctic,  $32,0(10,  and  Desmond,  $24,000.  A  total  loss  of 
$442,000.  The  estimated  value  of  the  cargoes  was  about  $375.000  more. 

In  1877  three  of  the  Arctic  fleet  were  lost,  in  187<S  one,  and  in  1879  three.  The  description  of 
the  class  of  vessels  employed  in  this  fishery  is  given  under  the  head  of  vessels  and  apparatus, 
and  the  cruising-grounds  are  discussed  under  the  head  of  whaling-grounds. 

STATISTICS  OF  PACIFIC-ARCTIC  WHALING  1835  TO  1880. — The  following  statement  gives  a 
summary  of  each  season's  fishing  of  the  North  Pacific  fleet  from  1835  to  1880.  The  locality 
includes  the  waters  between  the  Asiatic  and  American  coasts  north  oi'  50°  north  latitude. 

Statement  showing  the  number  »f  American  vesxvli  in  tin-  \<irt/i  Pacific  flett  each  year  and  their  catch  of  oil  and  btme. 

[Compiled  from  Whalemen's  Shipping  List.] 


Tear. 

No.  of 
vessels. 

Average 
barrels 
whale  oil. 

Total 

barn-Is 
whale  oil. 

Tot;il  pounds 
whalebone.1 

Remarks. 

1835 

1 

1R36 

1 

1837 

1 

1838 

1 

1839 

2 

1  400 

2,800 

1840 

3 

587 

1  760 

184] 

20 

1  41'* 

28  200 

1842 

•"i 

1  627 

47  °00 

1843 

108 

1  349 

i  H;  snii 

1844  .... 

170 

1  .  T._'s 

•J.v.l,  ;,70 

1845  

263 

953 

250,  600 

1846 

292 

869 

*  History  Whale  Fishery,  iu  U.  S.  Fish  Commission  lvV|><>rt, 
t  Arctic  whalolione  not  recorded  separate  prior  to  1866. 


TI1K   \\IIALK   KISI1KRY. 


85 


Xtatcmfnt  slnmiiui  tin'  numlii  r  t>f  .tmerii-aii  IT.S.V/N  in  I  lie  Xortli   I'm-ifu:  ]!>•<  I  1 K.  li  11, .;;  •  uml  ll<i-ir  catch,  <fc. — Continued. 


Y<ai. 

Xo.  of 

barrels 

whale  oil. 

Cotal 

barrels 
whale  oil. 

Tola]  pounds 
lioiie.* 

Bnuiuksi 

177 

1   059 

187  443 

1  164 

185  256 

155 

1  334 

144 

1  692 

''43  618 

- 

138 

826 

86,  360 

278 

I  343 

373  450 

1853 

238 

912 

217  056 

1854 

232 

794 

184,063 

''17 

873 

1.X9  579 

1856 

178 

822 

146,41(1 

143 

796  l 

113  900 

• 

196 

r.'MI 

1"!  650 

1859 

178 

535 

94,  160 

1860 

121 

518 

62,  678 

Two  of  the  fleet  lost  the  George  and  Mary  and  Paulina. 

1861 

76 

724 

55,024 

1862.   ... 
1863 

32 
42 

610 

857 

19,  525 
36,  010 

1864 

68 

522 

35,  490 

1865 

59 

617 

36,415 

186C 

95 

598 

56,  925 

1867 

90 

640 

57,  620 

1808    ... 
1869  

61 
43 

708 
890 

43,  2.10 
38,  275 

027,  500 
525,  000 

Also  seven  foreign  vessels  that  took  4,370  barrels  oil,  66,000  pounds  bone. 
Also  six  foreign  vessels  that  took  6,475  barrels  oil,  85,000  pounds  bone. 

1870  
1871 

46 
35 

1,069 

49,205 

659,  550 
15,  000 

Also  nine  foreign  vessels  that  took  8,080  barrels  oil,  97,000  pounds  bone. 
All  but  eeven  of  the  fleet  were  lost,  including  four  foreign  vessels. 

1872  

27 

730 

19,  730 

2.-S,  '.'(ill 

Also  four  foreign  vessels  took  1,900  barrels  oil,  29,400  pounds  bone. 

1873  

30 

676 

20,  295 

239,  300 

Also  four  foreign  vessels;  two  of  t.bem  took  980  barrels  oil,  5,300  pounds  bone. 

1X74       . 

23 

883 

20,  380 

222,  100 

Also  f'mir  foreign  vessels  that  took  2,530  barrels  oil,  25,000  pounds  bone. 

1875 

16 

1,355 

21,  680 

230,  460 

Also  four  foreign  vessels  that  took  3,450  barrels  oil,  36,800  pounds  bone. 

1876 

18 

5,250 

35,  200 

All  but  eight  of  the  fleet  lost,  also  two  foreign  vessels. 

1877 

19 

1  096 

17,530 

153,  800 

Tlnvr  i.f  the  fleet  we.ro  lost.    One  foreign  vessel  took  300  barrels  oil,  3,  000  pounds  boue. 

1878 

17 

770 

13,  080 

114,200 

One  of  the  fleet  lost. 

1879 

21 

18,  800 

200,  500 

Three  of  the  fleet  lost. 

1880t  

19 

1,406 

•2l\.  7ll!l 

409,  000 

Total 

4,300 



3,  994,  397 

*  A  i  clio  whalebone  not  ree.orJed  separate  prior  to  1808. 

t  Since  the  above  was  compiled  Ibo  reports  for  subsequent  years  have  been  received,  as  follows :  1881,  23  vessels,  24, 740  barrels  of  whale 
oil,  387,000  pounds  whalebone ;  1S<J.  :!_'  vessels,  22,975  barrels  whale  oil,  360,500  pounds  whalebone;  1883,  38  vessels,  10,155  barrels  whale  oil, 
159,400  pounds  whalebone;  1884,  39  vessels,  20,450  barrels  whale  nil,  318,700  pounds  whalebone.  The  fleet  in  1880  included  two  steamers,  in 
1884  the  number  of  steamers  had  iunras.  .1  to  nine.  Another  marked  change  in  this  fishery  is  the  larger  proportion  of  vessels  hailing  from 
San  Francisco,  as  is  shown  on  subsequent  pages  in  the  details  of  each  year's  voyage. 

The  cruising  grounds  of  the  fleet,  prior  to  1848,  were  south  of  Bering  Strait,  chiefly  on  the  Northwest  Ground.  In  1348  a  vessel  passed 
through  the  Strait  and  was  very  successful.  From  that  date  the  Arctic  fleet  increased  rapidly  in  numbers.  Since  the  year  1868  the  principal 
i  r-ort  "f  the  North  Pacific  fleet  (so  cnllr.l)  has  been  the  Arctic  Ocean  north  of  Bering  Strait,  as  shown  on  following  pages. 


86 


HISTORY   AND   METHODS  OF  TIIIO   K1SIIER1  KS. 


The  details  of  each  voyage  to  the  Xorth  Pacific  aiid  Arctic  Oceans  since  1868  are  given  in  the 
following  lists,  compiled  from  the  Whalemen's  Shipping  List: 

List  of  rfxurl"  comprising  the  North  Pacific  whaling  fleet  of  IKitf,  with  the  season's  catch  of  each  vessel. 


Kame  of  vessel. 

Fishing  ground. 

Season's  catch. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Fishing  ground. 

Season's  catch. 

Whale 
oil. 

Bone. 

Whale 
oiL 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 
800 
400 
425 
400 
800 
260 
1,000 
280 
1,050 
600 
1,100 
925 
800- 
"00 

Pmmdi. 
17,  000 
4,500 
4,000 
5,000 
13,  000 
3,000 
18,  000 

15,  000 
10,  000 
16,  000 
15,  000 
8,000 

NEW  BEDFORD—  continned. 

Okhotsk  

Barrels. 
1,100 
30 
300 
430 
370 
1,170 
1,050 
100 

Pounds. 
15,  000 
300 
4,000 
4,000 
3,500 
21,  000 
8,000 
2,000 

Adeline 

Okhotsk   

Kadiak  

Alto 

St.  George    

Arctic  
Kadiak  

do          

Awashonks  

Arctic  
Okhotsk 

do 

Three  Brothers  
Trident         

Arctic  
Kadiak  

Cicero  
Corinthian  — 

Kadiak  
Arctic  

f>2  ships  and  harks  

35,  505 

505,  000 

Concordia   

....do  

do 

FAIRHAVEN. 

General  Scott  

Arctic  

1,100 

15,  000 

Daniel  Webster  

....do  

do 

EDGARTOWN. 

Champion    

Arctic  

500 
325 
1,300 

8,500 
3,000 

22,  500 

500 
600 
150 
600 
1,000 
1,050 
350 
630 
260 

630 

550 

1,300 
400 

800 
1,  175 

5,1100 
4,000 
1,000 
8,000 
18,  000 
19,  000 
3,000 
5,000 
1,  500 
18,  000 
6,000 
8,500 
17,000 
18,  000 

7,000 
15,  000 
9,000 



•  i  sk  

Vineyard  

Aivti,-          

George  Howland  

Arctic  

3  ships  

2,125 

34,  000 

do 

MEW    LONDON. 

450 
900 

450 

4,500 
16,000 
6,000 

do 

Okhotsk 

do 

Hibernhi.   

Kadiak  
do 

Nile  

Okhotsk  

James  Allen  
Java  

Arctic  
Kadiak  

3  ships  and  b:irkM   .  .  . 

1,800 

26,  500 

SAN   FRANCISCO. 

1,700 
1,000 

31,  000 
16,  000 

do 

do 

do 

1  ship  and  1  hark  

do  

2,700 

47,  000 

do 

HONOLULU. 

Arctic 

600 
1,100 
700 
900 

12,  000 
18,  000 
15,  000 

7,000 

do 

Midas 

Okhotsk 

do    

Milo 

do       

...  do    

1,000 

160 
600 
550 
1,150 
1,300 
1,000 
470 
1,  000 
90 
1,550 

11,000 
1,200 
9,000 
4,500 
20,  000 
25,  000 
16,  000 
4,000 
20,  000 
1,  000 
25,  000 

William  Rotch  

Okhotsk  

Norman  

Kadiak  

4  ships  and  harks  

3,300 

52,  000 

BREMEN. 

Eastle  
Count  Bismarck  

2  barks  

Kadiak  
Arctic  

170 
600 

3,000 
9,500 

Ohio 

do 

do 

do 

President  

Kadiak  

Arctic              .     . 

770 

12,  500 

TAHITI. 

Kadiak  

300 

2,500 

Kadiak       

KECAPITTTLATION. 


Fishing  eroHud. 

Ships  and 
barks. 

Whale 
oil. 

Bone. 

41 

Barrels. 
35,  005 

Pmmdt. 
575,  200 

8 

4,960 

50,500 

Kadiak  

19 

7,635 

68,800 

18 

47,  600 

684,500 

TIIK   WHAM';   K1SIIKI. 

Li«t  nf  rtssfh  comprising  the  Xorth  1'nrnii-  ii'lmlinii  ft  catch  uf  ,-,icli  vessel. 


87 


Name  of  vessel. 

Fishing  gronnd. 

Seac« 

Xame  of  vr 

Fishing  ground. 

Season's  catch. 

Whale 

oil. 

Boue. 

Whale 
oil. 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Barrel*. 

1,500 
700 

750 

1,300 

I  000 

1,000 

soo 

500 
£00 
950 

1,70(1 
1,101) 

650 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
400 
980 
1,000 
1,250 
1,100 

15,  000 

17,000 

i",  r,oo 

14,  000 
21,000 
17,000 
11,  600 
13,500 
16,000 
17,  000 

14,000 
15,000 
14,  OUO 
13,  000 

i  ,,!.-(,  RII  —  nuilinui-il. 

Aivtii-    

Barrels. 

900 
750 
1,050 
1,600 

450 

Pound*. 

13,  000 
11,  500 
12,  000 
18,  000 
2,500 

\m    ]•! 


do 

do 

...do  

ill"* 

Okhotsk 

Triili'iit, 

.  .  do  

i   llulfll 

Okhotsk  

.  .  do  

33,  605 

462,  900 

do 

Okhotsk  
Arctic  

do                 

500 
600 

5,000 
8,500 





George  Howland  

do    

2  ships.  

1,100 

13,500 

do 

NEW    LONDON. 

600 
900 
120 
350 

11,  000 
12,  60« 

,. 

i 

.1.  D.  Thompson  

....do  

Monticello  

....do  

Nile  

Okhotsk  

4,000 

Janus  

Okhotsk  

4  ships  and  barks  

1,970 

27,  600 

Arctic;            

BAN   FRANCISCO. 

Florida  

Arctie  

1,600 

21,  000 

15,  000 
15,  000 
25,  000 
15,  000 
15,  000 

do              

do 

HONOLULU. 

1,300 
800 
1,600 
1,200 
1,500 
75 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Count  Bismarck  

....do  

do 

do 

Comet  

...do  

do 

6,475 

85,  000 

£T 

RECAPITULATION. 


Fishing  ground. 

Ships  and 
barks. 

Whale 
oil. 

Bone. 

42 

Barrtls. 
41,  575 

Pounds. 
586,  200 

Okhotsk  Sea                                                                                                                             

6 

2,575 

21,  800 

1 

600 

2,000 

Total                                .      .    .                     

49 

44,750 

610,  000 

88  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  TI1K  FI 

TAX!  of  iii-xxi-h  rtiniiirixhiii  tin    \oi-lli.  Tnrifir  •irlirtlhifl  Jld't  of  11-70,  n-itli  the,  ai'dmii'n  rali-li  nf  cni-l  vessel. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Fishing  ground. 

Season's  catch. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Fishing  ground. 

Season's  cnich. 

Whale 

oil. 

Bone. 

I'olrinJx. 
18,  000 
10,  000 
15,000 
15,  000 
15,  000 
16,  000 
18,  000 
18,  000 
15,  600 
8,000 
6,000 
20,  OOU 
5,000 
19,  650 
20,  000 
16,  000 
4,300 

17,000 
30,  000 
10,  COO 
13,01)0 
16,  000 
12,  000 
10,  000 
1,000 
15,  000 
12,000 
23,  000 
19,  000 
16,000 
18,  000 
14,  000 
•20,  000 
13,  000 

Whale 
oil. 

Bone. 

NEW   BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 
1,050 

740 
1,300 
1,080 
1,400 
1,600 
1,550 
1,200 
1,150 
750 
400 
1,200 
400 
1,100 
1,500 
1,000 
350 
1,500 
1,100 
2,100 
900 
1,070 
1,200 
925 
700 
380 
1,000 
970 
1,650 
1,350 

1,200 
950 
1,800 
1,000 

EDGARTOWN. 

Arctic  

Barrels. 
950 
850 
750 
1,400 

1'uunds. 
12,  000 
•  11,  000 
10,  000 
20,  000 

do 

..  do  

do 

...do  

do 

...do  

do 

4  ships  and  barks  

' 

do              

3,950 

S3,  000 

NEW  LONDON. 

...do    

700 
1,500 
200 

8,000 
15,  000 
2,000 

Eli/ahH  h  Swift 

.  .  do  

...do  

do     

.  .  do  

Okhotsk.. 

..  do  

Bristol  Bay  

2,400 

25,000 

Henry  Taber  

Arctic  
...  do  

6JO(  FEANCI6CO. 

H         les 

1,900 
1,050 
800 
190 

30,  000 
7,000 
15,  000 
10,  000 

.-.     do  

...  do  

...  do  

John  Wells  

...  do    

do 

.-..do  

do 

.  do  

...  do  

3,940 

62,  000 

Midas 

-     do  

HONOLULU. 

Arctic 

do    

850 
400 
1,500 
1,000 
1,500 
650 
500 
800 
880 

8,080 

15,  000 
7,000 
18,  000 
10,  000 
18,  000 
10,  000 
9,000 

do           .... 

Norman  

...  do  . 

Ohio  

...  do  

do 

...  do  

0 

do 

Onward  

...  d»  

do 

Roman  

...  do  

do 

Sea  Breeze  

...  do  

do 

Seneca  

...  do  

° 

do 

Thomas  Dickaeon  

...  do  

do 

Trident  

...    do  

do 

10,  000 

97,  000 

do         

38,  915 

519,  550 

RECAPITULATION. 


Fishing  gronnd. 

Ship  and 
barks. 

Whale 
oil. 

Bone. 

53 

Barrels. 
56,  685 

Pounds. 
749,  550 

1 

:oo 

2,000 

Bristol  Bay  

1 

400 

5,000 

Total                                                                                                                                         

55 

57,  285 

756,  550 

In  the  season  of  1871  the  Korth  Pacific  fleet  consisted  of  thirty-five  American  and  four  foreign 
vessels,  all  but  seven  of  which  were  abandoned  in  the  ice  off  Wainwright's  Inlet,  north  of  Bering 
Strait.  The  names  of  the  saved  vessels  were  the  Buropa,  Arctic,  Progress,  Lagoda,  Daniel  Web- 
ster, Midas,  and  Chance.  Four  of  the  lost  vessels  belonged  at  Honolulu.  The  following  are  the 
names  of  the  abandoned  vessels  and  the  ports  to  which  they  belonged  : 


Tin:  \VIIALK 


89 


NEW  BEDFORD. — Barks  :  A\vashonks,  Conrordia,  Contest,  Elizabeth,  Emily  Morgan,  Eugenia, 
Fanny.  (Jay  Head.  George,  llfiiry  TalnT.  John  Wells,  Massachusetts,  Minerva,  Navy,  Oliver 
<  Yorker,  Seneca,  William  Botch.  Ships  :  George  Howland,  Reindeer,  Eoman,  Thomas  Dickason. 

NEW  LONDON. — Bark:  ,1.  D.  Thompson.     »S'/i •//).-  Monticello. 

SAN  FRANCISCO. — Barks :  Carlotta,  Florida,  Victoria. 

EDGARTOWN. — Shtys:  Champion,  Mary. 

HONOLULU. — Paira  Kohola,  Comet,  Victoria  2d,  Julian. 

The  2forth  Pacific  whaling  fleet  0/1872. 


Name  of  vessel. 

"Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

Name  of  Teasel. 

Whale  oiL 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFOBD. 

Barrels. 
775 

Pounds. 
13  000 

NEW  BEDFORD—  continued. 

Barrels. 
900 

Pounds. 

7  000 

150 

3  000 

70 

1  900 

450 

600 

8  000 

360 

4  000 

1  000 

12  000 

Trideut                                              

1,300 

20  000 

800 

11  000 

Triton                                     

275 

6  000 

Helen  Mar  

1,050 

10,  000 

Total  

18,980 

248  200 

Helen  Snow  
Illinois                          

40 
1,000 

400 
19  000 

NEW  LONDON. 

1  100 

15  000 

750 

10  000 

1   200 

16  000 

HONOLULU. 

An'lic     

1,000 

12,  000 

500 

-"""<    (UK) 

T;  W.  Wood  

550 

12,  000 

Live-  Oak 

1  000 

]"   OtlO 

Total      

1,550 

24,  000 

Marengt                              .... 

1  450 

16  500 

BTDNKT. 

Chance  

200 

3,000 

Faraway  

150 

2,400 

Total 

350 

5  400 

The  North  Pacific  whaling  fleet  of  1873. 


NVme  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

M  am  e  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Active  .            

Barrels. 
525 
550 
550 
300 
550 
800 
550 
800 
1,000 
180 
150 
1,  150 
1,  151) 
1,100 
1,600 
1,  150 
820 
550 
550 
650 
750 

P(1V  1: 

4,000 
8,000 
6,000 

NEW  BEDFORD  —  continued. 

./•'•*/  rat  . 
1,075 
400 
900 
100 

Pounds. 
17,  000 
3,000 
12,  000 

Alaska      ..              ... 

Triton 

7,000 
8,000 
8,500 
11,600 
9,000 
3,  500 
3,000 
19,  000 
14,  000 
14,000 
13,  500 
11,000 

6,  COO 
9,000 
7,000 
4,500 

Total  j 

NEW  LONDON. 

18,  595 

210,  100 

Ht-lfiiMar             

380 

4,000 

Illinois  

BAN   FRANCISCO. 

320 
1,000 

200 
15,  000 

.Tava2d  

Jireh  Perry  

Total  

1,320 

15,  000 

Live  Oak 

HONOLULU. 

R.  W.Wood  

600 
380 

1.000 
4,300 

Midas 

Arctic  

Mount  Wollaeton  , 

Total  -  

980 

6,300 

SYDNEY. 

Ocean  Steed 

800 

7,000 

90 


HI8TOIi\    AND  METHODS  OF  TliE   FKSHKKI  KS. 


Tin-  Xorlh  Pacific  whaling  fleet  "/  1  .-'?•(. 


Nafite  of  Yeaiel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Whul,.  oil 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Barrel*. 
125 

Pounds. 
1  5PO 

NI:W  i.oxi'O.v 

Barrels. 

260 

Pounds. 
3,200 

4  fiOn 

140 

10,  000 

Floremt-           .                    

200 

2,300 

Tii^tii    -                              

260 

3,000 

10,  3UO 

Java  

1,  375 

13,  000 

Total  

460 

5,300 

1,     1"!' 

11,000 

=- 

===== 

1,550 

1  4(10 

IS  (id) 

Arctic  

950 

10,000 

(>nw:lril                       

600 

5,  000 

800 

Northern  Light  

1,100 

Total  

1,550 

15,000 

i  ma 



1.  Kill 

flYUNl'Y. 

Sea  Breeze  

CO 

St  George          .               .          

Triton  

i),  000 

Total 

10  600 

*>13  COO 

Total 

980 

10,001 

The  Xorth  Pacific  whaling  fleet  of  1-7:.. 


Name  of  Teasel. 

Whale  oil. 

Name  of  veHfu-1. 

'WTiale  oil. 

Bo»e. 

NEW   BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 

POT 
13,450 

XEV.                              1    !lll,inm><i. 

St.  Geoi  ••'    .  .  -  

Barrel*. 
1,  750 

1  1,  -JSII 

1,880 

24,  200 

Triton  

1,  300 

14.  roo 

1,100 

10,  000 

1  650 

i.  r.no 

12,  200 

fAN   FRANCISCO. 

Illinois  

Floreno-                               

1,20( 

10,000 

15,  000 

16,  430 

:,  100 

15,000 

800 

6,000 

750 

7,800 

4,800 

600 

6,000 

10,000 

1,  000 

8,000 

1,650 

18,  000 

1      OIMI 

18  600 

Total                  .  .  .          

3,  450 

36,  800 

. 

The  Xorth  Pacific  whaling  fleet  0/1876. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone 

Name  of  Teasel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bono. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 

Pounds. 

NEW  BEDFORD—  continued. 

Barrel*. 
550 

Pounds. 
10,000 

1,700 

14,  900 

Illinois  ....;... 

Total  

4,550 

33,  800 

James  Allen*  

Java  2d* 

Florence  

700 

1,400 

1,400 

4.  100 

500 

nONOIJT.il. 

*  Lost. 


THE  \VIIAI, !•; 


91 


The  North  Panfic  irhnling  Jt>->  I  of  1*77. 


Nome  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

Xiime  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

\  1  W    1IF.DFOBD. 

Barrels. 

Pounds. 
12  000 

NPW  BEPFORD-  continued. 

Barrels. 

700 

Pounds. 
4  000 

Fli?a 

700 

1  500 

1  500 

6  500 

1  300 

20  500 

700 

3  000 

i  'i\  i  * 

Brothers 

*600 

•500 

1,080 

800 

Millon                              



RAX    PRANOlsrO. 

Mount  WollaHtOll  

850 

12,000 

Nomiau  

1,  70(1 

1,600 

16,000 

150 

2  000 

1'  ,,  'it'll'.                

1,350 

15,  000 

HONOLULU. 

1  300 

1°  000 

William  H.  Allen  

300 

3,000 

2  300 

Total  

17,830 

156,  800 

'  Lost ;  catch  of  whalebone  saved. 


The  North  Pacific  whaling  fc  ft  0/1878. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

KEW   BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 
300 

Pounds. 

n  000 

.•(KW  BEDFORD  —  continued. 
Pacific 

Ban  els. 

670 

Pounds. 
5  500 

850 

12,  000 

600 

6,000 

950 

5,000 

1,370 

21,000 

680 

7  500 

1  200 

10  000 

680 

3,500 

Thomas  Pope  

870 

5,000 

8GO 

8,000 

950 

6,500 

Florence*  

500 

4,000 

850 

6  000 

Dawn  

800 

5,000 

\  itkeniLi"ht 

850 

3  500 

Total 

13  080 

114  200 

" 

'  Lost — 300  barrels  oil  and  3,000  pounds  bone  saved. 


The  North   ranfu-  whaling  fleet  0/1879. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

NF.W   ItrciiPOKD. 

Jlarrels. 
1   175 

NKW  BEDFORD  —  contiuned. 

Barrels. 

1,150 

Pounds. 
17,  000 

Coral 

1  200 

1">  mil) 

1,  250 

13,  000 

950 

8  500 

1,000 

15,  000 

600 

Vi»ilantt                               

400 

6,000 

1,100 

15,000 

1.280 

12,  000 

EDQARTOWN. 

i  ir.ii 

15  000 

:     Bird                      .                

450 

4,000 

(i:;. 

9.000 

4,  500 

500 

3,500 

1,  250 

13,  000 

850 

4.000 

1,  150 

8,500 

Hidalgo  

120 

900 

10  000 

Total      .                  

18,  800 

200,  500 

•Lost 


tLftst  seen  In  the  Arctic  Ocean  October  10,  1879. 


92 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 


The  North  Pacific  wlialiiig  fleet  of  1880. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Number 
of  whales. 

Barrels 
whale  oil. 

Pounds 
whalebone. 

Barrels 
sperm  oil. 

Pounds  wal- 
rna  ivory. 

NEW  BKDFOHD. 

14 

1,300 

20,  000 

17 

1,700 

23,  000 

150 

16 

1,600 

23,  000 

56 

1,800 

12 

1,  250 

19,  000 

180 

1,100 

16 

1,450 

25,  000 

100 

19 

1,800 

30,  000 

600 

5 

SOO 

7,500 

40 

27 

2,250 

45,  000 

300 

10J 

1,550 

17,  000 

2,500 

Pacific                 do... 

Hi 

1,700 

17,  000 

80 

2,500 

17i 

1  900 

28,  000 

800 

24J 

'  2,  150 

38,  000 

80 

150 

17 

1,650 

25,  500 

90 

1,200 

10 

1,100 

15,  000 

40 

900 

EDGARTOWN. 

9 

900 

12,  000 

180 

600 

BAN  PRiNCISCO. 

12 

550 

23,  000 

Dawn                                                                                          bark  .  . 

13 

1,400 

17,  000 

1,300 

61 

1,150 

12,  000 

1,150 

8 

800 

12,  000 

600 

2G5J 

*26,  700 

409,  000 

1,046 

15,  450 

'Includes  4,000  barrels  walrus  oil. 


The  North  Pacific  whaling  fleet  of  1881. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 

1  200 

Pounds. 
14  000 

SEW  BEDFORD—  continued. 
Pacific                                               

Barrels. 
1,200 

Pounds. 
20,  090 

700 

12,  000 

1,500 

25,  000 

1  800 

3'1  000 

1,650 

30,  000 

Coral 

1  451) 

•j|  linn 

1,250 

24,000 

350 

7.000 

200 

3,000 

1,050 

12,000 

1,200 

,7,000 

1,400 

21,  000 

450 

0,000 

1,900 

30,  000 

500 

5,000 

1,200 

18,  000 

Sea  Breeze  

1,400 

25,  000 

John  Rowland  

740 

8,000 

1,200 

11,  000 

1  000 

16  000 

Total         

24,  740 

387,  000 

g 

*  Lost  July  2. 


t  Japan  Sea. 


TI1K  WIIALK   F1S1IKKA. 


93 


The  North  J'mi/ir  irlmlimj  tla-t  »/    L882. 


Xamo  of  vessel. 

Wlmlu  oil. 

Bone 

Nainr  of  vessel. 

AVI,  ale  ml. 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 
850 

660 
750 

3rrO 

950 
1,250 
200 
BOO 

.sun 
1,400 
MO 
1,  75'.> 
300 
40H 
701) 
1,050 
800 

Pound*. 

8.000 
11,000 

9,  < 
6,00(1 
11,000 
19,000 

3,1  nil 
11,000 
11.100 

9.000 

i],  no" 
In.  500 

11.  son 

NEW  IIEDFORD—  continued. 
Ohi.i'Jcl    

Barrels. 
COO 
1,000 

350 

Pounds. 
8,000 
15.0CO 
3,200 

Rainbow    

Krinilfef  *  

11.  Ivi  il.TP,  steuimT.  .. 

St:iinlniul  

300 
225 

600 

1,  030 
1,000 
9CO 
350 
700 
1,300 

4,000 
3,800 

.  10,000 

20,  000 
14,  000 
14,  000 
5,000 
8,000 
"   34,500 

Young  Pho?nix  

EllGARTOWN. 

n      " 

is 

11*1    '  M 

BAM  FRANCISCO. 

t 

Jacob  A.  Howland  

John  Howland  

Josephine  

Mabel  

Total  

22,  975 

360,  500 

•Japan  Sea. 


t  Lost  July  8. 


{  Lost  May  6. 


The  North  I'nc(fl<;  whaling  fleet  of  1883. 


Xiime  of  vessel. 

Whale  cil.        Bone. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

NEW   BEDFORD. 

Burrtlx. 
COO 
100 
125 
500 
C50 
275 
140 
250 
90 
125 
350 
250 
330 
300 
125 
240 
380 
200 
325 

450 

Pounds. 
6,700 

NEW  BEDFOKD—  continued. 
Eeimleer  *  

Barrels. 
400 
50 
300 

100 
100 
950 
240 
380 

Pounds. 
3,500 

Stamboul  

1,300 
8,000 
5,500 
3,900 
5,900 
1,400 
1,400 
1,200 
4,  400 
2,000 
5,500 
5,000 
1,500 
4,500 
4,500 
3,500 
5,  000 
7,000 
7,000 

Tonng  Pho?nix  

6,300 

1,500 

4,000 
15,  OHO 
3,300 
3.000 

SAN  FRANCISCO. 

•onntlin    Billow 

100 
375 

1,400 
6,000 

Eliza                    

Mabel 

430 
1,300 

150 
125 

6,000 
20,  500 
1.  800 
1,90(1 

Oreo,  steamer  

Ohio  °d 

Total      

10,  155 

159,  400 

*  Japan  Sea. 


t  Lost  Jnly  17. 


t  Lost.  September  22. 


5  Lost  Angust  — . 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 


The  North  Pacific  whaling  fleet  of  1884. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

Name  of  vessel. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

NEW  BEDFORD. 

Barrels. 
WO 
300 
70 
260 
900 

Pounds. 
7,000 
5,000 
1,000 
3,000 
14,  000 

.-AN   FRANCISCO. 

Amethyst  

Barrels. 

200 
1,700 
400 
280 
275 

Pounds. 
2,000 
29,  000 
10,  000 
5,000 
3,500 

Baltena,  steamer  

Bowhead,  steamer  t  

Bounding  Billow  

Belve  ere, 

Coral  

370 

850 
1,000 
380 
100 
240 
200 
270 
650 
750 
£00 
950 

90 

5,500 

12,  500 
18,  000 
6,700 
1,700 
4,500 
3,500 
4,500 
11,  500 
12,  000 
5,000 
12,  000 

1,700 

Eliza  

130 
1,075 
100 
100 
275 
1,000 
1,250 
700 
2,100 
325 
300 
1,700 
260 

20,  450 

2,000 
11,  500 
2,000 
•4111111 
3,000 
17,  000 
20,  000 
12,  500 
31,  000 
5,500 
3,800 
25,  000 
3,800 

Helen  Mar  

Emroa  F.  Herriman  t  

. 

Mabel 

Mary  and  Helen,  steamer  

S 

aiy 

T"      c  Ph      i-i 

EDGARTOWN. 

Total  

318,  700 

P 

*  Okhotsk  and  Japan  Seas. 


tLost. 


DAVIS  STRAIT  AND  HUDSON  BAT  FISHERY. 

ORIGIN  OF  THE  FISHERY. — The  whale-fishery  had  been  extensively  prosecuted  by  the  Dutch 
at  Spitzbergen  and  on  the  east  coast  of  Greenland  for  more  than  a  hundred  years  before  it  was 
found  necessary  to  seek  other  fields.  The  Dutch  were  the  first  to  push  into  iiew  waters  and  cap- 
ture the  animals  on  the  west  coast  of  Greenland  in  Davis  Strait.  They  inaugurated  the  fishery 
there  in  the  year  1719,  and  were  soon  followed  by  other  European  nations.  Probably  the  first 
American  vessel  to  visit  Davis  Strait  sailed  from  New  England,  under  Captain  Atkins,  in  1732. 
He  cruised  as  far  as  66°  north.  In  1736  several  whaling  vessels  returned  to  New  England  from 
those  parts,  and  in  1737  the  Davis  Strait  fleet  from  Massachusetts  alone  numbered  between  fifty 
and  sixty  vessels,  a  dozen  of  which  were  fitted  at  Provincetown. 

Douglass,  in  his  History  of  North  America,  published  in  1760,  says  "  some  New  England 
men  a  few  years  since  attempted  whaling  in  the  entrance  of  Davis  Strait,  but  to  no  advantage; 
they  generally  arrived  there  too  late,  in  keeping  too  near  the  Labrador  shore  (they  kept  within  50 
leagues  of  the  shore,  they  should  have  kept  150  leagues  to  sea);  they  were  embayed  and  impeded 
by  the  fields  of  ice.  Last  year  [1745]  Nantucket  brought  about  10,000  barrels  of  whale  oil  to  mar- 
ket, this  year  they  do  not  follow  it  so  much,  because  of  the  low  price  of  oil  in  Europe,  notwith- 
standing this  year  they  fit  out  six  or  seven  vessels  for  Davis  Strait,  and  sail  end  of  March;  they 
sometimes  make  Cape  Farewell  in  fifteen  days,  sometimes  in  not  less  than  six  weeks.  The 
whaling  season  in  both  Greeulands  is  in  May  and  June;  the  Dutch  set  out  for  Davis  Strait 
beginning  of  March;  sometimes  they  are  a  month  in  bearing  to  weather  Cape  Farewell;  they 
do  not  arrive  in  the  fishing-grounds  until  May.  Anno  1743,  perhaps  a  medium  year,  the  Dutch 
had  in  Davis  Strait  fifty  whaling  ships  (at  Spitzbergen  or  East  Greenland  they  had  one  hun- 
dred and  thirty-seven  whalers)  and  got  seventy-six  and  a  half  whales." 

The  American  whale-fishery  was  very  prosperous  just  before  the  Revolutionary  war,  when  the 
annual  northern  fleet  fitted  out  I'nuu  Massachusetts  numbered  one  hundred  and  eighty-three 


THE  WHALE  FISHEET.  95 

vessels,  measuring  13,830  tons.  Many  of  these  cruised  in  Davis  Strait,  while  the  remainder  pur- 
sued the  fishery  in  the  Gulf  of  Saint  Lawrence,  ;i bout  the  Straits  of  Belle  Isle,  and  in  other  northern 
waters.  After  the  war  the  business  was  greatly  reduced  in  extent,  and  the  northern  fleet  num- 
bered only  ninety-one  very  few  of  which  went  as  far  north  as  Davis  Strait.  There  was  at 
this  time,  however,  a  great  increase  in  the  northern  fisheries  from  British  and  French  ports,  many 
of  these  foreign  vessels  being1  commanded  and  in  some  eases  manned  by  American  whalemen  who 
had  settled  in  England,  where  they  might  take  advantage  of  the  bounty  system. 

The  war  of  JS1L'  to  1815  between  the  United  States  and  England  had  a  very  depressing  influ- 
ence on  the  American  whale-fishery  ;  alter  the  war  it  revived,  but  tho  northern  cruising  grounds 
\\cre  abandoned  for  the  more  profitable  southern  fields  that  were  less  exposed  to  danger  and 
yielded  an  abundance  of  sperm  and  whale  oil. 

REVIVAL  OF  THE  FISHERY  IN  1846. — It  was  not  until  the  year  1846  that  Davis  Strait  was 
aiiain  visited  by  our  whalemen.  In  that  year  the  ship  McLennan,  under  Captain  Slate,  sailed  from 
New  London  on  the  8th  of  April,  and  returned  September  17  with  about  140  barrels  of  oil.  Part 
of  the  officers  and  crews  of  the  vessel  were  Englishmen  experienced  in  the  fishery  in  those  waters. 
Although  the  first  voyage  was  not  as  successful  as  could  be  desired,  yet  the  McLennan  was  again 
fitted  in  the  spring  of  1847,  and  sailed  March  5,  returning  October  5  with  1,111  barrels  of  oil  and 
15,000  pounds  of  bone,  besides  845  seal-skins  obtained  off  the  Newfoundland  coast  at  the  beginning 
of  the  season.  In  1849,  1850,  and  1851  other  voyages  were  made,  and  in  1852  the  vessel  was  lost  in 
the  Davis  Strait,  while  on  her  sixth  voyage  to  those  waters.  The  product  of  her  several  voyages 
was  about  3,500  barrels  of  whale  oil  and  51,000  pounds  bone,  besides  a  few  thousand  seal-skins 
and  some  barrels  of  seal  oil. 

Capt.  S.  O.  Buddington,  who  sailed  on  the  McClennan  on  her  voyages  in  1850  and  1851,  gives 
the  following  account  of  those  and  subsequent  voyages  in  which  he  participated:  "On  the  7th  of 
?>larch,  1850,  I  sailed  on  the  McClenuan  from  New  London  bound  for  Davis  Strait.  We  were 
fitted  for  sealing  as  well  as  whaling.  When  we  arrived  on  the  coast  of  Newfoundland  we  saw 
seals  on  the  ice  some  40  miles  from  land.  In  cruising  along  the  coast  as  far  as  the  Straits  of  Belle 
Isle,  we  captured  about  seven  hundred  seals,  saving  the  skins  and  blubber.  About  the  middle  of 
May  we  quitted  sealing  and  went  whaling  off  Discoe,  Greenland,  and  in  Baffin's  Bay.  We  got 
five  whales  that  season,  and  arrived  home  October  22.  The  next  year  1  sailed  again  in  the  same 
vessel,  leaving  New  London  February  8.  While  sealing  during  the  spring  along  Newfoundland 
and  south  of  Davis  Strait  we  got  about  eleven  hundred  seals  and  I  wo  whales.  We  did  not 
go  as  far  north  as  Discoe  this  \ear,  but  whaled  in  Cumberland  Inlet,  where  we  got  a  few  whales, 
and  at  the  close  of  the  season  the  vessel  left  for  home,  arriving  at  New  London,  October  28,  with 
L'5.s  barrels  of  oil,  4,900  pounds  of  bone,  1,100  seal-skins,  and  some  seal  oil.  The  entire  crew  of 
the  McClennan  did  not  return  home  in  her,  but  myself  with  a  gang  of  twelve  men  were  left  to 
spend  the  winter  in  the  inlet,  for  the  purpose  of  trading  with  the  natives  and  capturing  what 
whales  and  seals  we  could.  We  built  the  frame  of  a  hut  from  spare  stuff  left  by  the  vessel,  and 
covered  it  with  seal-skins.  Here  we  spent  the  cold  winter,  occasionally  securing  a  seal  and  pur- 
chasing articles  of  the  nati\  es  in  exchange  for  knives,  powder,  &c.  We  were  the  first  whalemen 
that  ever  spent  a  winter  in  tin's  region.  At  the  opening  of  spring  we  found  whales  in  considerable 
abundance,  and  with  the  aid  of  the  natives  secured  during  the  spring  and  summer  months  sixteen 
small  whales  that  yielded  considerable  blubber,  and  about  16,000  pounds  of  bone. 

"The.  McClenuan  left  home  in   tin*  spring  of  isr>i_',  but  ne\er  reached  the  inlet.      It  is  thought, 
she  was  lost  near  the  entrance  to   Davi.-  \fterwaiting  long  enough  to  be  satisfied  that 

<mi   x.-.^si-.l  would  not  return  to  lake,  us  hoi-  Lipped  our  oil.  skins,  and  bone  on  an  English 


9fi  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

vessel,  and  sailed  on  her  for  Hull,  England,  leaving  the  inlet  October  1,  and  arriving  at  Hull 
November  7,  when  we  sold  onr  oil,  whalebone,  and  seal  skins.  I  started  for  the  United  States 
on  an  English  vessel,  but  she  was  disabled  and  returned  to  port,  when  I  shipped  on  another 
vessel,  and  arrived  in  New  Loudou  about  the  middle  of  January,  is ">.''.. 

"On  July  13,  1853,  I  sailed  again  for  Davis  Strait  on  the  brig  Georgiana.  We  did  not  stop 
for  seal  on  the  Newfound!;  nd  coast,  but  hastened  to  Cumberland  Inlet,  where  we  spent  the  winter 
with  the  vessel  frozen  in  the  ice.  This  was  the  first  whaling-  vessel  to  winter  in  the  ice  in  the 
vicinity  of  Davis  Strait.  We  had  quite  a  successful  time  in  catching  seals  and  whales  at  the 
opening  of  spring,  taking  advantage  of  the  first  movement  of  the  ice  when  whales  were  abundant, 
and  we  secured  twelve  in  two  days.  During  the  entire  voyage  we  caught  twenty-four  whales  that 
yielded  890  barrels  of  oil  and  16,0(10  pounds  of  bone.  My  trade  and  capture  we  got  about  1,000 
seal-skins,  worth  at  that  time  about  75  cents  apiece  at  New  London.  Arrived  home  October  8, 
1854. 

"  In  the  year  1855  I  sailed  again  in  the  same  vessel,  leaving  New  London  April  11.  Some  of 
the  crew  were  disabled  by  scurvy  while  on  our  way  north.  This  delayed  us,  so  that  when  we  reached 
Frobisher  Bay  we  were  too  late  in  the  season  for  whaling.  We  wintered  in  the  bay  and  had  a 
terrible  hard  time  of  it,  losing  fourteen  men  by  scurvy-  As  soon  as  the  ice  opened  in  the  spring  we 
started  for  home,  but  our  men  were  weak  and  it  took  us  several  weeks  to  make  a  tew  miles.  After 
many  difficulties  we  finally  reached  N\?w  Louden  September  27,  1856,  with  no  cargo  except  about 
200  seal-skins  obtained  during  the  winter. 

"  In  1857  I  sailed  ou  the  Georgiana  again,  and  had  a  very  good  voyage,  leaving  New  Londoi 
April  11,  and  arriving  home  December  20,  with  600  barrels  of  oil,  12,000  pounds  of  bone,  and 
about  200  seal  skins.  I  tried  it  again  in  the  same  vessel  in  1858.  We  sailed  June  1,  the  vessel 
and  outfit  being  valued  at  $9,000;  went  to  Cumberland  Inlet  and  wintered  there,  and  returned 
home  December  9,  1859,  with  a  cargo  valued  at  $21,000.  This  was  an  excellent  voyage  and  quite 
a  contrast  to  the  terrible  hardships  of  our  trip  two  years  before. 

"Ou  May  29,  1860,  I  went  north  in  the  bark  George  Henry,  ('apt.  C.  F.  Hall  went  with  us. 
This  was  his  first  trip  to  the  Arctic.  He  has  written  an  account  of  it  iu  a  book  entitled  Arctic 
Researches,  published  in  1S65.  Our  whaling-ground  on  this  voyage  was  in  Frobisher  Bay.  where 
we  wintered  two  seasons  returning  home  September  13,  1862,  with  564  barrels  of  oil,  10,100  pounds 
of  bone,  450  seal-skins,  and  250  walrus-skins.  As  these  were  the  first  quantity  of  walrus  skins 
brought  home  by  any  whaling  vessel,  we  did  not  know  whether  they  were  of  any  merchantable 
value.  We  had  prepared  them  by  salting  a  little  and  then  drying  on  the  rocks.  They  sold  at  50 
cents  each  in  New  London  and  were  used  for  belting.  During  the  winter  months  we  lived  with 
(he  natives  in  their  huts.  We  got  short  of  provisions  and  moved  from  place  to  place,  so  that  we 
were,  sometimes  a  long  distance  from  our  vessel.  Wherever  we  went  \\e  took  a  whale-boat,  and 
gear  along  with  us,  rigging  the  boat  on  a  sled  for  this  purpose.  Occasionally  we  would  pull  the 
boat  to  the  edge  of  the.  ice  and  go  in  search  of  whales,  capturing  several  in  this  manner. 

"I  sailed  in  1863  on  a  voyage  to  Cumberland  Inlet  iu  the  schooner  Franklin.  We  wintered 
there  and  arrived  home,  in  1864.  I  made  two  voyages  after  this,  each  tolerably  successful." 

From  1S46  to  1852  the  McCleiinan  was  the  only  American  vessel  fishing  in  the  vicinity  of 
Davis  Strait.  In  the  latter  year  this  vessel  was  lost,  and  in  1853  the  Amaret  and  Georgiana 
were  fitted  for  those  waters.  In  1855  the  George  Henry  was  added  to  the  fleet,  and  these  three 
comprised  the  entire  Davis  Strait  fleet  until  1800,  when  ten  vessels  were  sent  out  to  those  waters 
The  vessels  that  had  been  sent  north  prior  to  1860  were  generally  of  the  older  class,  and  not 
thoroughly  equipped  for  sc\ere  battling  with  the  ice,  but  that  year  two  huge  ships  were  included 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  97 

in  tin-  list.  These  were  fitted  at  ;i  large  cost  for  the  express  purpose  of  pushing  farther  west 
through  Hudson  Strait  into  the  bay  where  il  \v;is  anticipated  abundance  of  whales  could  bo 
found,  and  where  no  American  vessel  had  ever  been.  "Without  accurate  charts,  in  waters  totally 
unknown,  among  ice  and  strong  currents,  in  short  days  and  long  nights,  in  fogs  and  gales  of  wind, 
with  large  compass  variations,  these  adventurous  navigators  pushed  their  way,  and  reached  the 
longitude  of  f)<>°,  spent  a  winter  there,  when  tho  thermometer  fell  to  G0°  below  zero,  obtained 
cargoes  worth  about  s<;o,<)00,  and  returned  to  the  United  States  in  ISfil."* 

Si-uce  18GO  this  fishery  has  been  pursued  with  varying  success;  the  total  number  of  voyages 
lilted  since  that  date  has  been  one  hundred  and  eight,  and  the  largest  number  sent  out  in  any 
oue  year  was  nineteen  vessels  in  ISG4.  About  3  per  cent,  of  the  entire  catch  of  whale  oil  and 
5  per  cent,  of  the  whalebone  taken  by  the  American  fleet  from  1870  to  1880  was  by  the  Hudson 
Bay  vessels.  Most  of  the  whaling  has  been  carried  on  in  Cumberland  Inlet  and  Hudson  Bay,  no 
Americans  having  pushed  on  as  far  north  as  do  the  Scotch  steam  whalers  that  cruise  up  as  far 
as  the  seventy-fourth  parallel.  The  first  steam-whaling  vessel  owned  in  the  United  States  was 
the  steam-bark  Pioneer,  sent  to  Davis  Strait  in  1866.  She  sailed  April  28,  and  arrived  home 
November  14,  with  340  barrels  of  oil  and  5,300  pounds  of  bone.  She  sailed  again  in  1867,  and 
was  lost  on  the  voyage,  being  sunk  by  the  ice.  The  best  voyage  ever  made  by  the  Davis  Strait 
fleet  was  by  the  bark  Pioneer  that  sailed  from  New  London  Julie  4,  1864,  and  after  passing  the 
season  in  Hudson  Bay  returned,  September  18,  1865,  with  1,391  barrels  of  oil  and  22,650  pounds 
of  bone,  valued  at  $150,000. 

The  vessels  in  this  northern  fleet  must  be  double  planked  around  the  bow  and  along  the  sides 
near  the  water  line  as  a.  protection  against  the  ice.  This  planking  will  last  for  several  years.  No 
copper  or  metal  is  used  on  the  bottom,  and  but  few  sails  are  needed  as  the  vessel  is  frozen  in  the 
ice  much  of  the  time.  The  natives  are  of  great  assistance  to  the  whalers,  helping  them  in  taking 
whales  and  also  in  procuring  fresh  lisli  and  meat.  On  (he  Scotch  steamers  it  is  the  general 
custom  to  carry  the  blubber  home  to  be  tried,  out,  but  American  whalers  here,  as  in  other  parts  of 
the  world,  prefer  to  try  it  out  on  board  the  vessels.  The  Scotchmen  cruise  about  these  waters 
during  the  summer  months,  and  then  return  home,  while  many  of  the  American  vessels  winter  in 
the  ice. 

Most  of  the  whales  taken  in  these  northern  waters  are  of  the  bowhead  or  polar  species — which 
is  peculiarly  an  ice- whale — and  is  the  same  as  taken  by  the  Pacific- Arctic  fleet.  Whales  have  been 
taken  in  the  vicinity  of  Point  Barrow,  with  harpoons  in  them  bearing  the  marks  of  vessels  that 
had  been  pursuing  the  fishery  in  the  vicinity  of  Davis  Strait;  hence  it  seems  certain  that  there 
exists  a  passage  from  one  ocean  to  the  other.  An  instance  of  this  kind  is  given  by  the  Honolulu 
Commercial  Advertiser,  in  December,  1870.  It  is  an  account  of  a  harpoon  which  was  found  in  a 
whale  captured  by  the  ship  Cornelius  Howland,  of  New  Bedford,  then  cruising  in  the  North 
Pacific  Ocean.  It  is  the  custom  among  whalemen  to  have  each  iron  stamped  with  initials  desig- 
nating the  ship  to  which  it  belongs.  This  is  done  to  prevent  dispute  in  case  it  is  necessary  to 
waif  the  whale,  or  in  case  boats  from  two  different  ships  lay  claim  to  one  which  has  been  killed. 
While  off  Point  Barrow  the  Cornelius  Howland  took  a  large  polar  whale,  in  the  blubber  of  which 
\\as  embedded  the  head  of  a  harpoon  marked  "  A.  C5-.,''  the  wound  made  by  it  having  healed  over. 
This  was  presumed  to  have  belonged  to  the  bark  Ansel  Gibbs,  also  of  New  Bedford.  But  she 
was  known  to  have  been  pursuing  the  fishery  in  Cumberland  Inlet  and  its  vicinity  for  some  ten 
or  eleven  years  previously.  The  obvious  inference  was  that  this  whale  must  have  found  his  way 


'ill.   K.  H.  Chapell,  «f  New  London,  in  a  ]•  apt.  C.  F.   Hull,  quoted,  iu  Narrative  of  the  Second  Arctic 

Expedition. 

SKC.  v,  VOL.  ii 7 


98  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

from  ocean  to  ocean  by  some  channel  unknown  to  navigators,  and  that  at  some  seasons  of  tlie 
year  there  must  be  an  inter-ocean  communication.  The  Advertiser  adds:  "We  have  heard  befon 
of  instances  where  whales  have  been  caught  at  Cumberland  Inlet  with  harpoons  in  them,  with 
which  they  have  been  struck  in  the  Arctic  Ocean,  but  we  believe  this  is  the  first  authenticated 
instance  of  a  whale  having  been  caught  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  with  a  harpoon  in  it  from  the  Davis 
Strait  side." 

Scarcely  any  effort  lias  ever  been  made  by  Americans  to  find  whaling-grounds  to  the  east  of 
Greenland  or  at  Spitzbergen,  where  the  Dutch  and  English  once  found  such  profitable  fishing. 
Two  American  vessels  have  been  sent  to  the  Spitzbergen  seas;  one,  the  Hannibal,  of  New  London, 
a  ship  of  441  tons  that  sailed  May  21,  1855,  and  returned  March  21,  1850,  with  28  barrels  of  whale 
oil;  the  other  vessel  \vas  the  bark  Tempest,  also  of  New  London,  that  sailed  May  21, 1857.  After 
an  unsuccessful  cruise  near  Spitzbergen  and  the  east  coast  of  Greenland,  she  sailed  for  the  South 
Atlantic  and  thence  to  the  North  Pacific  Ocean,  where,  after  several  cruises,  she  obtained  a  fair 
cargo,  and  returned  to  New  London  in  1861.  The  four  years'  cruise  of  the  Tempest  was  not  profit- 
able, but  resulted  in  a  loss  of  $7,000.  The  owner  being  asked  how  he  could  lose  so  much  by  the 
voyage,  said:  "I  will,  by  way  of  reply,  mention  a  few  items,  and  the  reader  may  draw  his  own 
inferences.  Cost  of  vessel;  interest  on  the  same;  outfits;  interest  on  outfits;  provisions  for  a 
large  crew;  advance  to  crew;  desertion  of  men;  shipping  new  hands;  repairs  on  vessel;  wear 
and  tear;  staving  boat;  clothing  for  men;  new  sails;  few  whales;  insurance;  commission; 
leakage;  gauging;  commission;  wharfage;  port  charges;  taxes;  more  leakage;  outgoes;  freight; 
fog;  thunder." 

Another  attempt  of  Americans  to  whale  in  the  waters  north  of  Europe  was  made  at  Iceland 
in  the  years  1865  and  1866,  by  Captains  Dahl  and  Royce.  They  proceeded  to  Seidis  Fjord,  in 
latitude  65°  18'  north,  with  two  vessels,  the  bark  Reindeer,  of  New  "York,  under  the  American  flag 
and  a  little  steamer  called  the  Visionary,  which  was  built  in  Scotland,  and  sailed  under  the 
Danish  flag.  They  had  two  whale-boats  fitted  for  catching  the  whales  that  were  towed  by  the 
steamer  into  the  fjord  where  they  were  cut  in.  The  first  season  proved  unsuccessful,  but  in  the  spring 
of  1866,  twenty  sulphur-bottom  whales  were  taken  yielding  about  900  barrels  of  oil.  Extensive 
arrangements  had  been  made  to  carry  on  the  fishery,  steam  oil  try-works  having  been  built  on 
land.  In  the  winter  of  1865-'(J6  there  was  sent  to  Ireland  the  Dutch  schooner  Jan  Albert,  that 
had  been  remodeled  into  a  screw  steamer  and  named  the  Litens.  The  crew  consisted  of  Ameri- 
cans, Danes,  Scotch,  Russians,  and  one  Polynesian.  They  further  employed  two  small  iron 
steamers  built  in  Glasgow  and  Liverpool,  and  called  t lie  Vigilant  and  Stegpideder.  By  the  end 
of  September  they  had  taken  forty  whales  that  yielded  about  2,400  barrels  of  oil.  Although  this 
American  attempt  to  establish  a  whale-fishery  at  Iceland  was  partially  successful,  yet  the  returns 
as  compared  witii  the  expenses  of  the  undertaking  did  not  warrant  its  continuance,  and  the  fishery 
was  abandoned. 

The  fishing  by  Scotch  vessels  in  Davis  Strait  and  east  of  Greenland,  as  also  the  early  history  of 
the  Spitzbergen  whale-fishery  are  discussed  below  under  the  head  of  Whale  Fishing  by  Foreign 
Nations. 

The  total  number  of  American  vessels  that  have  engaged  in  whaling  in  Davis  Strait,  Hudson 
Bay,  and  vicinity,  since  the  revival  of  this  fishery  in  1846,  includes  16  schooners,  7  brigs,  13  barks, 
7  ships,  and  1  steamer,  a  total  of  44  vessels,  of  which  18  were  lost  on  their  voyages.  The 
entire  number  of  voyages  fitted  out  in  the  same  period  was  138. 

RECORD  OF  VOYAGES  1846  TO  1879. — The  following  table  is  a  record  of  each  voyage  made 
b.y  the  American  licet  to  the  region  of  Davis  Strait  and  Hudson  Bay  from  1846  to  1879: 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY. 

Voyages  of  tin'  Hurls  xtruil  unit  Hudson  Bay  fleet  from  1846  to  1879. 


99 


X  .iiim  "I"  v.  ••<•»  1 

Rig. 

Tons. 

Port. 

Sailed. 

Hemmed. 

Whale 
oil. 

Whale- 
bone. 

Remarks. 

1846-1852. 

Mrl'leiinaii  
1).. 

Ship  
do 

376 
376 

New  Lou.  1..  M 
do 

Apr.    s.isu; 
"•  1847 

Sept.  17,  1846 

Oct.      5,  1SJ7 

Barrels. 
140 
1,111 

Pounds. 
15,  000 

Do 

do 

376 

ilo 

Mill,     3  1819 

Oct.    Hi  isr.i 

COO 

12,  000 

Dii 

do 

376 

do 

Mar.    7  IfoO 

Oct.   ""  I860 

450 

7,000 

700  seal-skins 

Do 

do 

376 

do 

1  .-.-i  1 

(ii-i 

258 

4,900 

P..    
1853. 
Am.  11.  '1     ..    

.  .  .  do  

Bri;:  
do 

376 

111 
190 

do  

New  London.  - 
do 

Mar.  _,  1S;V_' 

,Inly  13.1853 
Joly  13.  1853 

Ail-.  29,  1854 
Oct.      9,  1854 

369 
890 

8,000 

16,  000 

Lost  in  Davis  Strait. 

1854. 

91 

\H.r    1<>     1855 

f!lean 

1855. 

Bark 

303 

Max1   29    I     • 

]  >er    °(J  1855 

1S4 

in  the  ice  from  October,  1854,  to  July, 
1855. 

190 

do 

Apr    i  ' 

Sept   16  1856 

lute,  of  the  English  expedition  in  search 
of  Franklin. 

1856. 
A  m.iivt  

Brig  
B-irk 

91 
303 

New  London  .  . 
do 

May  111,1856 
May  21  1856 

,     1857 
Sept.  17  1857 

190 
418 

2,200 

meu  from  scurvy. 

1857. 
Ain;irct  

Brig... 
do 

91 

180 

New  London 

Sept.    7,  1857 
Apr.  11,  1857 

Sept.   1,1858 
Dec.  20,1857 

267 
443 

5,700 
6,500 

Frozen  in  the  ice  eight  months  ;  took  the 
first  whale  July  1,  and  was  full  July  22. 

Brie 

190 

Jniie    1,  1858 

Dec.    9,  1859 

847 

15,  000 

Sailed  for  $9,000;  cargo  worth  $21,000. 

1859. 

Brig 

91 

Apr   13  1859 

Lose  iu  Cumberland  Inlet  September  27, 

1860. 

A  Msrl  (.illtliS  

AnM<>iie    
Black  Eagle  
Daniel  "Webster 

Ship  
Bark 
...do  
Ship 

319 
340 
311 
336 

Fair  Haven  -  .  . 
New  Bedford 
do  
do 

\|n     11,1860 
Mar.  15,1860 
May  20,1860 
Mai.  L'l  1860 

Nov.  11,  1861 
Oct.   12,1863 
Nov.    3,1861 
Jan.     5  IScr. 

500 

1,500 
1,  122 

9.000 

•:4,  ooo 

17,  800 
6,500 

1860.    The  Aroaret  wa3  the  Rescue  of 
Kane's  expedition. 

Put  in  Aberdeen,  Scotland,  on  account  of 

George  Henry    .  -  .  . 
Gforgiana  

Bark  
Brig  
Ship 

303 
190 
441 

New  London  .  . 
do  
do 

May  -!>.  l:-il.l 
M:u     1,1860 

Mar    "1    ]M;I. 

Sept.  13,  1862 
Oct.     7,  1861 

564 

695 

10,  100 
14,  700 
8,000 

MM-   reliellimi  ;  sent  home  2,  500  pounds 
Imnr  ;   I  hnvnieii  <  lied  of  scurvy  in  1862. 

ir.ii  .-.eal  and  2."ft  walrus  skins. 
Abandoned  in  Cumberland  InletOctober, 

N'uilliern  IJgbt  

...do  
Bark 

513 
235 

Fair  Haven... 

-1,1860 
June    1  1860 

Oct.   11,1861 
Oct.   22  1SC1 

1,104 
10 

21,000 

1861. 

;,hn'.-n-  

K61. 

A  llh-Iujn' 

Nortln-i  M  Ll-lit 
1862. 
A  n-»  1  (  .  ilili- 
P.la.-k  Eaglit     

.... 

Ship  

Bark  
Ship  

Ship  

Bark  

liiig  
liark 
do 

461 

340 
513 

319 
311 
190 
176 
235 

Fair  Haven... 

New  Bedford  . 
do  

New  Bedford  . 
do  
New  London  . 
Xcw  Bedford  . 

June,  13,  1860 

Oct.    31,  L861 

Nov.  I 

Apr. 

May     :..  1  :->;_• 

Apr.  -J7,  1.-I1L' 
Ma\     ' 

Oct.  11,1861 

Oct.   12,1863 
Oct.   17,  18112 

<"M.    11,1863 

X..v.    3,1863 
().  t.   •_•:,,  1867 
(lit.    13,1863 

665 

1,500 
1,295 

1,000 
,650 
319 
225 
561 

15,700 

24,000 
10,  900 

17,  580 
30  000 
4,700 
3,000 
9,000 

Five  men  died  of  scurry. 

A.  h,,     

Si  I  "•  i 
Bark 

90 
303 

New  London  -  - 
New  Bedford 

\|e 

i),-i.    2 
Oi-t.    2 

51 

1  046 

2,150 
17,  150 

\\~,  bs&  r 
Franklin 

...do  

336 
119 

...    dn   

Apr.  . 

;,  ISIM 

Sept.    -,  1M1I 

36 

341 

9,700 
5,800 

303 

do 

Lost  in  Hudson  Bay,  1863. 

Isabella   .- 

Brie... 

192 

...do  .. 

June  6.  1863 

Oct      4.1864 

502 

7,250 

100 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Voyages  of  the  Davis  Strait  and  Hudson  Hay  fleets  from  1846  to  1879 — Continued. 


Name  of  vessel. 

Rig- 

Tons. 

Port. 

Sailed. 

Ketnrued. 

Whale 
oil. 

Wbale- 
o  ne. 

Remarks. 

1863. 

Northern  Light  
Pavilion  

Win.  Thompson  
1864. 

Ship  
Brig  ... 

Ship  

Bark  
do 

513 

150 

495 

311 
265 
197 
188 
165 
190 
262 
108 
95 
81 
254 
356 
305 
176 
130 
235 
101 

303 
336 
188 
119 
192 
356 
101 

303 
311 
265 
148 
177 
105 
128 
108 
238 
134 
91 
228 
212 

105 
101 

77 

277 

188 
119 
192 
216 
212 

303 
217 

New  Bedford  . 
Fair  Haven  .  .  . 

New  Bedford 

New  Bedford  . 
Sag  Harbor.  .  . 
New  London  . 
do  
do  
do    
New  Bedford  . 
New  London 
do  
do  
New  Bedford  . 
New  London  .  . 
New  Bedford 
do  
Fair  Havei,  . 
New  London  . 
do 

Apr.  29,1863 
June  15,  1863 

Mar.  17,  1863 

May    7,1864 
June   3,1864 
May    9,1864 
Aug.  31,  1864 
Juno    4,1864 
Apr.  13,  1864 
June  21,  1864 
June  30,  1864 
June   8,  1864 
May  28,  1864 
Apr.  24,1864 
June  3(1,  1864 
May  14,  1804 
Apr.    9,1864 
f>,  1864 
June   4,1864 
Apr.  19,1804 

Apr.    1,  1805 
May  20,  1865 
May   [7 
Apr.  25,  186.', 
Mar.    7,1865 
Apr.  19,  1865 
Oct.   26,1865 

May     1,1866 
Apr.  20,  1860 
Slay  11,1866 
Apr.  18,1866 
Apr.  10,  1866 
Apr.  18,  1866 
July  12,1866 
July  16,1866 
Apr.  18,  1866 
May    8,1866 
May    1,  1866 
Apr.  19,  1866 
Apr.  28,  1866 

June  28,  1866 
June  28,  1866 
June   6,  1866 

May  20,1867 

Apr.  11,  1867 
May    2,  1867 
May  •.'5,1867 
Apr.    2,1867 
Mar.  20,  1807 

June    3,  1808 
Apr.  20,  1868 

Oct.    24,1864 

Barrels. 
1,270 

Pounds 
20,  !IOO 

Crashed  in  the  ice  in   Hudson  Bay  ii» 
1863  ;  seven  men  lost  ;   survivors  suf- 
fered severely  from  cold  and  exposure. 

Value  of  cargo,  $150,000. 

First   steam    whaler  from   the  United 
States. 

Lost  in  Cumberland  Inlet  November  14, 
1867. 

Sunk  among  the  ice  in  Hudson  Strait, 
July  6,  1867. 

Dec.  19,1863 

Oct.      1,  1865 
Oct.      1,  1865 
Oct.    11,  1865 
Sept.  20,  1864 
Oct.   10,1865 
Oct.    10,1865 
Nov.  13,  1865 
Sept,  1 
Oct.    28,  1864 
Sept.  11,  1863 
Oct.   28,  1864 
Sept.  21,  ISC.-, 
Oct.    14,  1865 
Oct.      6,  1865 
May  31,  1865 
Sept,  18,1865 
Oct.     5,  1865 

Apr.  25,1806 
Nov.  14,  1866 
Xov.  19,  1866 
Sept.  17,  1866 
Nov.    9,1866 
Nov.    7,1866 
Oct.     9,  1867 

Oct.     9,  1867 
Sept.  24,  1867 
Sept,  13,  1867 
Oct.    31,1867 
Oct.     8,  1867 
Sept.  14,  1867 
Nov.  29,  1867 
Nov.  20,  1867 
Oct.  31,1867 
Oct.  25,1867 
Sept.  22,  1867 
Sept,  12,  1867 
Nov.  14,1866 

Sept.  14,  1868 
Oct.     9,  1866 
Sept.  26,  1866 

100 

781 
70 
300 
Clean. 
180 
766 
328 
Clean. 
Clean. 
287 
2,082 
27] 
1,170 
472 
75 
1,391 
199 

703 
236 
534 
584 
923 
300 

320 
200 
440 
200 
20 
500 
800 
50 
650 
225 
280 

3-10 

362 
249 
Clean. 

1,200 

12,  400 
900 
4,200 

Cornelia  

Schooner 
do 

George  and  Mary 

Bark  .... 

Bli" 

2,800 
15,  250 

5,550 

Sehooner  . 
..do  
..do  
...do  .... 
Bark  
...do  

Hek-ii  F  
Isabel  
Leader  

5,000 
39,  200 
3,900 
17,  900 
7.254 
795 
22,  650 
3,000 

1C,  600 
11,500 
2,900 
8,900 
10,500 
14,  500 
6,000 

6,000 
3,000 
7,300 

Mmiticello  

Orray  Taft  

...do  

Pioneer  

S.  B.  Howes  

1865. 

Bark  
...do  

Bark  
Ship  
Schooner  . 
...  do  
Brig  
Bark  
Schooner  . 

Bark  
do 

New  Bedford  . 
do  
New  London.  . 
do  
do  
New  Bedford 
New  London  .  . 

New  Bedford  . 
do 

Daniel  Webster  
Eta 

Franklin  
Isabella  
Milwood  
S.  B.  Howes  . 

1866. 

Ansel  Gibbs  
Black  Eagle 

do 

Sag  Harbor.  .  . 

Schooner 
..  do 

New  Bed  ford 
New  London.  . 
do 

200 
10,  000 
16,  000 

George  and  Mary  .  . 
tana  
Helen  F  
Morning  Star  
Orray  Taft 

Bark  
Brig  
Schooner  . 
Bark  
do 

do    
New  Bedford  . 
do  
Fair  Haven  .  .  . 
New  Bed  lord  . 
New  London  .  . 

do  
do  
....  do  

New  Bedford  . 

New  London  .  . 
do  
do  
New  Bed  ford  . 
New  London.  . 

• 
Sag  Harbor.  .  . 

12,  000 
3,000 
8,000 
8,000 
5,300 

6,600 
5,600 

Oxford 

Brig 

Pioneer  
Pioneer  

Bark  
Steamer  .  . 

Schooner  . 
...do  
do 

S.B.Howes  
TJ.  D 

1867. 
Andrews  

Bark  

Schooner 
...do  

lirig  
Bark  .... 
Steamer  .  . 

Bark  
...do  

Era  

Aug.  27,  1868 
Sept.  10,  1868 
Sept.  14,  1868 
Nov.  13,  1868 

837 
393 
668 
378 

13,  400 
6,600 
8,700 
3,889 

Franklin  
Isabella  
Milwood  
Pioneer  

1868. 

Ansel  Gibbs  
Concordia  

Sept.  20,  1869 
Oct.     7,  ]>:i',!l 

650 
200 

10,000 
2,900 

THK  WIIALK   KISIIKI.'Y. 

of  the  Hiii-i*  xtriiit  anil  //«</>,««  i:,n/ jln-lx  J'lom  l*4(\  l<>  ISTU— Continucil. 


101 


Name  of  vessel. 

Sidled. 

Returned. 

Whale 
oil. 

SV  halo- 
bone. 

Remarks. 

1668. 

Schooner  . 
Bark    ... 

Brig  

S;   llOHII'T 

Brig  
Schooner  . 

Schooner  . 
..do  
Brig  
Bark  
Si  aoone] 

Bnik  .... 
.do  
Schooner 

Bark  

Bark  
.do  

MS 
105 

128 
108 

91 
101 

188 
119 
192 
•_'16 
105 

303 
105 
101 

303 

•J17 
195 
192 
216 

115 

lay  -.'0,1868 

>,  18CS 
June  20,  1868 

rnly  UO,  1868 

M:..v    1 

May  18,1869 
Apr.  14,  I860 
Apr.    6,  1869 
May  18,1869 

JuneSl,  1870 
May    3,  1870 
July    7,1870 

Dec.  13.1871 

Apr.  25,1871 
July    9,  1871 
May  31,  1871 
Sept.  25,  1871 

Ma\    28,1872 
May  29,  1872 
July    2,1872 

June  26,  1873 

May  12,  1874 

June  15,  1874 
June   9,1874 

June  8,1875 
May    4,1875 

May  23,  1876 

July  17,  1877 
July  11,  1877 
May  30,  1877 
July  11,  1877 

May    8,1878 
May     4,1878 
May  15,1878 
July 
May  14,  1878 
JS,  1878 

Jnne23,1879 

June  15,  187! 
Jun»2':,  187! 

:,  1869 

Sept.  1 

Barrels. 
143 
450 

yminds. 
1,765 
8,000 

Lost,  in  1868  with  entire  crew 

Lost,  in  Cumberland  Inlet  November  10, 
1876. 

Lost  in  Cumberland  Inlet  in  1869. 

Lost  in  1870. 

Lost  in  tho  inlet  in  1873. 

Lost  in  Hndson  Bay  October  19,  1872, 
having  630  barrels  oil  and  810,  000  pounds 
boneon  board;  3,  500  pounds  bone  were 
saved;  15  of  crew  died  of  scurvy. 

Nothing  but  freight  ;  broken  up  in  1873. 
Losf  on  Biaek  T.ead  Island. 

Lost  in  Hndson  Bay  September  14,  1872. 

The  fiist  mate  and  a  boat's  crew  were 
lost  in  tho  ice  September  5,  1874. 

Lost   in    Hndson   Bay   June   12,  1877; 
value  $24,000. 

Lost  in  Hudson  Bay  August  16,  1878 

Male  froze,  to  deaib.    Brought  home  re- 
n:  i  ms  of  Dr.  Irving,  of  Franklin  Expe> 
dition. 

George  and  Mary.. 
Georgiana  

X*  \v  London 

....    do  
...      do  

fa  ir   II  a\  rn 

NY\v  J.' 

>,  .  v.    1  .ondnii   . 
....do    
do  

ill'oid 
"tidon.  . 

New  !'• 
Now  London  .  . 
....  do  

New  Bedford  . 

New  London.. 

New  Bed  fold  . 
Now  London.  . 

New  Bedford  . 

New  Bedford 
Pioviucetown 
New  Bedford 

New  London  . 

New  Bedford 

New  London  . 
New  Bedford 

New  London. 
do  

New  Bedford 

New  Bed  ford 
New  London. 
do  
do    

t 

New  Bedford 
do  
do  
do    

1,450 

13,600 

Oxford  

Nov.    C',1869 

Oct.      5,  1870 
Oct.      5,  1870 
Oft.    I'',  11-70 
("let.      6,1870 

Oct.        (j,  1871' 

Nov.  20,  1871 

Clean. 

533 
47:i 
527 
990 

1869. 
Era 

5,400 
8,418 
6,587 
15,  900 

Kiankliu  
Isabella  

1S7U. 

1,340 
425 

22,  040 
5,000 

George  and  Mary.  . 

1871. 
Ausel  Gibbs  

C'oncordia    

Nov.    9,  1871 
Sept.  'JO,  1873 
Oct.    28,1872 

75 

1,600 
228 

Brig  
Bark 

140 

878 
180 

1872. 
A  bbie  Bradford  

Schooner  . 
do     

Sept.    7,1873 
Oct.     8,  1872 

13,131 
:i.  128 

Bark 

134 
192 

115 

293 
259 

192 

293 

219 

197 
134 
89 
293 

115 
160 

197 
77 

1873. 
Isabella  

1874. 
Abbie  Bradford  

Nile  
President  

1875. 
Isabella 

Brig  

Schooner.  . 

Ship  
Bark  

Bri" 

Sept.   2,1873 

Sept.  24,  1875 

Dec.    9,  1874 
Sept,  16,  1874 

Aug.  27,  1877 
Jan.  11,1876 

Clean. 

650 

800 
500 

400 
380 

200 

243 
20 
LOO 

550 
190 
20 
40 
200 
150 

70 

300 
550 

12,000 

-  000 
K.  iiiin 

4,000 
5,000 

4,500 

2,800 

•j,  null 
8,000 

8,000 
3,000 

Nile 

Ship  
Bark  

Brig  
Schooner. 
..  do  

1876. 
A.  Houghton  

1877. 
A  J  Ross 

Apr.  10,  1878 
Dec.    4,1878 
Nov.  27,  1878 
Dec.    1,  1878 

Aug.  31,  1S79 
Sept.   1,1879 

Era 

Nile 

Bark  

Schooner. 
Brig  
...do  

1878. 

Abbie  Bradford  .  -  - 
Al.lM'tt  Lawrence. 
A.  J.  Rosa...  
Franklin  
Isabella  
Mattapoisett  

1879. 
George  and  Mary  . 

Delia  HoJgkins... 

Ang.  31,  1879 
Aug.  31,  1879 
Sept.   7,1879 

Sept.  22,  1880 

Nov.  22,  1879 
Nov.  24,  1880 

215 

4,000 
2,000 

Brig  
Bark  

Bark  

Schooner, 
do 

132 
110 

105 

95 

134 

do  
do  

New  Bedford 

New  London 

do  

8,000 

102  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

7.  HISTORY  OF  THE  AMERICAN  WHALE  FISHERY  FROM  1750  TO  1815. 

The  Dutch  aud  English  bad  carried  on  the  whale-fishery  iu  the  northern  seas  for  several  years 
prior  to  the  settlement  of  New  England  by  Englishmen.  Along  the  shore  of  Massachusetts  whales 
were  constantly  being  driven  ashore  and  were  secured  by  the  inhabitants.  In  the  early  records 
of  the  colonies  we  find  numerous  references  to  drift  whales,  but  it  was  not  until  about  the  year 
1712  that  vessels  were  used,  and  those  of  but  small  tonnage,  so  that  they  ventured  but  on  short 
voyages.  By  the  year  1730,  however,  the  vessels  were  of  larger  class  and  generally  sloop-rigged. 
By  the  year  1750  there  was  a  large  fleet  sailing  from  various  ports  in  New  England,  which  has 
always  been  the  enterprising  center  for  the  whale-fishery  in  this  country. 

The  following  exhaustive  review  of  the  American  whale-fishery  during  the  period  from  1750  to 
1815  is  quoted  from  Starbuek's  History  of  the  Whale  Fishery  printed  in  the  report  of  the  United 
States  Commissioner  of  Fish  and  Fisheries  for  l.S7j-'7G : 

BOUNTY  TO  ENGLISH  WHALERS.— "  The  period  from  1750  to  1784  was  the  most  eventful  era  to 
the  whale-fishery  that  it  has  ever  passed  through.  For  a  large  proportion  of  the  time  the  business 
was  carried  on  under  imminent  risk  of  capture,  first  by  the  Spanish  and  French  and  after  by  the 
English.  The  colonial  Davis  Strait  fishery  seems  to  have  been  quite  abandoned,  and  the  vessels 
cruised  mostly  to  the  eastward  of  the  Grand  Banks,  along  the  edge  of  the  Gulf  Stream  and  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  Bahama*.  In  1748  the  English  Parliament  had  passed  a  second  act  to  encourage 
this  fishery.  By  it  the  premium  on  inspection  of  masts,  yards,  and  bowsprits,  tar,  pitch,  and  tur- 
pentine, aud  on  British-made  sail-cloth  were  to  continue,  and  the  duties  on  foreign-made  sail-cloth 
were  remitted  to  vessels  engaged  in  this  pursuit.  A  bounty  was  also  granted  on  all  ships  engaged 
in  whaling  during  the  then  existing  war  ;  harpoouers  and  others  employed  in  the  Greenland  fish- 
ery were  exempted  from  impressment.  The  commissioners  of  customs  were,  under  the  required 
certificate,  to  pay  the  second  twenty  shillings  per  ton  bounty  granted  by  Parliament  over  the 
first  twenty  previously  granted.*  The  ships  which  had  sailed  during  the  previous  March  or  April 
were  to  be  equal  sharers  iu  this  bounty  with  those  whose  sailing  had  been  delayed.  All  ships 
built  or  fitted  out  for  this  pursuit  from  the  American  colonies  conforming  to  this  act  were  to  be 
licensed  to  whale,  and  iu  order  to  receive  the  bounties  must  remain  in  Davis  Straits  or  vicinity 
from  May  (sailing  about  May  1)  until  the  20th  of  August,  unless  sooner  full  or  obliged  to  return 
by  accident.  Foreign  Protestants  serving  in  this  fishery  for  two  years,  aud  qualifying  themselves  for 
its  prosecution,  were  to  be  treated  as  though  they  were  natives.!  The  cause  of  this  concession  to 
the  colonies  was  a  part  of  Lord  Shirley's  scheme  to  rid  Acadia  of  the  French.  It  was  his  desire 
that  George  II  should  cause  them  to  be  removed  to  some  other  English  colony,  and  settle  Nova 
Scotia  with  Protestants, t  and  to  this  end  invitations  were  sent  throughout  Europe  to  induce 
Protestants  to  remove  thither.  'The  Moravian  Brethren  were  attracted  by  the  promise  of  exemp- 
tion from  oaths  and  military  service.  The  good  will  of  New  England  was  encouraged  by  care  for 
its  fisheries ;  and  American  whalemen,  stimulated  by  the  promise  of  enjoying  an  equal  bounty 
with  the  British,  learned  to  follow  their  game  among  the  icebergs  of  the  Greenland  seas.'§  'The 
New  Eiiglanders  of  this  period.'  says  Bancroft,||  '  were  of  homogeneous  origin,  nearly  all  tracing 
their  descent  to  the  English  emigrants  of  the  reigns  of  Charles  the  First  and  Charles  the  Second. 
They  were  a  frugal  and  industrious  race.  Along  the  sea-side,  wherever  there  was  a  good  harbor, 
fishermen,  familiar  with  the  ocean,  gathered  in  hamlets ;  and  each  returning  season  saw  them 

"*In  sixth  year  of  the  ivigu  of  George  II."  "t  Mass.  Col.  MSS.,  Maritime,  vi,  p.  316." 

"  t  The  carrying  out  of  this  srhcnie  and  the  destruction  of  the  colony  of  Acadian*  justly  receives  execration." 

"  §  Bancroft's  Hist.  U.  S.,  v,  p.  45."  "  ||  Ibid.,  iv,  p.  149." 


TIN:  \\IIAI.K  risiiEi;v.  103 

with  an  ever-increasing  number  of  mariners  ;uul  vessels,  taking  Hie  coil  and  mackerel,  and  some 
times  pursuing  the  whale  into  the  icy  labyrinths  of  '.he  northern  seas;  yet  loving  home,  and 
dearly  attached  to  their  modest  freeholds.' 

"Of  this  period  Hiite.hinson  says  :  *  'The  increase  of  the  consumption  of  oil  by  lamps  as  well 
as  by  divers  manufactures  in  Kurope  has  been  no  small  encouragement  to  our  whale-fishery.  The 
flourishing  state  of  the  island  of  Xantucket  must  be  attributed  to  it.  The  cod  and  whale  fishery, 
being  the  principal  source  of  our  returns  to  Great  Britain,  are  therefore  worthy  not  only  of 
provincial  but  national  attention.' 

"A  continual  succession  of  foreign  wars,  in  which  the  hardy  fishermen  and  farmers  of  New 
England  were  constantly  called  to  the  aid  of  England,  coupled  with  a  continual  succession  of  in- 
tolerant measures  adopted  by  the  mother  country  toward  the  plantations,  which,  in  common  with 
the  colonists  at  large,  they  felt  impelled  to  resist,  was  gradually  preparing  America  for  the  event- 
ful struggle  which  was  to  end  in  its  independence.  By  the  experience  of  the  wars  they  learned 
their  strength;  through  the  pressure  of  the  tyrannical  acts  they  learned  their  rights." 

EMBARGO  OF  1757. — "Pending  the  expedition  for  the  reduction  of  Nova  Scotia  in  1755  an 
embargo  was  laid  upon  the  Bank  fishermen,  though  the  risk  of  capture  was  so  great  that  it  of 
itself  must  have  quite  effectively  embargoed  many  of  them. t 

••In  1757 — the  embargo  being  still  continued  upon  the  fishery  in  these  waters — a  petition 
was  presented  to  the  general  court  of  Massachusetts  from  the  people  of  Martha's  Vineyard  and 
Xantucket.  representing  that  the  memorialists  'being  Informed  that  your  Honours  think  it  not 
advisable  to  Permit  the  fishermen  to  Sail  on  their  Voyages  until  the  time  limited  by  the  Embargo 
is  Expired  by  lieasou  that  their  fishing  banks  where  they  Usually  proceed  on  said  Voyages  lyes 
Eastward  not  far  from  Cape  bretou  which  may  be  a  means  of  their  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  freuch 
which  may  be  of  bad  Consequence  to  the  Common  Cause.  Your  Memorialists  would  Humbly  observe 
to  Your  Honours  that  that  is  not  the  Case  with  the  whalemen  their  procedure  on  their  Voyages  is 
Westward  of  the  Cape  of  Virginia,  and  southward  of  that  until  the  mouth  of  June  from  which  Your 
Memorialists  are  of  the  mind  their  is  nothing  like  the  Danger  of  their  falling  into  the  hands  of  the 
<'ape  bretou  Privateers  as  would  be  If  they  went  Eastward.  Your  Memorialists  would  further 
Observe  that  the  whalemen  have  almost  double  the  Number  of  hands  that  the  fishermen  Carry 
which  makes  Their  Charge  almost,  Double  to  that  of  fishermen  and  ye  first  part  of  the  Whale 
,-eason  is  Always  Esteemed  the  Principal  time  for  their  making  their  Voyages  which  If  they  lose 
the  greatest  part  of  the  People  will  have  nothing  to  Purchase  the  Necessaries  of  life  withal  they 
h.ivcing  no  other  way  which  must  make  them  in  miserable  Situation.  Your  memorialists  would 
therefore  beg  that  yr  Honours  would  take  Our  Miserable  Situation  under  Consideration  and  grant 
our  Whalemen  liberty  lo  Proceed  on  Our  Voyages  from  this  time  If  it  be  Consistent  with  your 
(ireat  wisdom  as  in  duty  bound  shall  every  prayj 

"  'JOHN  NORTON  (for  Martha's  Vineyard) 
u  'ABISHAI  FOLGER  (for  Nantucket)' 

"In  compliance  with  the  foregoing  petition  the  council  passed  this  resolution  (April  8,  1758): 
•Inasmuch  as  the  Inhabitants  of  Xantucket  most  of  whom  are  Quakers  are  by  Law  exempted 
from  Impresses  for  military  Sen  ice.  And  their  Livelihood  intirely  depends  on  the  Whale  fishery— 

"•Hist,  of  Massachusetts,  ii.  p.  .1IH'." 

"t  A  duty  was  laid  upon  the  eoloni.sts  m  l?:,i;  to  support  a,  frigate  on  the  Banks  to  defend  the  fislu 
"  t  Mass.  Col.  MSS.,  M. -nil  inn-    yi,  p.  :',71.      From  this  pet  it  ion  p]ie:<r  that,  having  an  unfavorable  season 

at  the  soitthwatd,  the,  whalemen  \\  otild  stand  lor  Hi  t.o  till  there.     If,  however,  a  \  easel  got  home  early 

from  the  nut-Hi,  t  ln-\    frequent  ly  went  mi  another  voyage  10  the  so  n  Hi  and  west  \\  aril  in  I  lie  same  year.'' 


104  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Advised  that  his  Escelly  give  permission  for  all  whaling  Vessclls  belong5  to  sa  Ild  to  pursue  their 
Voyages,  taking  only  the  Inht8  of  sd  Island  in  sd  Vessells  and  that  upon  their  taking  any  other 
persons  whatsoever  with  them  they  be  subject  to  all  the  Penalties  of  the  law  in  like  manner  as  if 
they  had  proceeded  without  Leave.'" 

THE  GULF  OF  SAINT  LAWKENCE  AND  STRAITS  OF  BELLEISLE  FISHERY. — "In  1761  the 
fishery  of  the  Gulf  of  Saint  Lawrence  and  the  Straits  of  Bellisle  was  opened  to  our  whalemen, 
and  they  speedily  availed  themselves  of  its  wealth.  This  was  the  legitimate  result  of  the  conquest 
of  Canada  and  the  cession  of  territory  made  by  France  to  England  at  the  conclusion  of  the  war, 
a  result  which  the  colonists  had  labored  hard  and  spent  lives  and  treasure  unstintedly  to  attain, 
but  of  the  benefit  of  which  they  were  destined  to  be  defrauded.  A  duty  was  levied  on  all  oil  and 
bone  carried  to  England  from  the  colonies,  and  by  another  oppressive  act  of  Parliament  they 
were  not  allowed  to  find  for  this  product  any  other  market.  The  discrimination  between  the 
plantations  and  the  mother  country  was  made  the  more  marked  .since  at  this  time  the  residents  of 
Great  Britain  were  allowed  a  bounty  from  which  he  provincials  were  debarred.  Against  these 
injustices  the  merchants  of  New  England,  and  these  of  London  engaged  in  colonial  trade,  respect- 
fully petitioned.  They  represented  that  'in  the  Tear  1701  The  Province  of  Massachusetts  Bay, 
fitted  out  from  Boston  &  other  portst  Ten  Vessels  of  from  Seventy  to  Ninety  Tous  Burden  for 
this  Purpose.  That  the  Success  of  these  was  such  as  to  encourage  the  Sending  out  of  fifty  Vessels 
in  the  Year  1762  for  the  same  trade.  That  in  the  Year  17(J3  more  than  Eighty  Vessels  were 
imploy'd  iu  the  same  niauner.f  That  they  haTe  already  imported  to  London  upwards  of  40  Ton 
of  Whale  Finn:  being  the  produce  of  the  two  first  years.  That  upon  Entring  of  the  above  Finn, 
a  Duty  was  required  and  paid  upon  it,  of  thirty  one  Pound  ten  shillings  V  Ton.  That  the 
weight  of  this  Duty  was  remlei'd  much  heavier  by  the  great  reduction  made  in  the  price  of  Dutch 
Bone  since  the  commencement  of  this  trade  from  £500  to  £330  ¥  Ton.'  They  represent  further 
that  the  reason  for  the  conferring  of  bounties  upon  vessels  in  this  pursuit  from  Great  Britain  was 
tn  rival  the  Dutch, $  but  in  spite  of  this  encouragement  there  was  not  enough  oil  and  bone 
brought  into  England  by  British  vessels  to  supply  the  demand.  They  also  reasoned  that  Parlia- 
ment could  not  intentionally  discriminate  between  the  various  subjects  of  the  Crown,  granting 

••    M:i.-s.  Col.  MSS.,  Maritime,  vi,  p.  371.     Martha's  Vineyard  appears  to  be  ignored  in  the  order." 

"t  As  already  explained,  Boston  was  the  port  of  entry  for  many  of  the  Cape  towns  and  its  own  immediate  vicinity." 

"  t  According  to  the  following  doggerel  there  were  seventy-five  whaling  captains  sailing  from  Nautucket  iu  ITli:!: 

Whale-List,  lij  Tlwmas  Wcrtli,  J/.  1763. 

Out  of  Nantucket  their's  Whalemen  seventy-five, 
But  two  poor  Worths  among  thorn  doth  survive  : 
Their  is  two  Ranisdills  &  their's  Woodbury's  two, 
Two  Ways  there  is,  chnse  which  one  pleaseth  you, 
Folgers  thirteen,  &  Barnards  there  are  four 
Bunkers  their  is  three  &  Jenkinses  no  more, 
Gardners  their  is  seven,  Husseys  their  are  two, 
Pinkhams  their  is  five  and  a  poor  Delano, 
Myricks  there  is  three  &  Coffins  there  are  six, 
Swaius  their  arc  four  and  one  blue  gaily  Fitch. 
One  Chadwick,  Cogshall,  Colemau  their's  but  one, 
Brown,  Baxter,  two  &  Paddacks  there  is  three, 
Wyer,  Stanton,  Starbuek,  Moorse  is  ftmr  you  see, 
But  if  for  a  Voyage  I  was  to  choose  a  Stauton, 
I  would  leave  Sammy  out  &  choose  Ben  Stratton. 
And  not  forget  that  Eocott  is  alive, 
And  that  long-crotch  makes  up  the  seventy -five. 
This  is  answering  to  the  list,  you  see, 
Made  up  in  seventeen  hundred  &  sixty-three." 

"  §  The  Dutch  from  1759  to  1768  sent  to  the  Greenland  fishery  1,:5'24  ships,  which  took  3,018  whales,  producing  146,419 
barrels  of  oil  and  8,785,140  pounds  of  bone.  (Scoresby.)  Great  Britain  in  the  same  time  sent  about  one-third  the 

number  <>f  ships." 


TlIE  WHALE  FISIIKIIV. 


105 


to  one  a  bounty  and  requiring  of  another  a  duty  for  (lie  same  service.  They,  however,  ask  for  no 
bounty — they  are  content  that  Great  Britain  should  alone  receive  the  benefit  of  that — but  they 
simply  desire  that  they  should  not  be  taxed  with  ;i  duty  on  these  imports."* 

ENGLISH  BOUNTY  ABOLISHED.— "The  knowledge  that  the  English  fishery,  even  with  its 
bounty,  was  still  unable  to  fully  cope  with  the  Dutch,  or  even  to  supply  its  own  home  demand,  as 
well  as  the  desire  of  Earl  Grenville  to  forward  certain  projects  in  his  American  policy,  notably  the 
odious  stamp  tax,  caused  some  attention  to  be  paid  to  petitions  similar  to  the  foregoing,  fortified 
somewhat  by  the  presence  of  a  special  agent  from  Massachusetts  to  sustain  the  position  and  urge 
the  claims  there  made.  To  various  sections  various  tenders  were  to  be  made.  'The  boon  that 
was  to  mollify  Now  England,'  says  Bancroft,!  'was  concerted  with  Israel  Mauclit,  acting  for  bis 
brother,  the  agent  of  Massachusetts,  and  was  nothing  less  than  the  whale-fishery.  Great  Britain 
had  sought  to  compete  with  the  Dutch  in  that  branch  of  industry ;  had  fostered  it  by  bounties ; 
had  relaxed  even  the  act  of  navigation,  so  as  to  invite  even  the  Dutch  to  engage  in  it  from  British 
ports  iu  British  shipping.  But  it  was  all  in  vain.  Grenville  gave  up  the  unsuccessful  attempt, 
and  sought  a  rival  for  Uolland  in  British  America,  which  had  hitherto  lain  under  the  double  dis- 
couragement of  being  excluded  from  the  benefit  of  a  bounty, |  and  of  having  the  products  of  its 
whale-fishing  taxed  unequally.  He  now  adopted  the  plan  of  gradually  giving  up  the  bounty  to 
the  British  whale  fishery,  which  would  be  a  saving  of  £30,000  a  year  to  the  treasury,  and  of  reliev- 
ing the  American  fishery  from  the  inequality  of  the  discriminating  duty,  except  the  old  subsidy, 
which  was  scarcely  1  per  cent.  This  is  the  most  liberal  act  of  Grenville's  administration,  of  which 
t  lie  merit  is  not  diminished  by  the  fact  that  the  American  whale-fishery  was  superseding  the  English 
under  every  discouragement.  It  required  liberality  to  accept  this  result  as  inevitable,  and  to 
favor  it.  It  was  doue,  too,  with  a  distinct  conviction  that  'the  American  whale-fishery,  freed  from 
its  burden,  would  soon  totally  overpower  the  British.'  So  this  valuable  branch  of  trade,  which 
produced  annually  3,000  pounds,  and  which  would  give  employment  to  many  shipwrights  and 
other  artificers,  and  to  three  thousand  seamen,  was  resigned  to  America." 

EFFECTS  OF  WAR. — "With  the  people  of  Nantacket  every  foreign  war  meant  a  diminution 
of  their  whaling  fleet,  for  there  is  scarcely  any  risk  that  whalemen  have  not  and  will  not  run  in 
pursuit  of  their  prey.  During  the  years  1755  and  1756  six  of  their  vessels  had  been  lost  at  sea 
and  six  more  were  taken  by  the  French  and  burned,  together  with  their  cargoes,  while  the  crews 

'•  *  Ma«.  Col.  MSS.,  Maritime,  vol.  vii,  p.  243.  Tbe  coacludiiig portion  of  this  petition,  including  tbe  signatures,  is 
missing,  a  fact,  greatly  to  bo  regretted,  as  it  would  be  extremely  interesting  to  know  who  tbe  prominent  oil-merchants 
of  tbat  time  were.  The  following  is  the  statement  of  imports  of  oil  ami  bone  from  the  colonies  into  England  and 
from  Holland  to  the  same  country,  which  accompanied  the  petition: 

Account  of  Finim  <f-  Oil  from  America  to  England  cf-  Duties  from  Christmas  1758  to  Christmas  1763. 


Year 

Fins. 

Whale-oil. 

Duty,  America. 

Duty,  London. 

Duty,  America. 

Duty,  London. 

1758  to  1759                .                 

T.  Owl.  Lbs. 
17      0       17 

£    «.  d. 
11    0    0 

£     s.   d. 

10  14    0 

T.      H.     0. 
3  245    2    28 

£.      s.    d. 
1  898  13    8 

£      s.  d. 
1  436    3     8 

1760                     .              

18      2        9 

28  10    6 

27  10    4 

2  595     1     14 

1  518    5    1 

1    148     8    5 

1761 

27      0        8 

42    2    6 

40  10    0 

3  126    3     31 

1  829    4    5 

1  383  12  10 

1762 

335      2        5 

522    3  10 

502    5    0 

2  483    2    39 

]  452  18    9 

1  090     0    4 

1763            

1  546      3      13 

2  427     5    3 

2  315    9    4 

5  030    0    1° 

2  942  11    7 

2  225  15  11 

Total 

1  985      0      24 

3  Oil  10    1 

2  896  15    2 

16  481    1    16 

9  641  13    0 

7,  293    1    2 

t  Bancroft's  United  States,  v,  p.  184. 

t  The  bounty  of  174b  had  evidently  been  legislated  out  of  existence. 


106  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

were  carried  away  into  captivity.  In  1760  another  vessel  was  captured  by  a  French  privateer  of 
twelve  guns  and  released  after  the  commander  of  the  privateer  hud  put  on  board  of  her  the  crew 
of  a  sloop  they  had  previously  taken  nearly  full  of  oil  and  burned.  The  captain  of  the  sloop,  - 
Luce,  had  sailed  with  three  others  who  were  expected  on  the  coast.  The  day  after  Luce  was  taken 
the  privateer  engaged  a  Bermudian  letter  of  marque  and  was  beaten.  During  this  engagement 
several  whalemen  in  the  vicinity  made  their  escape.  In  the  same  month  (June)  another  privateer 
of  fourteen  guns  took  several  whaling  vessels,  one  of  which  was  ransomed  for  $400,  all  the  prison- 
ers put  on  board  of  her,  and  she  landed  them  at  Newport.*  In  17G2  another  Nautucket  sloop  was 
taken  by  a  privateer  from  the  French  West  Indies,  under  one  MODS.  Palanqna,  while  she  was 
cruising  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Leeward  Islands.'' 

MARTHA'S  VINEYARD  AND  NANTUCKET  WHALERS. — "At  Martha's  Vineyard  whaling  did 
not  seem  to  thrive  so  well  as  at  the  sister  island  of  Nantucket.  The  very  situation  of  Nantucket 
seemed  favorable  for  the  development  of  this  and  kindred  pursuits;  in  fact,  the  situation  made 
them  necessities.  While  the  Vineyard  was  quite  fertile  and  of  considerable  extent,  Nautucket 
was  comparatively  sterile  and  circumscribed.  At  the  Vineyard  a  livelihood  could  be  attained 
from  tilling  the  earth,  at  Nantticket  a  large  portion  of  that  which  sustained  life  must  be  wrested 
from  the  ocean.  A  constant  struggle  with  nature,  ami  a  constant  surmounting  of  those  obstacles 
incident  to  their  lo.-ation  and  surroundings,  developed  within  the  Nantucketois  a  spirit  of  adventure 
which  was  carefully  trained  into  channels  of  enterprise  and  usefulness.  Hence,  the  early  history 
of  whaling  on  Martha's  Vineyard  was  not  that  ultimate  success  that  it  was  on  Nantucket,  and 
while  the  year  1775  found  the  latter  with  a  fleet  of  150  vessels  with  a  burden  of  15,000  tons,  the 
former  at  the  same  period  could  count  but  12  vessels  and  an  aggregate  of  720  tons. 

"  In  1752  Mr.  John  Newman  and  Timothy  Coffin  built  a  vessel  of  75  tons,  but  she  was  also 
destined  to  a  brief  existence.  On  her  second  voyage  whaling  she  was  captured  near  the  Grand 
Bauks'by  the  French,  and  Captain  Coffin,  her  commander,  lost  his  life,  his  vessel,  and  his  cargo. 
In  the  same  year  (1752)  John  Norton,  esq.,  with  others,  purchased  a  vessel  of  55  tons  for  the 
carrying  on  of  this  business,  and.  like  her  contemporary,  she  failed  to  survive  her  second  voyage, 
but  was  cast  away  on  the  coast  of  Carolina,  Capt.  Christopher  Beetle  being  at  the  time  in  command. 
Mr.  Norton  immediately  chartered  a  vessel  to  get  his  own  off,  but  on  their  arrival  on  Carolina, 
his  vessel  was  gone,  with  her  sails,  rigging,  and  appurtenances,  and  he  out  of  pocket  a  further 
sum  of  $500  to  the  wrecking  party.  Eight  years  later  (1760),  Esquire  Norton,  with  others,  built 
the  sloop  Polly,  65  tons  burden.  On  her  third  whaling  trip  to  the  southward  she  too  was  lost, 
and  by  her  destruction  perished  Nicholas  Butler,  her  captain,  and  thirteen  men.  Repeated  losses 
had  reduced  Norton  to  somewhat  straitened  circumstances,  and,  selling  what  property  he  had 
left,  he  removed  to  Connecticnl,  where,  he  died. 

"It  is  impossible  to  separate  in  the  accounts  of  whaling  at  this  time  the  share  which  Boston 
took  in  it  from  that  taken  by  other  ports.  The  reports  which  may  be  found  in  the  current  papers 
rarely  gave  the  name  of  the  port  to  which  entering  or  clearing  vessels  belonged.  In  fact  the 
majority  of  the  reports  are.  merely  records  of  accidents,  and  it  is  very  rarely  indeed  that  the 
amount  cf  oil  taken  by  returning  whalers  is  given. 

"lu  1762  a  whaling  .schooner,  commanded  by  -  -  Bickford,  was  totally  lost  on  Seil  (?) 
Islands.  The  crew,  fourteen  in  number,  were  taken  off  by  a  fishing  vessel." 

LONG-  ISLAND  WHALERS. — "Of  the  Long  Island  fishery  the  only  record  accessible  is  the 
meager  one  regarding  Sag  Harbor.  Easthampton,  Southampton,  and  (heir  more  immediate  neigh- 
bors seem  to  have  been  supplanted  by  this  younger  town.t  Probably  prior  to  1760  vessels  had 

"*  These  vessels  were  from  several  whaling  ports."  "  t  Sag  Harbor  was  Settled  in  1730." 


THK  WII.\U<;  FISHERY.  107 

been  fitted  for  whaling  from  tliis  port  :  il  so,  their  ident  ilical  ion  is  iinpossilile.  In  1760,  however, 
tlnve  sloops  were  lilted  out  by  Joseph  Conkling,  John  Foster,  and  others.  They  were  named  Good- 
luck,  Dolphin,  and  Success,  ami  their  cruising  ground  was  in  the  vicinity  of  36°  north  latitude." 

RHODK  ISLAND  AVII AI.KIIS. — "The  reports  regarding  1,'liode  Island  are  equally  meager. 
Occasional  reports  are  to  lie  [bund  of  the  arrivals  of  whaling-vessels.  Imt  no  report  of  where  they 
cruised  or  what  success  they  met  with,  and  no  records  exist  at  the  custom-house  to  help  clear  up 
the  historical  mist.  Warren  comes  into  notice  at  this  period  as  quite  a  thriving  whaling-port. 
The  Boston  News  Letter  of  October  :_'.'!,  17G(i.  says  :  -  Severa.l  Vessels  employed  in  the  Whale  Fish- 
ery, from  the  industrious  Town  of  Warren  in  Rhode  Island  Colony,  have  lately  returned,  having 
met  with  considerable  success.  One  Vessel,  which  went  as  far  as  the  Western  Islands,  brought 
home  upwards  of  300  Barrels  of  Uil.  Some  Vessels  from  Newport  have  also  been  tolerably  success- 
ful. This  Business,  which  seems  to  be.  carried  on  with  Spirit,  bids  fair  to  be  of  great  Utility  to 
that  Government."  " 

VIRGINIA  WHALERS. — "  Williamsburgh,  Va.,  felt  the  stimulus  caused  by  success  in  this  busi- 
ness ;  and  in  the  early  spring  of  1751  several  gentlemen  subscribed  a  sum  of  money  and  fitted  out 
a  small  sloop,  called  the  Experiment,  for  whaling  along  the  southern  coast.  On  the  9th  of  May, 
1751,  she  returned  with  a  valuable  whale,  This  was  the  first  vessel  ever  fitted  for  this  pursuit 
from  Virginia,  and  whether  she  continued  for  any  length  of  time  in  the  business  is  unknown.  The 
encouragement  of  the  first  success  undoubtedly  caused  another  venture." 

BEGINNING  OF  WHALING  INDUSTRY  AT  NEW  BEDFORD. — "  In  the  vicinity  of  New  Bedford 
whaling  probably  commenced  but  little  prior  to  1760.  In  that  year  William  Wood,  of  Dartmouth, 
sold  to  Elnathan  Eldredge,  of  the  same  town,  a  certain  tract  of  land,  located  within  the  present 
town  of  Fairhaven,  and  within  three-quarters  of  a  mile  of  the  center  of  the  town,  on  the  banks  of 
the  Acushnet  Eiver,  '  Always  Excepting  and  reserving  *****  that  part  of  the  same 
where  the  Try  house  and  Oyl  shed  now  stands.'  How  long  these  buildings  had  been  standing  at 
the  date  of  this  deed  is  unknown,  but  the  fact  of  their  being  there  then  is  indisputable,  and,  as  it 
was  not  the  habit  in  those  days  to  put  up  useless  buildings,  they  were  undoubtedly  applied  to  the 
purpose  for  which  they  were  built.  That  they  were  considered  valuable  property  is  evident  from 
the  fact  of  their  being  reserved,  lu  1765,  four  sloops,  the  Nancy,  Polly,  Greyhound,  and  Hannah, 
owned  by  Joseph  Russell,  Caleb  Russell,  and  William  Talluian,  and  from  40  to  60  tons  burden, 
were  employed  in  the  whale  fishery.*  lu  Ricketsou's  '  History  of  New  Bedford'  is  published  a 
portion  of  a  log-book  of  the  whaling-sloop  Betsey,  of  Dartmouth,  in  1761.  The  early  portion  is 
missing,  the  first  date  commencing  July  27.  These  small  vessels  usually  sailed  in  pairs,  and,  so 
long  as  they  kept  in  company,  the  blubber  of  the  captured  whales  was  divided  equally  between 
them.  Hence  the  reports,  in  which  the  captains'  names  are  always  given  instead  of  the  names  of 
the  vessels,  which  rarely  occur,  often  return  the  vessels  in  pairs,  with  fine  same  quantity  of  oil  to 
each.  The  following  are  a  few  extracts  from  this  journal  as  published  :  '  August  2d,  1761.  Lat. 
l.Vi4,  long.  .">.;. .J7  Saw  two  sperm-whales;  killed  one. — Aug.  6th.  Spoke  with  John  Clasbery ; 
he  had  got  105  bbls.;  told  us  Seth  Folger  had  got  150  bbls.  Spoke  with  two  Nantucket  men; 

••  •  Kic  ki-iscui's  llisiriry  <n'  NYw  Bedford,  p.  :>-.  Mr.  Ricketson  .says:  'To  Joseph  Russell,  the  founder  of  New  Bed- 
lord,  is  also  attributed  the  limior  of  b(ring  the  pioneer  of  the  whale-fishery  of  New  Bedford.  It  is  well  authenticated 
by  ihe  statements  of  several  rot  ••mporaries,  lately  deceased,  that  Joseph  Russell  had  pursued  the  business  as  early  as 
the  year  l?r.r>.'  From  what  particular  portion  of  the  then  town  of  Dartmouth  (which  also  included  what  is  now  known 
as  New  Bedford,  and  Fairhaveu)  lie  titled  out  his  vessels,  is  uncertain.  At  that  time  the  land  on  which  stands  the 
<-ity  of  New  Bedford  was  unpopulated  by  the  whites,  and  not  a  single  house  marked  the  spot  where,  within  less  tlian 
a  century  thereafter,  stands  the  city  from  which  w.is  lit  red  out  more  whaling-vessels  than  from  all  the  other  American 
ports  combined." 


108  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

they  had  got  one  whale  between  them;  hey  told  that  Jenkius  &  Dunham  had  got  four  whales 
between  them,  and  Allen  &  Pease  had  got  2  whales  between  them.  Lat.  42.57.— Sunday,  August 
9th.  Saw  sperm-whales  ;  struck  two,  and  killed  them  between  us,  (naming  their  escort). — August 
10th.  Cut  up  our  blubber  into  casks;  tilled  35  hhds. ;  our  partner  filled  33  hhds.  Judged  our- 
selves to  be  not  far  from  the  Banks.  Finished  stowing  the  hold. — August  20.  Lat.  44  deg.  2  min. 
This  morning  spoke  with  Thomas  Gibbs ;  had  got  110  bbls  ;  told  us  he  had  spoke  with  John  Aikin, 
and  Ephraim  Delano,  and  Thomas  Nye.  They  had  got  no  oil  at  all.  Sounded  ;  got  no  bottom. 
Thomas  Gibbs  told  us  we  were  but  two  leagues  off  the  Bank.'  The  Betsey  probably  arrived  home 
about  the  middle  of  September.  In  1762  she  apparently  made  another  voyage,  though  the  jour- 
nal up  to  the  2d  of  September  is  missing.  On  that  date  they  spoke  '  Shubel  Bunker  and  Benja- 
min Paddock.'  On  the  3d  of  September  they  '  Knocked  down  try- works.'*  Ou  the  15th  they  spoke 
Henry  Folger  and  Nathan  Coffin." 

RESTRICTIONS  TO  AMERICANS  WHALING  IN  GULP  OF  ST.  LAWRENCE. — "About  this  time 
a  new  element  entered  into  antagonism  with  colonial  whaling  in  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  and 
vicinity.  Scarcely  had  the  colonists  aided  to  wrest  this  fishery  from  the  French,  when  the  English 
governors,  in  their  turn,  strove  to  keep  our  vessels  from  enjoying  its  benefits.  lu  the  News-Letter 
of  August  8,  1765,  is  the  following  statement :  '  Tuesday  one  of  the  sloops  which  has  been  on  the 
Whaling  Business  returned  here.  We  hear  that  the  Vessels  employed  in  the  Whale  Fishery  from 
this  and  the  neighbouring  Maritime  Towns,t  amounting  to  near  100  Sail,  have  beeu  very  successful 
this  Season  in  the  Gulph  of  St.  Lawrence  and  Streigths  of  Belle  isle;  having,  tis  said,  already  made 
upwards  of  9,000  Barrels  of  Oil.'  But  this  rosy-colored  report  was  speedily  followed  by  another  of 
a  more  somber  hue.  In  August  22,  the  same  paper  says  :  'Accounts  received  from  several  of  our 
Whaling  Vessels  on  the  Labrador  Coast,  are,  that  they  meet  with  Difficulties  in  regard  to  their 
fishiug,  in  Consequence  of  Orders  from  the  Commanding  Officers  on  that  Station,  a  Copy  of  which 
are  as  follows : 

"'MEMORANDUM:  In  Pursuance  of  the  Governor's  Directions,  all  masters  of  Whaling  Vessels, 
and  others  whom  it  may  concern,  are  hereby  most  strictly  required  to  observe  the  following  Par- 
ticulars, viz : 

"'1  To  carry  the  useless  Parts  of  such  Whales  as  they  may  catch  to  at  least  Three  Leagues 
from  the  Shore,  to  prevent  the  Damage  that  the  neighbouring  Fishers  for  Cod  and  Seal  sustain 
by  their  being  left  on  the  Shore. 

'"2  Not  to  carry  any  Passengers  from  Newfoundland  or  the  Labrador^  Coast  to  any  Part  of 
the  Plantations. 

"  '3  To  leave  the  Coast  by  the  first  of  November  at  farthest. 

'"4  Not  to  fish  in  any  of  the  Ports  or  Coasts  of  Newfoundland  lying  between  Point  Richi  and 
Cape  Bonavista. 

'"5  Not  to  carry  on  any  Trade  or  have  any  Intercourse  with  the  French  on  any  Pretence. 

"  *  In  other  words,  took  them  down.  From  this  it  is  evident  that  some  vessels  were  prepared  for  trying  out  their 
oil  on  hoard. 

"The  News-Letter  of  July  26,  1764,  states  that  one  Jonathan  Negers,  of  Dartmouth,  while  whaling,  was  so  injured 
by  a  whale's  striking  the  hoat  that  he  died  a  few  days  after." 

"  t  It  is  impossible  to  apportion  the  vessels  among  their  proper  ports.  The  vessels  from  Cape  Cod  and  the  north- 
ward cleared  at  Boston ;  those  from  the  Vineyard,  at  Nautucket ;  those  at  Dartmouth,  sometimes  at  Nantiickefc  :md 
sometimes  at  Newport." 


TIIK  WIIAI, i:  I'ISIIEI;V.  109 

'"6  IH  all  your  Dealings  with  the  Indians  to  treat  Iliem  with  the  greatest  Civility:  observing 
not  to  Impose  on  their  Ignorance,  or  to  take  Advantage  of  their  Necessities.  You  arc  also  ou  no 
Account  to  serve  them  with  spirituous  Liquors. 

'"7  Not  to  iish  lor  any  other  than  Whale  on  this  Coast. 

'"Dated  on  hoard  His  Majesty's  sloop  Zephyr,  at  the  Isle  of  Bois,  on  the  Labradore  Coast, 
the  L'lst  July,  17<i:>. 

'"JODN  HAMILTON.' 

''The  issue  of  November  18  reports  that  on  account  of  this  proclamation  the  vessels  'are 
returning  halt' loaded.'     It  was  the  custom  with  many  early  whalemen,  especially  from  the  imme- 
diate vicinity  nf  Koston,  to  go  prepared   for  either  cod  or  whale  fishing,  and  in  the  event  of  the 
failure  of  the  one  to  have  recourse  to  the  otln  r.     All  restrictions  which  arc  sustained  by  an  armed 
force  are  liable  to  be  made  especially  obnoxious  by  the  manner  of  the  enforcement,  and  this  was 
no  means  a  contrary  case,     [t  was  not  at  all  surprising,  then,  that  the  ensuing  season's  fishing  was 
only  a  repetition  of  the  failure  of  that  of  17(i.">.     'Since  our  last,'  says  the  News  Letter,  'several 
Vessels  are  ret.urned  from  the  Whaling  Business,  who  have  not  only  had  very  bad  Success,  but 
also  have  been  ill-treated  by  some  of  the  Cruisers  ou  the  Labradore  Coast.'     Two  ships  had  been 
fitted  out  from  London,  the  Palliser  and  the  Labradore,  for  the  express  purpose  of  trading,  fishing, 
and  whaling  ou  the  coast  of  Labrador  and  in  the  straits  of  Belle  Isle.     Capt.  Charles  Penn,  who 
came  out  in  them  as  pilot,  left  the  straits  on  the  9th  of  July  on  his  way  to  Newfoundland.     Ou  his 
passage  he  went  on  board  quite  a  numl:er  of  whaling-vessels,  and  reported  that  they  had  met  with 
very  poor  success;   had  got  only  about  twenty  whales  in  the  entire  fleet.     In  consequence  of  this 
failure  some  of  them  had,  according  to  the  time-honored  practice,  gone  to  fishing  for  cod,  but  had 
been  interrupted  by  an   armed  vessel  and  by  the  'company's  ships'  (the  Palliser  and  Labradore), 
and  their  catch  all  taken  away  from  them  save  what  "their  actual  necessities  required.     This  was 
done  under  the  pretense  that  the  whole  coast  was  patented  to 'the  company,'  and  by  virtue  of 
orders  issued  by  Hugh   Palliser,  'governor  of  Newfoundland,  Anticosti,   Magdalenes,   and  Lab- 
radore.'     Palliser's  proclamation,   which  bore  date  of  April  3,  1766,  specified   that   all  British 
subjects  whaling  in  that  vicinity  should  choose  places  on  shore  where  they  should  laud,  cut  up 
their  blubber,  and  make  oil  as  they  arrived,  but   not  to  select   anyplace  which  was  used  in  the 
cod-fishery.     Whalemen  from,  the  plantation  s  might  take  whales  on  those  coasts,  but   were  only 
permitted  to  land  on  some  unoccupied  place  within  the  Gulf  of  Saint  Lawrence  to  cut  up  and  try 
out  their  blubber;   and  it  was  particularly  specified  that  they  were  not  to  make  use  of  any  place 
which  was  used  by  the  British  fishermen   for  the  same  or  a  similar  purpose.     Complaint  having 
been  made  of  the  provincial  whalemen    in  regard  to  their  waste  interfering   with  the  cod  fishery, 
they  were  enjoined  that  they  must  carry  the  carcasses  of  the  whales  at  least  three  leagues  from 
the  shore.    No  fishermen  from  the  plantations  were  to  be  allowed  to  winter  on  Labrador.    And 
then  Capt.  John  Hamilton,  'of  H.  M.  sloop  of  war  Merlin,  Lieut.  Gov.  of  Labradore,'  &c.,  issued 
his  proclamation:  'This  is  to  give  Notice   to  all  Whalers  from  the  Plantations,  that  they  are 
allowed  to  fish  for  Whales  only,  on  the  Coast  of  Labradore,  that  if  they  are  found  to  have  any 
other  Fish  on  Board,  the  Fish  will  be  seized,  and  they  excluded  the  Benefit  of  Whale-fishery  Hi  is 
season  ;  and  on  no  Pretence  to  trade  with  the  Indians  ;  whatever  they  shall  purchase  will  be  con 
fiscated,  and  after  this  Notice  their  Vessels  liable  to  be  seized,'  &c.     Captain  Hamilton's  decree 
bore  the  date  of  June.  25,  1766. 

"The  result  of  these  arbitrary  measures  was  that  the  whalemen  left  those  seas  and  went  off 
the  Banks.     The  close  of  the  season  witnessed  the  return  of  the  whaling  fleet  with  bur  indifferent 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHEEIES. 

success.*  Naturally  those  interested  (and  this  included  the  wealthiest  merchants  and  the  most 
skillful  mechanics,  as  well  as  the  most  indefatigable  mariners)  felt  aggrieved.  It  seemed  scarcely 
in  consonance  with  the  colonial  ideas  of  justice,  crude  as  those  notions  appeared  to  the  English 
nobility,  that  the  beneficial  results  of  a  conquest  which  they  almost  single-handed  had  made,  and 
for  defraying  the  expense  of  which  England  had  declined  any  remuneration,  should  be  diverted 
to  the  sole  benefit  of  those  alone  who  were  residents  of  the  British  Isles.  Merchants  iu  London, 
too,  whose  heaviest  and  most  profitable  trade  was  with  the  provinces,  joined  their  voices  in 
denouncing  this  wrong.  During  the  early  winter  the  report  came  that  Palliser's  regulations  were 
suspended  until  the  ministry  aud  Parliament  had  time  to  consider  the  subject.  The  matter  had 
already,  late  in  the  last  whaliug  season,  been  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  governor  of  New- 
foundland, and  he  issued  the  following  supplementary  edict,  which  appeared  in  the  Boston  papers 
of  January,  1767: 

" '  By  His  Excellency  Hugh  Palliser,  Governor  and  Commander  in  Chief  in  and  over  the  Island 
of  Newfoundland,  the  Coast  of  Labradore  and  all  the  Territories  dependent  thereupon : 

"<  "Whereas  a  great  many  Vessels  from  His  Majesty's  Plantations  employed  in  the  Whale- 
Fishery  resort  to  that  Part  of  the  Gulph  of  St.  Lawrence  and  the  Coast  of  Labradore  which  is 
within  this  Government :  and  as  I  have  been  informed  that  some  Apprehensions  have  arisen 
amongst  them  that  by  the  Eegulatious  made  by  me  relating  to  the  different  Fisheries  in  those 
Parts,  they  are  wholly  precluded  from  that  Coast : 

'"Notice  is  hereby  given,  That  the  King's  officers  stationed  iu  those  Parts  have  always  had 
my  Orders  to  protect,  assist  aud  encourage  by  every  Means  in  their  Power,  all  Vessels  from  the 
Plantations  employed  in  the  Whale-Fishery,  coming  within  this  Government;  and,  pursuant  to 
his  Majesty's  Orders  to  me,  all  Vessels  from  the  Plantations  will  be  admitted  to  that  Coast  on  the 
same  Footing  as  they  have  ever  been  admitted  in  Newfoundland ;  the  ancient  Practices  and  Cus- 
toms established  in  Newfoundland  respecting  the  Cod  Fishery,  under  the  Act  of  Parliament 
passed  in  the  10  and  llth  Years  of  William  Hid  commonly  called  The  Fishing  Act,  always  to  be 

observed. t 

'•  •  And  by  my  Regulations  for  the  Encouragement  of  the  Whale  Fisheries,  they  are  also  under 
certain  necessary  Eestrictions  therein  prescribed,  permitted  to  land  and  cut  up  their  Whales  in 
Labradore;  this  is  a  Liberty  that  has  never  been  allowed  them  iu  Newfoundland,  because  of  the 
Danger  of  prejudicing  the  Cod-Fishery  carried  on  by  our  adventurer's  Ships,  and  by  Boat-Keepers 
from  Britain,  lawfully  qualified  with  Fishing-Certificates  accordiu  g  to  the  aforementioned  Act, 
who  are  fitted  out  at  a  very  great  Bisque  and  Expence  in  complying  with  said  Act,  therefore  they 
must  not  be  liable  to  have  their  Voyages  overthrown,  or  rendered  precarious  by  any  Means,  or  by 
any  other  Vessels  whatever.  And,  Whereas  great  Numbers  of  the  Whaling  Crews  arriving  from 
the  Plantations  on  the  Coast  of  Labradore  early  in  the  Spring  considering  it  as  a  lawless  Country 
are  guilty  of  all  Sorts  of  Outrages  before  the  Arrival  of  the  King's  Ships,  plundering  whoever  they 

"  *  The  Boston  News-Letter  mentions  the  arrival  of  Capt,  Peter  Wells  at  that  port  from  whaling  August  18,  1766. 
Under  date  of  October  2,  the  News- Letter  s.iys  :  '  Since  our  last  a  Number  of  Vessels  have  arrived  from  Whaling.  They 
have  not  been  successful  gem-rally.  One  "I'  them  viz:  Capt.  Clark  on  Thursday  Morning  last  discovering  a  Sperma- 
ecl  i  Whale  near  George's  Banks,  manu'd  his  Uout,  and  gave  Chase  to  her,  &  she  coming  up  with  her  jaws  against  the 
r-ow  of  the  Boat  struck  it  with  such  Violence  that  it  threw  a  Son  of  the  Captain  ;  (who  was  forward  ready  with  his 
Lauce)  a  considerable  Height  from  the  ISi.ut.  and  when  he  fell  the  Whale  turned  with  her  devouring  Jaws  opened, 
and  caught  him.  He  was  heard  to  scream,  when  she  closed  her  Jaws,  and  part  of  his  Body  was  seen  ont  of  her  Mouth, 
\\  hen  she  turned,  and  went  off.'  " 

"  t  Duties  on  oil  imported  iu  British  ships  were  remitted,  the  commander  and  one-third  of  each  crew  being  British. 
Duties  were  also  remitted  on  fat,  furs,  and  tusks  of  seal,  bear,  walrus,  or  other  marine  animal  taken  in  the  Greenland 
seas.  By  other  acts  the  imported  materials  to  be  used  in  outfitting  were  made  non-dutiable,  and  bounties  were  estab- 
lished, amounting  in  the  final  aggregate  to  40s. per  ton." 


THK   WIIAU<;   H  SQERY.  Ill 

find  on  the  Const  too  weak  to  resist  them,  obstructing  our  Ship  Adventurers  from  I'.ritain  by  sundry 
Ways,  banking  amongst  I  heir  Boats  along  tlic  (.'oast,  which  ruins  the  Coast-Fishery,  and  is  contrary 
to  the  most  ancient  and  most  strictly  observed  li'ule  <>f  the  Fishery,  and  must  not  be  suffered  on 
Account;  also  by  destroying  tbeir  Fishing-Works  on  Shore,  stealing  their  Boats,  Tackle  and 
t'tensils,  firing  the  Woods  all  along  the  Coast,  and  hunting  for  and  plundering,  taking  away  or 
murdering  the  poor  Indian  Natives  of  the  Country  ;  by  these  Violences,  Barbarities,  and  other 
notorious  Grimes  and  Enormities,  that  Coast  is  in  the  utmost  Confusion,  and  with  respect  to  the 
Indians  is  kept  in  a  State  of  War.  For  preventing  these  Practices  in  future  Notice  is  hereby  given, 
That  the  King's  Officers  stationed  in  those  Parts,  are  authorized  and  strictly  directed,  to  appre- 
hend all  such  Offenders  within  this  (Joveruinent,  and  to  bring  them  to  me  to  be  tried  for  the  same 
at  the  General  Assizes  at  this  Place:  And  for  the  better  Government  of  that  Country,  for  regulat- 
ing the  Fisheries,  and  for  protect  ing  His  Majesty's  Subjects  from  Insults  from  the  Indians,  I  have 
His  Majesty's  Commands  to  erred  Block-Houses,  and  establish  Guards  along  that  Coast.  This 
Notification  is  to  be  put  in  the  Harbours  in  Labradore,  within  my  Government,  and  through  the 
Favour  of  His  Excellency  Goveruour  Bernard,  Copies  thereof  will  be  put  up  in  the  Ports  withiu 
the  Province  of  Massachusetts,  where  the  "Whalers  mostly  belong  for  their  Information  before  the 
next  Fishing  Season. 

"  '  Given  under  my  Hand  at  St.  John's  in  Newfoundland,  this  First  Day  of  August,  1766. 

"  <  HUGH  PALLISEE. 

" '  By  Order  of  His  Excellency, 

'"JN°.    HOESNAILL.' 

"  There  can  scarcely  be  a  doubt  but  that  the  indiscretions  of  the  whalemen  were  much  magni- 
fied (if  indeed  they  really  existed)  in  this  pronunciameuto  of  Governor  Palliser,  for  the  sake  of 
bolstering  up  the  former  one.  The  •whalemen  of  those  days  were  far  from  being  the  set  of  graceless 
scamps  which  he  represents  them  to  be.  Probably  there  was  here  and  there  a  renegade.  It  would 
be  quite  impossible  to  fiud  iu  so  large  a  number  of  men  that  all  were  strict  observers  of  the  laws. 
Self-preservation,  if  no  more  humane  motive  existed,  militated  against  the  acts  of  "which  he 
complained.  The  whalemen  were  accustomed  to  visit  the  coast  for  supplies,  in  many  cases  several 
times  a  year;  usually  on  their  arrival  iu  those  parts  they  stood  in  for  some  portion  of  the  coast 
and  '  wooded;'  and  it  is  hardly  credible  that  they  should  wantonly  destroy  the  stores  they  so  much 
needed,  or  make  enemies  on  a  coast  where  they  might  at  any  time  be  compelled  to  land.  The 
colonial  governors  quite  often  made  the  resources  under  their  control  a  source  of  revenue  for 
themselves,  and  the  fact  of  the  modification  of  Palliser's  first  proclamation  only  under  pressure  of 
the  King  and  Parliament  would  seem  to  indicate  personal  interest  in  keeping  whalemen  from  the 
colonies  away  from  the  territory  under  his  control. 

"It  is  quite  evident  that  even  with  this  modification  the  colonial  fishermen  did  not  feel  that 
confidence  in  the  Saint  Lawrence  and  Belle  Isle  fishery  that  they  felt  when  it  was  first  opened  to 
them,  for  a  report  from  Charleston,  S.  C.,  dated  June  19,  17C7,  states  that  on  'the  22d  ultimo  put 
in  here  a  sloop  belonging  to  Rhode  Island,  from  a  whaling  voyage  in  1  he  southern  latitudes,  having 
proved  successful  about  ten  clays  before.  The  master  informs  us  that  near  fifty  New  England 
vessels  have  been  on  the  whale  fishery  in  the  same  latitudes  this  season  by  way  of  experiment.'* 
Over  the  open  sea  fortune-seeking  governors  could  exercise  no  control,  and  there  our  seamen 
probably  felt  they  could  pursue  their  game  without  let  or  hindrance.  Whales  at  that  time 
abounded  along  the  edge  of  the  Gulf  Stream,  and  there  they  continued  to  be  found  for  some  years, 


1  *  UoMon  News-Letter." 


112  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

shiftng  their  ground  gradually  as  their  fierce  captors  encroached  more  and  more  upon  them  to  the 
vicinity  of  the  Western  and  Leeward  Islands,  the  Cape  deVerdes,  the  Brazil  Banks,  and  beyond. 
Some  few  whalemen,  in  spite  of  the  restrictions,  still  visited  the  newly-opened  fishing-ground. 

"The  general  results  of  the  various  voyages  were  on  the  whole  good,  and  other  places  began 
to  feel  the  stimulus  of  a  desire  to  compete.  Providence  took  part,  and  early  in  1768  several  vessels 
were  fitted  out  from  that  port  for  this  pursuit.  New  York,  too,  entered  the  lists,  and  Mr.  Robert 
Murray  and  the  Messrs.  Franklin  fitted  a  sloop  for  the  same  purpose,  and  she  sailed  on  the  19th 
of  April  of  that  year.*  The  town  of  Newport  manifested  great  activity. 

"It  was  currently  reported  in  the  colonies,  during  the  early  part  of  1767,  that  the  irksome 
restrictions  upon  whaling  were  to  be  entirely  removed;  petitions  to  tbat  efl'ect  had  been  presented 
to  the  home  government,  and  a  favorable  result  was  hoped  for,  and  early  in  1768  the  straits  of 
Davis  and  Belle  Isle  were  again  vexed  by  the  keels  of  our  fishermen,  as  many  as  fifty  or  sixty 
anchoring  in  Canso  Harbor  in  April  of  that  year,  a  few  of  them  bound  for  the  former  locality,  but 
the  majority  of  them  cruising  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Gulf  of  Saint  Lawrence  and  Newfoundland,  t 

Two  whaling  sloops  from  Nantucket,  one  commanded  by —  Coleman,  and  the  other  by 

Coffin,  were  lost  this  season  in  the  Straits  of  Belle  Isle,  and  the  crews  were  saved  by  Captain 
Hamilton,  of  the  Merlin  sloop  of  war,  who  also  aided  them  in  saving  the  sails,  rigging,  and  stores 
from  the  wrecks.  The  fisbery  in  those  parts  was  quite  unsuccessful,  many  vessels,  up  to  the  last 
of  August,  having  taken  little  or  no  oil.f 

"In  1768  there  sailed  from  Nautucket  eighty  sail  of  vessels  of  an  average  burden  of  75  tons, 
and  probably  fully  as  many  more  from  other  ports — Cape  Cod,  Dartmouth,  Boston,  Providence, 
Newport,  Warren,  Falmouth  (Cape  Cod),  and  perhaps  other  ports  being  represented — and  the 
voyages  being  undertaken  to  Davis  Strait,  straits  of  Belle  Isle,  Grand  Banks,  Gulf  of  Saint  Law- 
rence, and  Western  Islands.  Early  in  the  season  the  Western  Island  fleet  appears  to  bave  done 
little,  but  by  the  middle  of  September  they  had  obtained  an  average  of  about  165  barrels.  The 
northern  fleet  probably  did  nearly  as  well,  as  numerous  instances  occur  of  vessels  spoken  late  in 
the  summer  and  in  the  early  fall  with  from  100  to  150  and  even  as  high  as  200  barrels.  Assuming, 
tbeu,  that  one  hundred  and  forty  vessels  returned  with  an  average  produce  of  150  barrels  (which 
was  the  actual  average  import  at  Nantucket),  and  we  have  as  the  result  of  the  season's  fishing 
1*1.000  barrels,  worth,  at  £18  per  ton,  the  ruling  price,  £47,200,  or  about  $236,000." 

PROSPERITY  OF  WHALE  FISHERY,  1770  TO  1775. — "'Between  the  years  1770  and  1775,' 
says  Macy,  'the  whaling  business  increased  to  an  extent  hitherto  unparalleled.  In  1770  there 

"  *  There  seems  to  be  no  accessible  report  of  this  vessel's  return,  and  hence  the  degree  of  success  or  failure  of  her 
voyage  is  a  matter  of  doubt.  The  people  of  Nantucket  were  reported  to  have  made  £70,000  iu  1767." 

"  t  From  a  log-book  kept  by  Isaiah  Eldredge,  of  the  sloop  Tryall,  of  Dartmouth,  which  sailed  April  25, 1768,  for  the 
si  i  :iits  of  Belle  Isle.  She  cleared  from  Nantucket,  as  Dartmouth  was  not  then  a  port  of  entry.  On  Friday,  April  29, 
.sin-  was  at  anchor  iu  Canso  Harbor,  with  fifty  or  sixty  other  whalemen.  Saturday,  Way  7,  left  Crow  Harbor  and  at 
night  anchored  in  Man-of- War  Cove,  Canso  Gut,  '  with  about  sixty  sail  of  whalemen.'  The  vessels  were  continually 
beset  with  ice,  and  on  the  23d  of  May  they  cleared  their  decks  of  snow,  which  was  '  almost  over  shoes  deep.'  They 
killed  their  first  whale  on  the  22d  of  July.  The  larger  number  of  vessels  were  spoken  in  pairs,  which  was  the  usual 
manner  of  cruising.  The  sloop  returned  to  Dartmouth  on  the  5th  of  November.  This  log  runs  to  1775,  and  commences 
;i<_;;iin  in  1783,  ending  in  1797,  with  occasional  breaks  where  leaves  are  cut  out." 

"  t  In  October,  1767,  a  whaling  sloop,  belonging  to  Nautucket,  arrived  at  the  bar  off  that  port,  on  board  of  which 
were  four  Indians,  who  had  had  some  dispute  at  sea  and  agreed  to  si'ttlr.  it  on  their  return.  As  the  vessel  lay  at 
anchor  the  officers  and  crew — except  three  white  men  and  these  ludiaus — went  ashore.  The  whites  being  asleep  in 
the  cabin,  the  Indians  went  on  deck,  divided  into  two  parties,  and,  arming  themselves  with  whaling  lances,  com- 
menced the  affray.  The  two  on  one  side  were  killed  immediately,  the  other  two  were  unhurt.  The  white  men 
hearing  the  affray,  rushed  upon  deck,  and,  seeing  what  was  done,  secured  the  murderers.  In  November  of  the  same 
year  some  Newburyport  fishermen  were  astounded  at  perceiving  their  vessel  hurried  through  the  water  at  an  alarming 
rate  without  the  aid  of  sails.  Upon  investigating  the  cause,  it  was  found  that  the  anchor  was  fast  to  a  whale  (or  vice 
versa),  and  the  cable  was  cut,  relieving  them  of  their  unsolicited  propelling  power. — (Boston  News-Letter.;" 


Tin;  \YIIALK  FISIIKKY.  113 

\\ere  a  little  more  than  one  hundred  vessels  engaged  ;  and  in  1775  the  number  exceeded  one 
hundred  and  fifty,  some  of  them  large  brigs.  The  employment  of  so  great  and  such  an  increasing 
capital  may  lead  our  readers  to  suppose  that  a,  corresponding  profit,  was  realized,  but  a  careful 
examination  of  the  circumstances  under  which  the  business  was  carried  on  will  sbow  the  fallacy  of 
such  a  conclusion.  Many  branches  of  labor  were  conducted  by  those  who  were  immediately 
interested  in  the  voyages.  The  young  men,  with  few  exceptions,  were  brought  up  to  some  trade 
necessary  to  the  business.  The  rope-maker,  the  cooper,  the  blacksmith,  the  carpenter — in  flue, 
I  lie  workmen  were  either  the  ship-owners  or  of  their  household  ;  so  were  often  the  officers  and  men 
\\ho  navigated  the  vessels  and  killed  the  whales.  'While  a  ship  was  at  sea,  the  owners  at  home 
were  busily  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  casks,  iron  work,  cordage,  blocks,  and  other  articles 
for  the  succeeding  voyage.  Thus  the.  profits  of  the  labor  were  enjoyed  by  those  interested  in  the 
fishery,  and  voyages  were  rendered  advantageous  even  when  the  oil  obtained  was  barely  sufficient 
to  pay  the  outfits,  estimating  the  labor  as  a  part  thereof.  This  mode  of  conducting  the  business 
was  universal,  and  has  continued  to  a  very  considerable  extent  to  the  present  day  [1835].  Experi- 
ence taught  the  people  how  to  take  advantage  of  the  different  markets  for  their  oil.  Their  sperma- 
ccti  oil  was  mostly  sent  to  England  in  its  uuseparated  state,  the  head  matter  being  generally 
mixed  with  the  body  oil,  for  in  the  early  part  of  whaling  it  would  bring  no  more  when  separated 
than  when  mixed.  The  whale  oil,  which  is  the  kind  procured  from  the  species  called  '  right  whales,' 
was  shipped  to  Boston  or  elsewhere  in  the  colonies,  and  there  sold  for  country  consumption,  or 
sent  to  the  West  Indies.'*" 

DEPREDATIONS  BY  PRIVATEERS  AND  PIRATES. — "  The  seas  continued  to  be  infested  with 
French  and  Spanish  privateers  and  pirates,f  and  whalemen,  especially  those  frequenting  the  ocean 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  Western  Islands,  were,  from  the  very  nature  of  their  employment,  constantly 
liable  to  depredations  from  these  corsairs,  whether  legalized  or  lawless.  In  March,  1771,  the  sloop 
Neptune,  Captain  Nixon,  arrived  in  Newport  from  the  Mole,  bringing  with  him  portions  of  the  crews 
of  three  Dartmouth  w7halemeu,  who  had  been  taken  on  the  south  side  of  Hispaniola  by  a  Spanish 
guarda  coasta.  These  vessels  were  commanded  by  Capts.  Silas  Butler,  William  Roberts,  and 
Richard  Welding.  Another  whaling  vessel,  belonging  to  Martha's  Vineyard,  commanded  by 
Ephraim  Pease,  was  also  taken  at  about  the  same  time,  but  released  in  order  to  put  on  board  of  her 
the  remaining  prisoners.-  At  this  time  Pease  had  taken  200  barrels  of  oil,  and  the  Dartmouth  ves- 
sels, which  were  carried  into  Saint  Domingo,  100  barrels.  These  captures  were  made  on  the  llth 
of  February 4 

"  But  it  did  not  always  happen  that  whalemen  fell  so  easy  a  prey  to  predatory  vessels.  A 
little  strategy  sometimes  availed  them  when  a  forcible  resistance  would  have  been  outof  the  ques- 

"  "Bancroft  says  (Hist.  U.  S.,  v,  p.  -.'I ;:>),  in  17(i5  the  colonists  were  not  allowed  to  export  tbe  chief  products  of  their 
industry,  such  as  sugar,  tobacco,  cotton,  wool,  indigo,  ginger,  dyeing-woods,  whaleboue,  &c.,  to  any  place  but  Great 
liritain — not  even  to  Ireland.  Save  in  the  matter  of  salt,  wines,  victuals,  horses,  and  servants,  Great  Britain  was 
not  only  the  sole  market  for  the  products  of  Amei -ic-a,  but  the  only  storehouse  for  its  supplies. 

"  This  stringency  must,  however,  have  been  somewhat  relaxed  as  regardu  oil,  for  the  Boston  News-Letter  of  Septem- 
ber .-'.  1768,  gives  the  report  from  London,  dated  July  l:t,  that  the  whale  and  cod  fisheries  of  New  England  '  this 
season  promised  to  turn  out  extrenn  :  i  .•igeuiis,  many  ships  fully  laden  having  already  been  sent  to  the  Medi- 

terranean markets.'  Tin-  snecess  of  the  Americans  seems  to  have  again  aroused  the  jealousy  of  their  English  brethren, 
for  in  this  year  an  effort  was  made  in  Parliament  to  revive,  the  bounty  to  English  whalemen,  with  the  intent  to  weaken 
tbe  American  fishery." 

"t'lhe  word  •  pirate  '  seems  to  have  been  in  those  days  of  ;>  Minn-wlial  ambiguous  signification,  and  was  quite  as 
likely  to  mean  a  privateer  as  a  corsair." 

"  {  The  men  who  eame  home  with  Captain  Nixon  were  Oli\  er  1'riee,  Pardon  Slocuui,  and  1'hilip  Harkins.— (Boston 
News-Letter.)" 

SEC.  V,  VOL,.  II 8 


114  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

tion,  and  it  may  be  easily  believed  that  men  to  whom  danger  and  hairbreadth  escapes  were  part 
of  their  every-day  life  would  scarcely  submit  supinely  when  there  was  any  chance  in  their  favor. 
A  notable  instance  of  this  kind  occurred  in  April,  1771.  Two  ISTantucket  whaling  sloops,  com- 
manded respectively  by  Isaiah  Chadwick  and  Obed  Bunker,  were  lying  at  anchor  in  the  harbor  of 
Abaco,  when  a  ship  appeared  off  the  mouth  of  the  harbor  with  her  signals  set  for  assistance. 
With  that  readiness  to  aid  distressed  shipmates  which  has  ever  been  a  distinguishing  trait  of 
American  whalemen,  one  of  the  captains  with  a  boat's  crew  made  np  of  men  from  each  sloop 
hastened  to  render  such  help  as  was  in  their  power.  The  vessel's  side  reached,  the  captain  imme- 
diately boarded  her  to  find  what  was  desired,  and  much  to  his  surprise  had  a  pistol  presented  to 
his  head  by  the  officer  in  command  with  a  peremptory  demand  that  he  should  pilot  the  ship  into 
the  harbor.  He  assured  the  commander  that  he  was  a  stranger  there,  but  that  there  was  a  man 
in  his  boat  who  was  acquainted  with  the  port.  The  man  was  called  and  persuaded  in  the  same 
manner  in  which  the  captain  had  been.  The  argument  used  to  demonstrate  the  prudence  of  his 
compliance  with  the  request  being  so  entirely  unanswerable  the  man  performed  the  service,  anchor- 
ing the  ship  where  a  point  of  laud  lay  between  her  and  the  sloops.  This  being  done  the  boat  was 
dismissed  and  the  men  returned  to  their  vessels.  The  Nantucket  captains  now  held  a  consultation 
as  to  what  course  should  be  pursued.  Those  who  had  been  on  board  the  ship  noticed  that  the 
men  seemed  to  be  all  armed.  They  also  observed,  walking  alone  in  the  cabin,  a  man.  The  con- 
clusion arrived  at  was  that  the  ship  was  in  the  hands  of  pirates  and  the  man  in  the  cabin  was  the 
former  captain,  and  measures  were  immediately  inaugurated  to  secure  the  vessel  and  crew.  To 
this  end  an  invitation  was  extended  to  the  usurping  captain,  his  officers,  and  passengers  to  dine  on 
board  one  of  the  sloops.  The  courtesy  was  accepted,  and  the  pirate  captain  and  his  boatswain, 
with  the  displaced  captain  as  representative  of  the  passengers,  repaired  on  board  the  sloop.  After 
a  short  time  he  became  uneasy,  and  proposed  to  return  to  his  own  vessel,  but  he  was  seized  by  the 
whalemen  and  bound  fast  and  his  intentions  frustrated.  The  actual  captain  now  explained  the 
situation,  which  was  that  the  ship  sailed  from  Bristol  (R.  I.  !)  to  the  coast  of  Africa,  from  thence 
carried  a  cargo  of  slaves  to  the  West  Indies,  and  was  on  her  return  home  with  a  cargo  of  sugar 
when  the  mutiny  occurred,  it  being  the  intention  of  the  mutineers  to  become  pirates,  a  business  at 
that  time  quite  thrifty  and  promising.  Our  fishermen  now  told  the  boatswain  that  if  he  would  go 
on  board  the  ship  and  bring  the  former  mate,  who  was  in  irons,  and  aid  in  recapturing  the  vessel, 
they  would  endeavor  to  have  him  cleared  from  the  penalties  of  the  law,  and  they  prudently  inti- 
mated to  him  that  there  was  a  man-of-war  within  two  hours'  sail  from  which  they  could  obtain 
force  enough  to  overpower  his  associates.  As  a  further  act  of  prudence,  they  told  him  they  would 
set  a  certain  signal  when  they  had  secured  help  from  the  ship  of  war. 

"  The  boatswain  not  returning  according  to  the  agreement  made,  one  sloop  weighed  anchor 
and  stood  toward  the  pirate  ship  as  though  t  >  pass  on  one  side  of  her.  As  she  approached,  the 
mutineers  shifted  their  guns  over  to  the  side  which  it  seemed  apparent  she  would  pass  and  trained 
them  so  as  to  sink  her  as  she  sailed  by.  But  those  who  navigated  the  sloop  were  fully  alive  to 
these  purposes,  and  as  she  neared  the  ship  her  course  was  suddenly  changed  and  she  swept  by  on 
the  other  side  and  was  out  of  range  of  the  guns  before  the  buccaneers  could  recover  from  their 
surprise  and  reshift  and  retrain  their  cannon.  On  the  sloop  stood  upon  her  course  till  they  were 
out  of  sight  of  the  ship,  then  tacking,  the  signal  agreed  with  the  boatswain  was  set  and  she  was 
steered  boldly  for  the  corsair.  As  she  hove  in  sight,  the  pirates,  recognizing  the  sign,  and  believ- 
ing an  armed  force  from  the  man-of-war  was  on  board  the  whaling  vessel,  fled  precipitately  to  the 
shore,  where  they  were  speedily  apprehended  on  their  character  being  known.  Tue  whalemen 


THE  WHALE  Fisni<:i;y.  115 

immediately  boarded  their  prize,  released  the  mate,  and  carried  the  ship  to  New  Providence,  where 
a  bounty  of  $2,500  was  allowed  them  for  the  capture  and  where  the  chief  of  the  mutineers  was 
hanged."* 

SUPERIOR  SEAMANSHIP  OF  AMERICAN  WHALEMEN. — "About  this  time  Dr.  Benjamin 
Franklin,  being  in  London,  was  questioned,  by  the  merchants  there  respecting  the  difference  in 
time  between  the  voyages  of  the  merchantmen  to  Rhode  Island  and  the  English  packets  to  New- 
York.  The  variation,  which  was  something  like  fourteen  days,  was  a  source  of  much  annoyance 
to  the  English  merchants,  and  believing  the  place  of  destination  might  have  something  to  do  with 
it,  they  seriously  contemplated  withdrawing  the  packets  from  New  York  and  dispatching  them  to 
Rhode  Island.  In  this  dilemma  they  consulted  Dr.  Franklin.  A  Nantucket  captain,  named  Fol- 
ger,t  who  was  a  relative  of  the  doctor's,  being  then  in  London,  Franklin  sought  his  opinion. 
Captain  Folger  told  him  that  the  merchantmen  were  commanded  by  men  from  Rhode  Island  who 
were  acquainted  with  the  Gulf  Stream  and  the  effect  of  its  currents,  and  in  the  passage  to  America 
made  use  of  this  knowledge.  Of  this  the  English  captains  were  ignorant,  not  from  lack  of  repeated 
warnings,  for  they  had  been  often  told  that  they  were  stemming  a  current  which  was  running  at 
the  rate  of  3  miles  an  hour,  and  that  if  the  wind  was  light  the  stream  would  set  them  back 
faster  than  the  breeze  would  send  them  ahead,  but  they  were  too  wise  to  be  advised  by  simple 
American  fishermen,  and  so  persevered  in  their  own  course  at  a  loss  of  from  two  to  three  weeks  on 
every  trip.  By  Franklin's  request,  Captain  Folger  made  a  sketch  of  the  stream,  with  directions 
how  to  use  or  avoid  its  currents,  and  this  sketch,  made  over  a  century  ago,  is  substantially  the  same 
as  is  found  on  charts  of  the  present  day.  '  The  Nantucket  whalemen,'  says  Franklin,!  '  being 
extremely  well  acquainted  with  the  Gulph  Stream,  its  course,  strength,  and  extent,  by  their  con- 
stant practice  of  whaling  on  the  edges  of  it  from  their  island  quite  down  to  the  Bahamas,  this  draft 
of  that  stream  was  obtained  of  one  of  them,  Captain  Folger,  and  caused  to  be  engraved  on  the  old 
chart  in  London  for  the  benefit  of  navigators  by  B.  Franklin.' 

"Notwithstanding  this  information  so  kindly  volunteered  to  them,  and  notwithstanding  the 
fact  that  the  Falinouth  captains  were  furnished  with  the  new  charts,  they  still  persisted  in  sailing 
their  old  course.  There  is  a  point  where  perseverance  degenerates  into  something  more  ignoble ; 
it  would  seem  as  though  at  this  date  these  self-sufficient  captains  had  about  attained  that  point." 

Loss  OF  AMERICAN  WHALING  VESSELS. — "In  1772  two  whaling  sloops  from  Nantucket, 
with  150  barrels  of  oil  each,  were  captured  by  a  Spanish  brig  and  sloop  off  Matanzas.§  In  Decem- 
ber of  the  same  year,  the  brig  Leviathan,  Lathrop,  sailed  from  Rhode  Island  for  the  Brazil  Banks 
on  a  whaling  voyage.  On  the  25th  of  January  they  lowered  for  whales,  and  in  the  chase  the 
mate's  boat  (Brotherton  Daggett)  lost  sight  of  the  brig,  but  the  crew  were  picked  up  at  sea  and 
brought  home  by  another  vessel. 

"In  1773  quite  a  fleet  of  American  whalers  were  on  the  coast  of  Africa,  no  less  than  fourteen 
being  reported  as  coming  from  that  ground,  and  probably  there  were  as  many  more  of  whom  no 

"  *  Boston  News-Letter." 

' '  t  Works  of  Franklin,  iii,  p.  353.  Probably  Capt.  Timothy  Folger,  a  man  -who  was  prominent  for  many  years  in 
the  history  of  Nautucket." 

"  t  Works  of  Franklin,  iii,  p.  364.  In  a  note  Franklin  says  :  '  The  Nantucket  captains,  who  are  acquainted  with 
this  stream,  make  their  voyages  from  England  to  Boston  in  as  short  a  time  generally  as  others  take  in  going  from 
Boston  to  England,  viz,  from  twenty  to  thirty  days.'  Quite  a  number  of  Boston  packets  to  and  from  England  were 
at  this  time  and  for  many  years  after  commanded  by  Nantucket  men." 

"  $  In  May,  1770,  according  to  the  Boston  News-Letter,  no  less  than  nineteen  vessels  cleared  from  Rhode  Island, 
whaling.  The  Post-Boy  for  October  1-1.  1771,  U  responsible  for  the  following:  'We  learn  from  Edgartown  that  a 
vessel  lately  arrived  there  from  a  whaling  voyage,  and  in  her  voyage,  one  Marshall  Jeukins,  with  others,  being  in  a 
boat  which  struck  a  whale,  she  turned  and  hit  I  he  boat  in  two,  took  Jenkins  in  her  mouth,  and  went  down  with  him; 
but  on  her  rising  threw  him  into  one  part  of  tho  boat,  whence  he  was  taken  on  board  the  vessel  by  the  crew,  being 
much  bruised,  and  in  a  fon  r  lie  perfectly  recovered.  This  account  we  have  from  undoubted  authority.'" 


116 


II1STOKY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 


report  was  made.  Oue  brig-  from  Boston,  while  off  the  coast  of  Sierra  Leone,  seut.  a  boat  ashore 
with  six  men  to  procure  water.  The  boat  was  seized  and  the  crew  all  massacred  by  the  natives. 
lu  the  spring-  of  the  following  year  a  sloop  owned  by  Gideon  Almy,  of  Tiverton,  and  another  belong- 
ing to  Boston,  were  seized,  while  watering  at  Hispaniola,  by  a  French  frigate,  carried  into  Port  an 
Prince  and  there  condemned.* 

"  In  1774  a  report  came  by  the  way  of  Fayal  that  a  small  American  whaling  brig  was  lying  in 
the  harbor  of  Rio  Janeiro  with  only  her  captain  and  three  men  on  board.  It  appears  that,  putting 
in  there  for  refreshments,!  in  the  summer  of  1773,  a  portion  of  her  crew  were,  'by  fair  or  foul 
means,'  induced  to  ship  on  a  Portuguese  snow  f  for  a  three  months'  whaling  voyage.  The  snow 
was  provided  with  harpoons  and  other  whaling  craft,  made  after  the  English  models,  and  was 
cruising  for  sperm  whales,  a  business  altogether  new  to  the  Portuguese,  who  had  been  hitherto 
ignorant  of  any  but  the  right  whale,  and  had  never  ventured  even  in  the  pursuit  of  them  out  of 
sight  of  laud.  The  brig  still  lay  there  in  October,  1773,  waiting  the  return  of  her  meu.§  " 

CONDITION  OF  THE  FISHERY  AT  OUTBREAK  OF  THE  REVOLUTIONARY  WAR.  —  "  In  1774  the 
whale  fishery  in  the'  colonies  must  have  been  in  the  full  tide  of  success.  There  were  probably  fitted 
out  annually  at  this  time  no  less  than  300  vessels  of  various  kinds,  with  an  aggregate  bnrdeu  of 
nearly  33,000  tons,  and  employing  directly  about  4,700  men,  and  indirectly  an  immensely  greater 
number.  Despite  the  depredations  of  French  and  Spanish  privateers  the  fishery  continued  to 
flourish.  The  annual  production  from  1771  to  1775  was  probably  at  least  45,000  barrels  of  sperma- 
ceti oil  and  8,500  barrels  of  right-whale  oil,  and  of  bone  nearly  or  quite  75,000  pounds.  ||  Jn  the 

"  *  Boston  News-Letter." 

"  t  Some  vessels  never  dropped  anchor  iu  a  port  from  the  day  they  sailed  until  iheir  return  ;  but  scurvy  was  very 
apt  to  manifest  itself  where  a  crew  was  so  long  deprived  of  fresh  provisions." 

"  t  '  A  suow  is  a  vessel  equipped  with  two  masts  resembling  the  main  and  foremasts  of  a  Ship,  and  a  third  small 
mast,  abaft  the  mainmast,  carrying  a  trysail.  These  vessels  were  much  used  in  the  merchant  service  at  the  time  of 
the  Revolution.'  (Lossing's  Field  Book,  ii,  p.  *4ii,  note.)  " 

"  «  Boston  Ne-ws-Letter.'' 


"\\Stateof  the  wliaJe  fishery  in 


/K,  1771  t<>  17/:>. 


Ports. 

nually  lor  north- 
em  fishery. 

mii'll 
01 

Vo 

•JO 

1 

's  litlril  an- 
\   (''irMHitli- 

1,11110 
2,  000 
120 

<Tii]iloyi'il, 

2,  ii-:. 
1,040 

i  r.i; 

20 
260 

52 

Sperm  oil 
taken  an- 
nually. 

Whale  oil 
taken  an- 
nu.illy. 

60 
1 
12 

15 

4,500 
75 

150 
1.300 
300 
300 

Barrels. 
26,000 

•_',  -2M 
7,  2M> 

200 
900 
240 
1,800 

400 
400 

1  turrets. 
4,(lllll 
1,250 
i.  mil 
100 
300 

Martha's  Vim 

5 

7(111 

GOO 

Fakaonii    (1  '  ipi   CodJ     

183 

13,820 

121 

14,  020 

4,059 

39,  390 

7,650 

"The.-e  statistics  are  from  Jefferson's  report,  and  \\civ  gallicred  fur  him  1>\    i;i.\  i-rnur  of  Massachusetts. 
"According  to  Pit  kin,  among  the  exports  of  the  colonies,  including  Newfoundland.  IJali.-iinas,  and  Bermudas,  were, 
for  the  year  1770  : 


Great 
Britain. 

Ireland. 

South  of 
Europe. 

West 

Illllirs 

Africa. 

Total. 

1  sir. 

450 

14,  1B7 

351.C25 

7,905 

379,  012 

•"»  "0" 

0;. 

175 

5  667 

11°  971 

112,  SI7I 

"  Value,  sterling  :  Spe.rm  caudles,  £:j:y  W8  4s.  6.?. ;  whale  oil,  £83,012  15s.  !W. ;  bone,  £19,121  Is.  d." 


\\IIAI.I:  KISIIKI;,Y.  117 

.  anous  sea-port  towns  1'ioin  which  tliis  pursuit  was  carried  mi,  in  Nantuckel,  \\ 'ellllccl,  Dartmouth, 
ijyiui,  Martha's  Vineyard,  Karnstable,  Boston,  Falmouth,  and  Sivanzey,  in  Mass.ichusctts,  in  New- 
port, Providence,  Warren,  and  Tiveiton,  in  Khode  Island,  in  New  London,  Connecticut,  Sag  Harbor, 
on  Long  Island,  the  merry  din  of  tho'yo  heave  ho 'of  the  sailors  was  heard;  the  ring  of  the 
blacksmith's  hammer  and  anvil  made,  cheery  music  :  the  coopers,  with  their  hammers  and  drivers, 
kept  time  to  the  tramp  of  their  feet  as  round  and  round  the-  casks  they  marched,  tightening  more 
and  more  the  bands  that  bound  together  the  vessels  \\hieh  should  hold  the  precious  oil;  and  the 
creaking  of  the  blocks  as  the  vessels  unloaded  their  freight  or  the  riggers  fitted  them  anew  for 
fresh  conquests,  and  the  rattle  of  the  hurrying-  teams  as  the>  carried  oil'  the  product  of  the  last 
voyage  or  brought  the  necessaries  for  the  future  one,  lent  their  portion  of  animation  to  the  scene. 
Everywhere  was  hurry  and  bustle;  everywhere  all  were  employed;  none  that  thirsted  for  employ- 
merit  went  away  unsatisfied.  If  a  vessel  made  a  bad  voyage,  the  owners,  by  no  means  dispirited, 
again  fitted  her  out,  trusting  iu  the  next  one  to  retrieve  the  loss;  if  she  made  a  profitable  one  the 
proceeds  were  treasured  up  to  offset  a  possible  failure  in  some  future  cruise.  On  all  sides  were 
thrift  and  happiness. 

"But  a  change  was  near.  'A  cloud,  at  first  no  bigger  than  a  man's  hand,'  was  beginning  to 
overshadow  the  whole  heaven  of  their  commercial  prosperity.  The  colonies,  driven  to  desperation 
by  the  heartless  cruelty  of  their  mother  country,  prepared  to  stay  further  aggression,  and  resent 
at  the  mouth  of  the  cannon  and  the  point  of  the  bayonet  the  insults  and  injuries  that  for  a  decade 
of  years  had  been  heaped  upon  them  ;  and  the  English  ministry,  against  the  earnest  entreaty  of 
British  merchants  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic,  prepared  also  to  enforce  its  desires  by  a  resort  to 
arms.* 

"The  first  industry  to  feel  the  shock  of  the  approaching  storm  was  the  fisheries.  Massachu- 
setts, the  center  of  this  pursuit,  was  to  the  English  ministers  the  very  focus  of  the  insurrectionary 
talk  and  action,  and  'the  first  step,' says  Bancroft,  'toward  inspiring  terror  was  to  declare  Massa- 
chusetts in  a  state  of  rebellion,  and  to  pledge  the  Parliament  and  the  whole  force  of  Great  Britain 
to  its  reduction ;  the  next,  by  prohibiting  the  American  fisheries,  to  starve  New  England  ;  the 
next,  to  excite  a  servile  insurrection.'! 

"  Accordingly  on  the  l()th  of  February,  1775,  the  ministry  introduced  into  Parliament  a  bill 
restricting  the  trade  and  commerce  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  New  Hampshire,  Connecticut,  and 
IMiode  Island  to  Great  Britain,  Ireland,  and  the  British  West  Indies,  and  prohibiting  the  colonies 
from  carrying  on  any  fishery  on  the  Banks  of  Newfoundland  or  any  other  part  of  the  North 
American  coast,  j  '  The  best  ship-builders  iu  the  world  were  at  Boston,  and  their  yards  had  been 
closed;  the  New  England  fishermen  were  now  to  be  restrained  from  a  toil  in  which  they  excelled 
the  world.  Thus  the  joint  right  to  the  fisheries  was  made  a  part  cf  the  great  American  struggle.'§ 
To  this  bill  there  was  a  small  but  active  and  determined  opposition,  both  in  the  House  of  Lords 
and  House  of  Commons.  It  was  urged  on  the  part  of  the  ministry  that  the  fisheries  were  the 
property  of  England,  and  it  was  with  the  English  Government  to  do  as  they  pleased  with  them. 
To  this  opinion  the  minority  strenuously  demurred.  'God  and  nature,'  said  Johnston,  '  have 
given  that  fishery  to  New  England  and  not  to  Old.'  ||  It  was  also  argued  by  the  friends  of  Amer- 
ica that  if  the  American  fishery  was  destroyed  the  occupation  must  inevitably  fall  into  the  hands 
of  the  natural  rivals  of  Great  Britain.  Despite  the  efforts  of  the  little  band  the  bill  was  received 

"*  The  colonial  trade  had  become  tn  i.  •  :ish.  merchants  and  manufacturers  a  matter  of  great  importance,  and 

the  loss  of  it  would  be  a  serious  misfortune.  One  nf  the  industries  which  would  fee]  the  deprivation  most  strongly 
was  the  manufacture  of  cordage,  of  which  the  Americans  \veiv  liy  i  |>nrc!i:isers  in  the  Kn^lir-h  marUet.'1 

"  t  Bancroft's  United  states,  vii.  |..  222,  Februai  "  t  Ei)g.  Annual  Keg.,  1?7.">,  p.  78." 

"  $  Bancroft's  United  States,  vii,  p.  WJ."  '•  \\  lliid." 


]  18  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

by  a  vote  of  261  to  85,  and  passed  through  its  various  stages.  As  each  phase  was  reached  the 
act  was  fought  determinedly  but  uselessly  and  hopelessly.  The  merchants  and  traders  of  London 
petitioned  against  it,  and  the  American  merchants  secured  the  services  of  David  Barclay  to  con- 
duct the  examination  of  those  who  were  called  to  testify  by  the  friends  and  opponents  of  the  bill.* 
'It  was  said  that  the  cruelty  of  the  bill  exceeded  the  examples  of  hostile  rigor  with  avowed 
enemies ;  that  in  all  the  violence  of  our  most  dangerous  wars  it  was  an  established  rule  in  the 
marine  service  to  spare  the  coast-fishing  craft  of  our  declared  enemies ;  always  considering  that 
we  waged  war  with  nations,  and  not  with  private  individuals.'! 

"  It  was  claimed  that  by  the  provisions  of  the  bill  much  hardship  must  fall  upon  many  people 
who  were  already  at  sea,  and  who,  from  the  very  nature  of  their  occupations,  must  be  innocent. 
'  The  case  of  the  inhabitants  of  Nantucket  was  particularly  hard.  This  extraordinary  people, 
amounting  to  between  five  and  six  thousand  in  number,  nine-tenths  of  whom  are  Quakers,  inhabit 
a  barren  island,  15  miles  long  by  3  broad,  the  products  of  which  were  scarcely  capable  of 
maintaining  twenty  families.  From  the  only  harbor  which  this  sterile  island  contains,  with- 
out natural  products  of  any  sort,  the  inhabitants,  by  an  astonishing  industry,  keep  an  140  vessels 
in  constant  employment.  Of  these,  eight  were  employed  in  the  importation  of  provisions  for  the 
island  and  the  rest  in  the  whale  fishery.'  A  petition  was  also  presented  from  the  English  Quakers 
in  behalf  of  their  brethren  at  Nantucket,  in  which  they  stated  the  innocence  of  the  inhabitants 
of  that  island,  '  their  industry,  the  utility  of  their  labors  both  to  themselves  and  the  community, 
the  great  hazards  that  attended  their  occupation,  and  the  uncertainty  of  their  gains ;  and  showed 
that  if  the  bill  passed  into  a  law,  they  must  in  a  little  time  be  exposed  to  all  the  dreadful  miseries 
of  famine.  The  singular  state  and  circumstances  of  these  people,  occasioned  some  attention  to  be 
paid  to  them.  A  gentleman  on  the  side  of  the  administration  said,  that  on  a  principle  of  humanity 
he  would  move  that  a  clause  should  be  added  to  the  bill  to  prevent  the  operation  from  extending 
to  any  whale  ships  which  sailed  before  the  1st  of  March,  and  were  at  that  time  the  property  of 
the  people  of  Nantucket.' f 

"  '  The  bill,'  says  a  reviewer  of  the  time, '  was  attacked  on  every  ground  of  policy  and  govern- 
ment ;  and  with  the  greatest  strength  of  language  and  height  of  coloring.  The  minority  made 
amends  for  the  smallness  of  their  numbers  by  their  zeal  and  activity.  *  *  *  Evil  principles,' 
they  contended,  '  were  prolific;  the  Boston  port  bill  begot  this  New  England  bill 5  this  will  beget 
a  Virginia  bill;  and  that  again  will  become  the  progenitor  of  others,  until,  one  by  one,  Parliament 
has  ruined  all  its  colonies,  and  rooted  up  all  its  commerce ;  until  the  statute  book  becomes  nothing 
but  a  black  and  bloody  role  of  proscriptions ;  a  frightful  code  of  rigor  and  tyranny;  a  monstrous 
digest  of  acts  of  penalty  and  incapacity  and  general  attainder ;  and  that  wherever  it  is  opened  it 
will  present  a  title  for  destroying  some  trade  or  ruining  some  province.' § 

"  It  was  during  the  debate  upon  this  bill  that  Burke  made  that  eloquent  defense  of  the  colonies 
which  has  rung  in  the  ears  of  every  boy  born  or  bred  in  a  sea-port  town  since  the  day  it  was  uttered. 

"  *  Among  the  evidence  given  was  much  tending  to  show  the  importance  of  the  colonial  trade.  It  appeared  that 
in  17G4  New  England  employed  in  the  fisheries  45,880  tons  of  shipping  and  6,002  men,  the  product  amounting  to 
£322,220  16«.  3<i.  sterling  in  foreign  markets;  that  all  the  materials  used  in  the  building  and  equipping  of  vessels, 
excepting  salt  and  lumber,  were  drawn  from  England,  and  the  net  proceeds  were  also  remitted  to  that  country ; 
that  neither  the  whale  nor  cod  fishery  could  be  carried  on  so  successfully  from  Newfoundland  or  Great  Britain  as 
from  North  America,  for  the  natural  advantages  of  America  could  neither  be  counteracted  nor  supplied ;  that,  if  the 
fishery  was  transferred  to  Nova  Scotia  or  Quebec,  Government  would  have  to  furnish  the  capital,  for  they  had  neither 
vessels  nor  men,  and  these  must  come  from  New  England ;  that  it  must  take  time  to  make  the  change,  and  the  trade 
would  inevitably  be  lost ;  and  that  American  fishermen  had  such  an  aversion  to  the  military  government  of  Halifax, 
and  '  so  invincible  an  aversion  to  the  loose  habits  and  manners  of  the  people,  that  nothing  could  induce  them  to 
remove  thither,  even  supposing  them  reduced  to  the  necessity  of  emigration.' — (Eng.  Annual  Reg.)" 

"tEng.  Annual  Reg.,  1775,  p.  80."  "iTbid.,  p.  85."  "$Ibid.,  p  85." 


TIIK   \\IIALK    K1SIIKUY.  119 

'For  some  time  past,  Mr.  Speaker,1  .said  Burke,  'lias  the  Old  \Vorld  been  fed  from  the  New.  The 
scarcity  which  you  have  felt  would  have  been  a  desolating  famine,  if  this  ehild  of  your  old  age — 
if  America — with  a  true  filial  piety,  with  a  lloman  charity,  had  iiofc  put  the  full  breast  of  its 
youthful  exuberance  to  the  mouth  of  its  exhausted  parent.  Turning  from  the  agricultural  resources 
of  the  colonies,  consider  the  wealth  which  they  have  drawn  from  the  sea  by  their  fisheries.  The 
spirit  in  which  that  enterprising  employment  has  been  exercised  ought  to  raise  your  esteem  and 
admiration.  Pray,  sir,  what  in  the  world  is  equal  to  it?  Pass  by  the  other  parts,  and  look  at 
the  manner  in  which  the  people  of  New  England  have  of  late  carried  on  the  whale  fishery.  Whilst 
we  follow  them  among  the  tumbling  mountains  of  ice,  and  behold  them  penetrating  into  the 
deepest  frozen  recesses  of  Hudson's  Bay  and  Davis'  Straits,  whilst  we  are  looking  for  them 
beneath  the  Arctic  Circle,  we  hear  that  they  have  pierced  into  the  opposite  region  of  polar  cold, 
that  they  are  at  the  antipodes,  and  engaged  under  the  frozen  serpent  of  the  south.  Falkland 
Island,  which  seemed  too  remote  and  romantic  an  object  for  the  grasp  of  national  ambition,  is  but, 
a  slage  and  resting-place  in  the  progress  of  their  victorious  industry.*  Nor  is  the  equinoctial 
heat  more  discouraging  to  them  than  the  accumulated  winter  of  both  the  poles.  We  know  that 
whilst  some  of  them  draw  the  line  and  strike  the  harpoon  on  the  coast  of  Africa,  others  run  the 
longitude,  and  pursue  their  gigantic  game  along  the  coast  of  Brazil.  No  sea  but  what  is  vexed 
by  their  fisheries.  No  climate  that  is  not  a  witness  to  their  toils.  Neither  the  perseverance  of 
Holland,  nor  the  activity  of  France,  nor  the  dexterous  and  firm  sagacity  of  English  enterprise, 
ever  carried  this  most  perilous  mode  of  hardy  industry  to  the  extent  to  which  it  has  been  pushed 
by  this  recent  people ;  a  people  who  are  still,  as  it  were,  but  in  the  gristle,  and  not  yet  hardened 
into  the  bone,  of  manhood.  When  I  contemplate  these  things ;  when  I  know  that  the  colonies 
in  general  owe  little  or  nothing  to  any  care  of  ours,  and  that  they  are  not  squeezed  into  this  happy 
form  by  the  constraints  of  a  watchful  and  suspicious  Government,  but  that,  through  a  wise  and 
salutary  neglect,  a  generous  nature  has  been  suffered  to  take  her  own  way  to  perfection  ;  when  I 
reflect  upon  these  effects,  when  I  see  how  profitable  they  have  been  to  us,  I  feel  all  the  pride  of 
power  sink,  and  all  presumption  in  the  wisdom  of  human  contrivances  melt,  and  die  away  within 
me.  My  rigor  relents.  I  pardon  something  to  the  spirit  of  liberty.' 

"But  eloquence,  logic,  arguments,  facts  availed  nothing.  The  bill  became  a  law.  In  the 
upper  house  of  Parliament,  where  a  minority  fought  the  bill  as  determinedly  as  the  minor  part  of 
the  Commons,  fifteen  lords  entered  a  protest  against  it.  The  island  of  Nantucket  was,  for  the 
reasons  enumerated,  relieved  somewhat  from  its  extreinest  features,  a  fact  which  did  not  escape 
the  surveillance  of  the  provincial  authorities,  who  iu  their  turn  restricted  the  exportation  of  pro- 
visions from  any  portion  of  the  colonies,  save  the  Massachusetts  Bay,  to  that  island,  and  the 
Provincial  Congress  of  Massachusetts  further  prohibited  any  exportation  from  that  colony,  save 
under  certain  regulations.!  But,  like  the  mother  country,  the  colonies  yielded  to  the  behests  of 
humanity  and  relaxed  their  stringency  in  regard  to  this  island. 

"At  an  early  day  after  the  formal  opening  of  the  issue  of  battle  between  England  and  the 
plantations,  the  general  court  of  Massachusetts  passed  a  resolve,  directing  '  that  from  and  after 
the  fifteenth  Day  of  August  instant,  no  Ship  or  Vessell  should  sail  out  of  any  port  in  this  Colony, 
on  any  whaling  Voyage  whatever,  without  leave  first  had  and  obtained  from  the  Great  and  General 

"  "At  this  time  the  Falkland  Islands  were  the  subject  of  considerable  acrimony  between  the  English,  Spanish,  and 
Brazilian  Governments.  According  to  Freeman  (Hist.  Cape  Cod,  ii,  p.  539,  note),  the  people  of  Truro  were  the  first 
of  our  American  -whalemen  to  go  to  the  Falklands.  In  1774  Capts.  David  Smith  and  Gamaliel  Collins,  at  the  sug- 
gestion of  Admiral  Montague,  of  the  British  navy,  made  voyages  there  qn  that  pursuit,  in  which  they  were  very 
successful." 

"t  Mass.  Col.  JISS.,  Provincial  Congress,  i,  p.  300." 


120  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Court  of  this  Colony,  or  I'roin  some  Committee  or  committees  or  persons  they  shall  appoint,  to 
grant  such  leave;'  and  on  the  24th  of  August,  the  day  for  adjournment  of  the  court  being  near 
at  hand,  it  was  further  resolved,  in  view  of  possible  damage  liable  to  aeerue  to  parties  for  want  of 
these  permits,  'that  the  Major  part  of  the  Council  for  this  Colony  be,  and  they  accordingly  are, 
hereby  fully  impowered  to  grant  leave  for  any  Vessell  or  Vessells  to  sail  out  of  any  port  in  this 
Colony,  on  any  whaling  Voyage  whatever,  as  to  them  shall  seem  fit  &  reasonable  for  the  Benefit 
of  Individuals,  and  the  Good  of  the  Public,  provided  there  be  good  &  sufficient  security  given 
that  the  Oil  &  Bone,  &c.,  obtained  on  said  Voyage  shall  be  brought  into  some  Port  in  this  Colony, 
except  the  port  of  Boston,  &  such  Permits  do  riot  interfere  with  any  Resolve  or  Recommendations 
of  the  Continental  Congress — The  power  herein  given  to  continue  only  in  the  recess  of  the  general 
court.'*" 

THE  DEATH-KNELL  OF  AMERICAN  WHALING.— "The  bells  that  called  the  hardy  yeomanry 
of  New  England  to  the  defense  of  their  imperiled  liberties  on  the  ever-memorable  morning  of  the 
19th  of  April  rung  the  death-knell  of  the  whale  fishery,  save  that  carried  on  from  Nautucket;  the 
rattle  of  musketry  was  the  funeral  volley  over  its  grave. t  Save  from  this  solitary  island,  it  was 
doomed  to  annihilation.  A  few  vessels  were  fitted  out  early  in  the  war  from  other  ports,  but  the 
risk  was  so  great  and  the  necessity  so  small  that  the  business  was  soon  abandoned.  With  Nan- 
tucket  it  was  simply  a- case  of  desperation;  the  business  must  be  carried  on,  or  the  island  must  be 
depopulated;  starvation  or  removal  were  the  only  alternatives  of  inaction.  The  receipt  of  the 
news  of  the  battle  at  Lexington  and  Concord,  glorious  as  it  was  to  the  colonies  at  large,  and 
glorious  as  it  may  have  been  to  the  islanders  whose  religious  principles  were  not  rigidly  opposed 
to  war  in  any  form  and  under  any  circumstances,  was  to  the  majority  of  the  inhabitants  the 
announcement  of  ruined  fortunes,  annihilated  commerce,  misery,  privation,  and  suffering.  With- 
out the  immediate  circle  of  colonial  assistance,  knowing  that  they  were  cut  ofl'  from  aid  in  case 
they  were  attacked,  open  to  and  defenseless  at  all  sides  from  the  predatory  raids  of  avowed 
enemies  and  treacherous,  pretended  friends,  the  only  course  left  open  to  them  to  adopt  was  to  be 
as  void  of  offense  as  possible  and  strive  to  live  through  the  desperate  struggle  just  about  to  com- 
mence. Some  of  the  people  removed  to  New  York  and  eventually  established  the  whale  fishery 
there.  Some  removed  to  North  Carolina  and  there  formed  a  community  remarkable  for  thrift  and 
hospitality;  but  the  vast  majority  preferred  to  link  their  fortunes  with  those  of  their  island  home, 
and  with  her  sink  or  swim.  Vessels  from  abroad  turned  their  prows  toward  home  and  speeded  on 
their  way,  hoping  to  attain  their  port  before  English  armed  vessels  could  intercept  them;  those 
already  arrived  were  most  of  them  stripped  of  their  sails  and  rigging  and  moored  to  the  crowded 
wharves,  or  run  high  and  dry  ashore. 

"The  petitions  of  parties  for  permission  to  fit  out  their  vessels  for  whaling  were  almost 
invariably  complied  with  by  the  general  court,  bonds  being  given  in  about  £2,000  that  the  cargo 
should  be  landed  at  some  port  in  the  colony,  excepting  Boston  or  Nautucket.| 

""Mass.  Col.  MSS.     Rev. Council  1'apcrs,  series  i,  vol.  ii,  p.  17." 

"tThe  shipping  of  Nantueket  rendered  important  ante-revolutionary  aid  to  the  colonists  in  the.  importation  of 
powder,  a  service  that  was  continued  at  intervals  during  the  war.  The  Earl  of  Dartmouth,  in  a  letter  to  Lienteuaut- 
Governor  Colden,  dated  7th  September,  1774,  says:  '  My  Information  says  that  the  1'olly,  Capt"  I'e.ujamiu  Broadhelp, 
bound  from  Amsterdam  to  Nantucket,  has  among  other  Articles  received  on  board,  no  le.ss  a  quantity  than  tbree 
Hundred  thousand  pounds  weight  of  Gunpowder,  &  I  have  great  reason  to  believe  ili.il  considerable  quantities  of 
that  commodity,  as  well  as  other  Military  Stores,  are  introduced  into  the  Colonies  from  Holland,  through  the  channel 
of  St.  Eustatia.'  (N.  Y.  Col.  Rec.,  viii,  p.  4d7.)  St.  Eustatia  was  captured  by  the  English  during  the  colonial  war, 
the  chief  grounds  of  the  capture'  being  tbe  alleged  supply  to  the  revolting  colonies  of  contraband  goods." 

"t  The  following  is  the  form  of  tbe  bond  : 

•'  'Know  all  men  by  these  presents  il.at  Nathaniel  Macy  &  Eichd  Mitchell  Jr  both  of  Sherhurn  in  the  County  of 
Nantiieket,  are  liolden  A  Maud  lirinly  hound  unto  Henry  Gardner  Esq  of  Stowe  in  the  County  of  Middlesex  Treasurer 


TIII<;  \YII.\U:  nsiiKi.-Y.  121 

"In  ITTiillic  Continental  Congress  endeavored  to  induct-  France  to  engage  in  war  against 
Kiighind,  lint  in  tin-  proposed  negotiations  the  fisheries  on  I  IK-  lianks  of  Newfoundland  and  the 
various  Cult's  and  hays  of  North  America  were  to  lie  understood  as  not  open  to  a  question  of 
division.  Spain,  too,  was  applied  to.  'The  colonies,'  says  Bancroft,  '  were  willing  to  assure  to 
Spain  freedom  from  molestation  in  its  territories;  they  renounced  in  iavor  of  France  iill  eventual 
conquests  in  the  West  Indies ;  imt  they  claimed  the  sole  right  of  acquiring'  British  continental 
America  and  all  adjacent  islands,  including  the  Bermudas,  Cape  Breton,  and  Newfoundland.  It 
was  America  and  not  France  which  first  applied  the  maxim  of  monopoly  to  the  fisheries.  The 
King  of  France  might  retain  his  exclusive  rights  on  the  banks  of  Newfoundland,  as  recognized 
by  England  in  the  treaty  of  170.!,  but  his  subjects  were  not  to  fish  "in  the  havens,  bays,  creeks, 
roads,  coasts,  or  places,"  which  the  United  States  were  to  win.'"  * 

THE  ENGLISH  WHALE  FISHERY  ENCOURAGED.—"  In  the  mean  time  how  was  England 
affected  by  her  American  policy?  The  colonial  fishery  being  abolished,  it  became  essential  that 
something  should  be  done  to  replace  it,  'and  particularly  to  guard  against  the  ruinous  conse- 
quences of  the  foreign  markets,  either  changing  the  course  of  consumption  or  falling  into  the 
hands  of  strangers,  and  those  perhaps  inimical  to  this  country.  The  consumption  of  fish  oil  as  a 
substitute  for  tallow  was  now  become  so  extensive  as  to  render  that  also  an  object  of  great 
national  concern ;  the  city  of  London  alone  expending  about  £300,000  annually  in  that  coin  - 
modity.'t  The  evidence  taken  on  behalf  of  the  ministry  in  support  of  their  restraining  bill, 
tending  to  show  that  there  already  existed  sufficient  capital  in  ships,  men,  and  money  for  the 
immediate  and  safe  transfer  of  the  whale  fishery  to  England,  while  well  enough  for  partisan  pur- 
poses, was  not  considered  so  reliable  by  the  parties  bringing  it  forward,  and  the  Government  was 
not  at  all  desirous  or  willing  to  risk  a  matter  of  such  extreme  importance  upon  the  testimony 
there  given. 

'•  Measures  were  accordingly  taken  to  give  encouragement  to  this  pursuit  to  the  fishermen 
and  capitalists  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  |  The  committee  having  the  subject  in  charge  were 
of  the  opinion  that  a  bounty  should  extend  to  the  fisheries  to  the  southward  of  Greenland  and 
Davis  Strait,  and  at  the  same  time  that  the,  duties  on  oil,  blubber,  and  bone,  imported  from 
Newfoundland,  should  be  taken  off.  It  was  found  that  the  restraining  bill  worked  serious 
damage  to  the  people  of  Newfoundland,  and  also  to  the  fisheries  from  the  British  islands  to  that 
coast,  as,  in  order  to  prevent  absolute  famine  there,  it  was  necessary  that  several  ships  should 
return  light  from  that  vicinity  in  order  to  carry  cargoes  of  provisions  from  Ireland  to  the  sufferers 
there.§ 

iif  tliu  Colony  of  the  Massachusetts  Bay  or  his  Successors  in  s'1  office  in  the  L;i.\vfnl  &  Just  sum  of  Two  thousand 
pounds  to  the  which  payment  well  &  truly  to  be  made  wr  liiml  ourselves  i>nr  Heirs  Exec7  or  Administrators,  firmly 
liy  these  presents  sealed  wtb  our  seal  Dated  Ihis  fourteenth  0;i  i  Anno  ]>o:n  :  17?."'. 

"  '  The  Condition  of  this  obligation  is  such  that  whereas  i  he  abo\  e-said  Nalbauiel  Jhicy  is  about  to  Adventure  to 
sea  "ii  a  \\li.-ile  Voya  Sooner  Dighton  Silas  Paddaek  Master— if  I  hen  (lies'1  Silas  Tail-loek  oraiiy  other  person 

who  may  have  I  he  (' mand  of  s'1  sehooner  Dighton,   during  s'1    Voyage    -diall    well   &   truly   bring    or   Cause  to  be 

brought  into  some  port  or  harbour  of  this  Colony  e.\eept  the  port  of  Huston  or  Nantncket  ail  the  oil  &  whalo 
M.ine  that  shall  be  taken  by  S'1  schooner  Dightou  in  the  Ci.nrse  of  sl1  Voyage  A:  pioihu-e  a  Certifieate  under  tho 
hands  of  the  Selectmen  of  S'1  Town  Adjoining  to  such  port  or  barlnmr  t  hat  he  there  Landed  ye  same  then  the  above 
Obligation  to  lie.  Void  A  of  none  Effect,  oil  in  -\\  ;i\  s  ro  stand  and  remain  in  full  force  it.  virtue. 

"  -NA'P'-   MATY. 

"  'KICI11'  JJITCHELI,,  .In. 

'•  •  Signed.  Sealed.  ,t  did  in  presence  of  us.' 

••('. 

'•(Mass.  Col.  MSS.  Mis,-.,  iii.  p.  |J4.) 

"The  colonial  papers  of  March  28,  1770,  mention  that  the  English  frigate  hVnown,  on  her  passage  to  America,  took 
ten  sail  of  American  whalemen,  wbidi  n,<I  toavoid  the  danger  of  recapture." 

"•  Bancroft's  U.  S.,  ix,  ],.  132."  "  1  Eng.  \m 1  Reg.,  177.-,,  p.  113." 

"t  Speech  oflhe  Ka  rl  of  Ha  reont  to  the  Irish  Parliament ,  (><•(, .bei   In.  177.,."         "  *  Annual  Reg.,  177(i,  p.  131." 


122  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

"  The  English  fishery,  even  under  the  encouragement  given,  did  not,  however,  answer  the 
expectations  or  hopes  of  its  friends.  It  was  not  so  easily  transferred  as  had  been  imagined.  A 
few  more  vessels  sailed  from  Great  Britain,  employing,  of  course,  a  few  more  men,  but  the  extra 
supply  was  a  mere  trifle  in  comparison  to  the  deficiency  that  the  restraining  bill  had  caused." 

RETALIATION  BY  THE  AMERICAN  COLONIES. — "  The  colonies,  in  turn,  passed  a  bill  cutting 
off  supplies  to  the  English  fleet  from  the  plantations,*  a  course  entirely  unforseen  by  the  sage 
adherents  of  the  British  bill.  As  a  natural  consequence,  the  fishery,  which  promised  so  well  on 
paper,  and  upon  which  the  majority  in  Parliament  had  founded  so  many  hopes,  failed  to  yield 
them  the  solace  for  the  evil  done  to  America  that  they  so  fondly  anticipated.  Many  ships,  instead 
of  bearing  to  England  supplies,  only  returned  there  for  provisions  to  relieve  the  distress  they 
found  on  the  coast,  both  on  the  sea  and  the  land.  Indeed,  it  was  estimated  that  the  colonial 
restraining  act  caused  a  loss  to  England  in  the  fishery  in  these  parts  alone  of  fully  half  a  million 
of  pounds  sterling.!  To  add  to  the  calamities  caused  by  man,  the  very  eleiiii-iits  seemed  combined 
against  them,  for  a  terrible  storm  arose,  a"nd  the  center  of  its  fury  was  the  shores  and  banks  of 
Newfoundland.  '  This  awful  wreck  of  nature,'  says  a  chronicler  of  the  time,  '  was  as  singular  in 
its  circumstances  as  fatal  iu  its  effects.  The  sea  is  said  to  have  risen  30  feet  almost  instanta- 
neously. Above  seven  hundred  boats,  with  their  people,  perished,  and  several  ships,  with  their 
crews.  Nor  was  the  mischief  much  less  on  the  land,  the  waves  overpassing  all  mounds,  and  sweep- 
ing everything  before  them.  The  shores  presented  a  shocking  spectacle  for  some  time  after,  and 
the  fishing-nets  were  hauled  up  loaded  with  human  bodies.'!  These  misfortunes  the  opposers  of 
the  bill  attributed  to  the  vengeance  of  an  indignant  Providence." 

AMERICAN  SEAMEN  "  IMPRESSED." — "  But  Parliament  went  further  than  this,  and  added  to 
the  atrocity  of  this  measure  another  none  the  less  barbarous.  It  was  decreed  that  all  those 
prisoners  who  should  be  taken  on  board  of  American  vessels  should  be  compelled,  without  distinc- 
tion of  rank,  to  serve  as  common  sailors  on  British  ships  of  war.  This  proposed  measure  was 
received  with  great  indignation  by  those  gentlemen  iu  Parliament  whom  partisan  asperity  had  not 
blinded  to  every  feeling  of  justice  to  or  compassion  for  the  colonies.  This  clause  in  the  bill  which 
contained  this  provision  was  '  marked  by  every  possible  .stigma,'  and  was  described  by  the  lords, 
in  their  protest,  as  '  a  refinement  in  tyranny'  which,  'in  a  sentence  worse  than  death,  obliges  the 
unhappy  men  who  shall  be  made  captives  in  this  predatory  war  to  bear  arms  against  their  families, 
kindred,  friends,  and  country ;  and  after  being  plundered  themselves,  to  become  accomplices  in 
plundering  their  brethren.'§  And,  by  the  articles  of  war,  these  very  men  were  liable  to  be  shot 
for  desertion." 

CONDITION  OF  ENGLISH  WHALE-FISHERY  IN  1779. — "  By  the  action  of  this  measure  large 
numbers  of  Nantucket  whaling  captains  with  their  crews  and  a  few  from  other  ports  were  cap- 
tured by  the  English,  and  given  their  choice  either  to  enter  the  service  of  the  King  in  a  man-of- 
war  or  sail  from  an  English  port  in  the  same  pursuit  to  which  they  had  become  accustomed.||  In 
September  (13th),  1779,  John  Adams,  writing  from  Braintreefl  to  the  council  of  Massachusets, 
says : 

"  *  The  '  Restraining '  bill."  "  t  Eng.  Annual  Reg. ,  1776,  p.  49." 

"{English  Annual  Reg.,  1776,  p.  43.  There  was  also  much  distress  at  the  Barbadoes.  It  was  thought  at  one  time 
to  draw  supplies  for  beleaguered  Boston  from  these  islands,  but  cut  off  as  they  were  from  supplies  from  the  colonies, 
with  80,000  blacks  and  20,000  whites  to  feed,  the  project  was  deemed  in  the  highest  degree  dangerous." 

"  $  Annual  Reg.,  1776,  p.118." 

"II  To  his  captors  Capt.  Nathan  Coffin,  of  Nantucket,  nobly  said:  '  Hang  me,  if  you  will,  to  the  yard-arm  of  your 
ship,  but  do  not  ask  me  to  be  a  traitor  to  my  country.' — (Bancroft,  ix,  p.  313.)" 

"  IT  Adams,  vii,  p.  63.    This  is  almost  identical  with  the  letter  in  Mass.  Col.  MSS.,  Resolves,  vi,  p.  216." 


THE  WHAU<:    KISIIKKY.  123 

'"May  it  please  your  Honours : *  While  I  resided  at  Paris  1  had  an  opportunity  of  procuring 
from  London  exact  Information  concerning  the  British  Whale  Fishery  on  the  Coast  of  Brazil, 
which  I  beg  Leave  to  communicate  to  your  Honours,  that  if  any  advantage  can  be  made  of  it  the 
opportunity  may  not  be  lost. 

"  'The  English,  the  last  year  and  the  year  before,  carried  on  this  Fishery  to  very  great 
advantage,  off  of  the  River  Plate,  in  South  America  iu  the  Latitude  Thirty-five  south  and  from 
thence  to  Forty,  just  on  the  edge  of  soundings,  off  and  on,  about  the  Longitude  sixty-five,  from 
London.  They  had  seventeen  vessells  in  this  Fishery,  which  all  sailed  from  London,  iu  the 
Mouths  of  September  and  October.  All  the  officers  and  Men  are  Americans. 

"'The  Names  of  the  Captains  are,  Aaron  Sheffield  of  Newport,  -  — ,  Goldsmith!  and 
Eichard  Holmes  from  Long  Island,  John  Chad  wick,  Francis  May,}:  Reuben  May,§  John  Meader, 
Jonathan  Header,  Elisha  Clark,  Benjamin  Clark,  William  Bay,  Paul  Pease,  Bunker  Fitch, 
Reuben  Fitch,  Zebbeedee  Coffin  ||  and  another  Coffin.  -  -  Delauo,1f  Andrew  Swain,  William 
Ray,  all  of  Nantucket,  John  Lock,  Cape  Cod ;  **  four  or  five  of.  these  vessels  went  to  Greenland. 
The  fleet  sails  to  Greenland  yearly,  the  last  of  February  or  the  Beginning  of  March.  There  was 
published,  the  year  before  last,  iu  the  English  Newspapers,  and  the  same  Imposture  was  repeated 
last  year,  and  no  doubt  will  be  renewed  tbis,  a  Letter  from  the  Lords  of  Admiralty  to  Mr.  Dennis 
De  Beralt,  in  Colman  street,  informing  him  that  a  Convoy  should  be  appointed  to  the  Brazil 
Fleet.  But  this,  I  had  certain  Information,  was  a  Forgery  calculated  mainly  to  deceive  American 
Privateers,  and  that  110  Convoy  was  appointed,  or  did  go  with  that  Fleet,  either  last  year,  or  the 
year  before. 

" '  For  the  Destruction  or  Captivity  of  a  Fishery  so  entirely  defenceless,  for  not  one  of  the 
Vessells  has  any  arms,  a  single  Frigate  or  Privateer  of  Twenty-four,  or  even  of  Twenty  guns, 
would  be  sufficient.  The  Beginning  of  December,  would  be  the  best  Time  to  proceed  from  hence, 
because  the  Frigate  would  then  find  tlie  Whaling  Vessells  nearly  loaded.  The  Cargoes  of  these 
Vessells,  consisting  of  Bone  and  Oyl,  will  be  very  valuable,  and  at  least  four  hundred  and  fifty  of 
the  best  kind  of  seamen  would  be  taken  out  of  the  Hands  of  the  English,  and  might  be  gained 
into  the  American  service  to  act  against  the  Enemy.  Most  of  the  officers  and  Men  wish  well  to 
this  Country,  and  would  gladly  be  in  its  service  if  they  could  be  delivered,  from  that  they  are 
engaged  in.  Whenever  an  English  Man  of  war,  or  Privateer,  has  taken  an  American  Vessell, 
they  have  given  to  the  Whalemen  among  the  Crew,  by  order  of  Government,  their  Choice,  either 
to  go  on  Board  a  Man  of  war,  and  fight  against  their  Country  or  go  into  the  Whale  Fishery. 
Such  Numbers  have  chosen  the  latter  as  have  made  up  the  Crews  of  these  seventeen  Vessells. 

"  '  I  thought  it  my  Duty  to  communicate  this  Intelligence  to  your  Honours,  that  if  so  profit- 
able a  Branch  of  Commerce,  and  so  valuable  a  Nursery  of  Seamen,  can  be  taken  from  the  English 
it  may  be  done.  This  State  has  a  peculiar  Right  and  Interest  to  undertake  the  Enterprise,  as 
almost  the  whole  fleet  belongs  to  it.  I  have  the  Honour  to  be,  with  the  highest  Consideration, 
your  Honours  most  obedient  &  most  humble  servant 

"'JOHN  ADAMS.' 

"  *  In  1778  the  commissioners  (Franklin  and  Adams)  iu  Franco  wrote  to  the  President  of  Congress  in  nearly  the 
same  words,  urging  the  destruction  of  tin-  F.nglish  whale  fishery  on  the  coast  of  Brazil  and  the  release  of  the  Ameri- 
cans there,  who  were  practically  prisoners  of  war,  compelled  to  aid  in  supporting  the  enemy.  In  the  letter  of  the 
commissioners,  dated  Passy,  —  — ,  1778,  Messrs  Franklin  and  Adams  write  that  three  whalemen  have  been  taken 
by  French  men-of-war  and  carried  into  L'Orient.  The  crews  of  these  whaling  vessels  are  Americans. — (Works  of 
John  Adams,  vii,  p.  03.)" 

"t  William  Goldsmith,  who  sailed  from  Nantucket  for  London  with  a  cargo  of  oil  in  April,  1775." 

"  t  Francis  Macy."  "  $  Reuben  Macy."  "||  Zebdiel  Coffin." 

"  IT  Abisha  D  elano  (probably.)"  "  *•  From  Nantucket.     Twenty  names  are  given  in  this  list." 


124  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

"  This  letter  was  referred  to  a  committee,  who  reported  that  a  ropy  of  it  should  be  sent  to  the 
President  of  the  Continental  Congress,  which  report  was  adopted,  and  thus  Massachusetts  let  slip 
through  her  fingers  the  identical  golden  opportunity  which  the  General  Government  had  neglected 
the  year  before.  The  suggestions  of  Mr.  Adams,  who  of  all  our  Revolutionary  statesmen  seems 
most  to  have  understood  and  appreciated  the  importance  of  this  industry,  were  practically  disre- 
garded.* It  is  difficult  to  calculate  how  much  the  American  whale  fishery  was  affected  by  this 
failure  to  act  on  this  suggestion  of  Mr.  Adams.  Many  of  these  captains  and  men,  and  others 
catpured  at  other  times  during  the  war,  had  at  its  close  sailed  so  long  from  British  ports  that  the 
extraordinary  inducements  held  out  by  the  English,  and  the  depression  in  their  business  in  the 
United  States,  immediately  succeeding  the  close  of  the  war,  operated  to  transfer  to  that  country 
.their  skill  and,  measurably,  their  capital." 

FORAYS  BY  ENGLISH  NAVAL  VESSELS:  TREATY  OF  1778. — "In  the  years  177S-'79  the 
English  navy  made  se\era.l  forays  upon  the  sea-coast  towns  of  New  England,  destroying  much 
property  at  Warren,  R.  I.,  Dartmouth,  Martha's  Vineyard,  and  Nantucket  in  Massachusetts.! 
Indeed,  these  predatory  raids  were  frequent  throughout  the  war,  and  liable  to  occur  at  any  time, 
consequently  the  unfortunate  inhabitants  were  kept  in  a  continual  ferment.  During  the  same 
I  ime  the  Government  of  France  was  continually  intriguing  for  the  exclusive  possession  of  the  North 
American  fisheries.  On  the  (ith  of  Fein-nary,  1778,  a  treaty  of  amity  and  commerce  was  arranged 
between  France  and  the  United  States.  Upon  this  point  each  side  was  to  retain  the  exclusive 
right  to  its  own.  The  Americans  conceded  to  the  French  the  lights  reserved  by  the  treaties  of 
Utrecht |  and  Paris,§  even  to  the  French  interpretation  of  them,  which  were  the  right  to  fish  upon 
the  Banks,  and  the  exclusive  use  of  one-half  the  shores  of  Newfoundland  upon  which  to  dry  their 
lish.||  In  regard  to  what  disposition  should  be  made  of  that  island  in  case  it  should  be  captured, 
nothing  was  said;  the  sentiment  of  New  England,  however,  upon  that  point  was  unmistakable. 
Later  in  the  same  year  Samuel  Adams,  in  a  letter  from  Philadelphia,  wrote:  'I  hope  we  shall 
secure  to  the  United  Sta'es,  Canada,  NTova  Scotia,  Florida,  too,  and  the  fishery,  by  our  arms  or  by 
treaty.'  He  writes  further,  and  every  year  of  the  past  centurv  has  borne  witness  to  the  soundness 
of  his  views:  '  We  shall  never  be  on  a  solid  footing  till  Great  Britain  cedes  to  us,  or  we  wrest 
from  her,  what  nature  designs  we  should  have.' fl 

"*  Au  exception  to  the  general  ;i|i;ilhy  in  iliis  respect  occurred  late  in  the  fall  or  early  in  tbe  winter  of  177(i,  when 
limits  from  the  Alfred,  man-of-war,  were  sent,  ashore,  at  Canso  and  destroyed  the  whaling  interest  there,  burning  all 
the  materials  for  that  industry,  tog,-!  her  with  all  the  oil  stores  with  their  <• 

"t  'Return  of  vessels  and  stores  destroyed  on  Acnshnet  River  the  .~>th  of  September,  177'-':  8  sail  of  large  vessels, 
from  200  to  300  tons,  most  of  them  pri/.cs:  (J  armed  vessels,  carrying  from  10  to  Hi  nuns;  a  number  of  sloops  and 
sehootiers  of  inferior  si/,e,  amouni  ing  in  all  to  70,  besides  whale-boats  and  other:  amongst  the  prizes  were  three  taken 
by  Count  D'Estaign's  fleet  ;  vili  store  houses  at  Bedford,  several  at  McPherson's  Wharf,  Crans  Mills,  and Fairhaven  ; 
these  were'  filled  with  very  grcal  quantities  of  rum,  sugar,  molasses,  eolt'ee,  loliacco.  cotton,  tea,  medicines,  gunpow- 
der, sail-cloth,  cordage.  Ac.  ;  two  large  rope-walks. 

"  'At  Falrnouth,  in  the  Vim  -\  ai  d  Sou  ml,  the  10th  of  September.  177>  :  •_'  sloops  and  a  schooner  taken  by  the  gal- 
leys. 1  loaded  with  staves  ;  1  sloop  burnt. 

''  'In  Old  Town  Harbor,  Martha's  Vineyard:  1  brig  of  150  tons  burden,  burnt  by  the  Scorpion;  1  schooner  ot  70 
tons  burden,  burnt  by  ditto;  -J.:',  whale-boats  taken  or  destroyed  ;  a  quantity  of  plank  taken. 

"  'At  I  lol  mes's  Hole,  Manila's  Vines  ard  :  I  vessels,  with  several  boats,  taken  ordest  roved  :  a  salt -work  destroyed, 
and  a  considerable  quant  ity  of  salt  I  alien.'  --(1  ticket. son's  New  Bedford,  p.  .'SJ. ) 

"At  Sag  Harbor  Long  Island,  property  was  taken  or  destroyed  to  a  large  amount  :  Newport  suffered  greatly  ;  Nan- 
tucket  lost  twelve  or  fourteen  vessels,  oil,  stores,  &c.,  to  the  value  of  £4,000  sterling.  Warren,  R.  I.,  suffered  during 
the  war  to  the  extent  of  l.n;i:i  tons  of  shipping,  among  them  two  vessels  loaded  with  oil,  and  a  large  amount  of  other 

property .     Sag  Harbor  also  lost  one  or  i c  vessels  by  capture." 

"i  April  11,  ICii:;."  "  §  February  10,  1763." 

"'II  Bancroft's  U.  S.,  ix,  481.  Tho  fact  must,  be  kept  in  mind  that  whaling  and  fishing  for  cod  were  both  carried 
on  on  nearly  the  same  waters,  and  often  by  the  same  vessels." 

"IT  Bancroft's  U.  S.,  x,  177." 


T11K   \VIIAI,  I';    FISI1URY.  HT) 

"France  also  sought  the  aid  of  Spain,  and  that  power  was  give.n  to  understand  that  in  the  linal 
treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  Slates  and  England,  they,  too,  would  necessarily  have  snnie 
voice.  Vergennes,  in  October  (177S),  slated,  as  the  only  stipulations  which  France,  would  require, 
that  in  the  final  negotiations  Hie  treaty  of  Utrecht  must  be  either  wholly  continued  or  entireh 
annulled;  that  she  must  lie  allowed  to  restore  the  harbor  of  Dunkirk  ;  and  that  she  must  be  allowed 
;  the  coast  of  Newfoundland,  from  Cape  I.onavistu  t;i  Cape  St.  John,  with  the  exclusive  fishery 
from  Cape  Bouavista  to  Point  Uiche.'*  By  a  treaty  made,  with  Spain,  April  12,  1779,  France 
bound  herself  to  attempt  the  invasion  of  Great  Britain  or  Ireland,  and  to  share  only  with  Spain 
the  North  American  fisheries,  in  case  she  succeeded  in  driving  the  Finnish  from  Newfoundland. 

"These  discussions  (as  to  the  terms  (o  be  embraced  in  the  linal  treaty  of  peace)  were  necessary 
pending  the  question  of  an  alliance  with  France  aiwl  Spain  against  linn-land.  When  the  subject 
of  frontiers  was  brought  up,  France,  while  yielding  all  claim  to  the  provinces  of  Canada  and  Nova 
Scotia,  which  for  years  had  been  hers,  joined  heartily  with  Spain  in  opposing  the  manifest  desire 
of  the  Americans  to  secure  them.  Two  States  persisted  in  the  right  and  policy  of  acquiring  them, 
but  Congress,  as  a  body,  deferred  to  the  French  view  of  the  subject  .  '  With  regard  to  the  fisheries, 
of  which  the  interruption  formed  one  of  the  elements  of  the  war,  public  law  had  not  yet  been 
settled.'  By  the  treaty  of  Utrecht,  France  agreed  not  to  fish  within  JO  leagues  of  the  coast  of 
Nova  Scotia;  and  by  that  of  Paris,  not  to  fish  within  15  leagues  of  Cape  Breton.  Moreover. 
New  England  at  the  beginning  of  the.  war  had,  by  act  of  Parliament,  been  debarred  from  fishing 
on  the  banks  of  Newfoundland.  *  *  '  The  fishery  on  the  high  seas,'  so  Vergennes  expounded 

the  law  of  nations,  'is  as  free  as  the  sea,  itself,  and  it  is  superfluous  to  discuss  the  right  of  the 
Americans  to  it.  But  the  coast  fisheries  belong  of  right  to  the  proprietary  of  the  coast.  Therefore 
the  fisheries  on  the  coasts  of  Newfoundland,  of  Nova  Scotia,  of  Canada,  belong  exclusively  to  the 
Knglish  ;  and  the  Americans  have  no  pretensions  whatever  to  share  in  them.'t  In  vain  the 
United  States  urged  that  the  colonies,  almost  exclusively,  had  improved  the  coast  fisheries,  and 
considered  that  immemorial  and  sole  improvement  was  practical  acquisition.  In  vain  they  insisted 
that  New  England  men,  and  New  England  money,  and  New  England  brains  had  effected  the  first 
conquest  of  Cape  Breton,  and  were  powerful  aids  to  the  subsequent  conquest  of  Nova  Scotia  and 
Canada,  and  hence  they  had  acquired  at  least  a  perpetual  joint  propriety.  To  their  arguments 
Vergenues  replied  that  the  conquests  were  made  not  for  the  colonies  but  for  the  crown,  and  when 
New  England  dissolved  its  allegiance,  to  that  crown  she  renounced  her  right  to  the  coast  fisheries. 
In  the  end  the  United  States  were,  obliged  to  succumb  ;  they  had  asked  aid  from  foreign  powers, 
and  they  must  yield,  so  far  as  was  practicable,  to  the  demands  those  powers  made.  These  conces- 
sions were  a  portion  of  the  price  of  independence. 

"A  committee!  was  appointed  by  Congress  to  definitely  arrange  upon  what  terms  the  future 
treaty  of  peace  with  England  should  be  finally  consummated,  and  in  February,  1779,  they  reported 
that  Spain  manifested  a  disposition  to  form  an  alliance  with  the  United  States,  hence  indepen- 
dence was  an  eventual  certainty.  On  the  question  of  lishing  they  reported  that  the  right  should 
belong  properly  to  the  United  States,  France,  and  Great  Britain  in  common.  This  portion  of  tin- 
report  was  long  under  discussion  in  Congress,  and  it  was  finally  voted  that  the  common  right  of 
the  United  States  to  fish  •  on  the  coasts,  bays,  and  banks  of  Xewfonndland  and  Gulf  of  Saint  Law- 
rence, the  Straits  of  Labrador,  and  Belle  Isle  should  in  no  case  be  given  up.'  §  Under  a  vote  to 


"•BancrofVa  1.  s  .  x,  p.  IM."  "  t  Bancroft's  U.  S.,  x,  pp. 

•'{  (Jimvenifiir  Morris,  ofNe\1    5Tork;   i;iul«-,  of  Xorlli  Carolina  ;  Wil  lii-iHpocui,  ol'IS'nv  ,lcrsi-\  ;   Smniirl  Adams,  "I 
Massachusetts,  and  Smith,  of  Virginia.  —  (Bancroft's  U.  S.,  x.  p.  -'13.)" 
"$  Bancroft's  U.S..X,  p.  VJ1:J." 


126  HISTOET  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISEERIES. 

reconsider  this  subject  on  the  24th  of  March,  Richard  Henry  Lee  proposed  that  the  United  States 
should  have  the  same  rights  which  they  enjoyed  when  subject  to  Great  Britain,  which  proposition 
was  carried  by  the  votes  of  Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  and  the  four  New  England  States,  New  York 
and  the  Southern  States  opposing.  New  York,  under  the  leadership  of  Jay  and  Morris,  perempt- 
orily declined  to  insist  on  this  right  by  treaty,  and  Morris  moved  that  independence  should  be  the 
sole  condition  of  peace.  This  was  declared  out  of  order  by  the  votes  of  the  New  England  States, 
New  Jersey,  and  Pennsylvania,  against  the  unanimous  vote  of  New  York,  Maryland,  and  North 
Carolina ;  Delaware,  Virginia,  and  South  Carolina  being  equally  divided. 

"  But  France  had  a  vital  interest  in  this  matter,  and  the  French  minister  interposed  his 
influence,  and  on  the  27th  of  May  Congress  returned  to  its  original  resolve,  'that  in  no  case,  by 
any  treaty  of  peace,  should  the  common  right  of  fishing  be  given  up.' 

"  On  the  19th  of  June  the  equanimity  of  the  French  minister  was  suddenly  and  rudely  disturbed 
by  Elbridge  Gerry,  who  being  from  Marblehead,  was  the  steady  and  persistent  champion  of  the 
claims  of  New  England,  and  who,  in  the  prolonged  discussions,  always  came  to  the  front  in  defense 
of  those  rights.  Entirely  unexpectedly,  Gerry,  avoiding  '  a  breach  of  the  rules  of  Congress  by  a 
change  in  form,  moved  resolutions,  that  the  United  States  have  a  common  right  with  the  English 
to  the  fisheries  on  the  banks  of  Newfoundland,  and  the  other  fishing-banks  and  seas  of  North 
America.  The  demand  was  for  no  more  than  Yergennes  confessed  to  belong  to  them  by  the  law 
of  nations ;  and  Gerry  insisted  that  unless  the  right  received  the  guarantee  of  France,  on  the 
consent  of  Great  Britain,  the  American  minister  should  not  sign  any  treaty  of  peace  without  first 
consulting  Congress.'*  A  most  stormy  and  bitter  debate  ensued.  The  friends  of  France  resisted 
strenuously.  Four  States  declared  if  the  resolution  was  adopted  they  should  secede.  The  matter, 
however,  was  somewhat  compromised,  and  the  common  right  of  fishing  on  the  Grand  Banks 
affirmed ;  Congress  asking  for  that  right  the  guarantee  of  France  by  means  of  a  supplementary 
article  explanatory  of  former  treaties. 

"The  French  minister  became  alarmed,  and  sought  an  interview  with  the  President  of  Con- 
gress and  two  other  members  known  to  be  equally  favorably  disposed  to  the  policy  he  represented. 
The  vigor  and  zeal  with  which  New  England  had  pressed  the  matter  had  disposed  them  to  concede 
to  the  desires  of  this  section.  He  assured  them  'that  disunion  from  the  side  of  New  England 
\v.-is  not  to  be  feared,  for  its  people  carried  their  love  of  independence  even  to  delirium,'  and  con- 
tinued :  '  There  would  seem  to  be  a  wish  to  break  the  connection  of  France  with  Spain ;  but  I 
think  I  can  say  that,  if  the  Americans  should  have  the  audacity  to  force  the  King  of  France  to 
choose  between  the  two  alliances,  his  decision  would  not  be  in  favor  of  the  United  States ;  he  will 
not.  certainly  expose  himself  to  consume  the  remaining  resources  of  his  Kingdom  for  many  years 
only  to  secure  an  increase  of  fortune  to  a  few  ship-masters  of  New  England.  I  shall  greatly  regret, 
on  account  of  the  Americans,  should  Spain  enter  into  war  without  a  convention  with  them.' 
Five  hours  of  discussion  failed  to  induce  the  members  to  undertake  to  change  the  views  of  Con- 
gress, and  a  new  interview  was  held  on  the  12th  of  July,  between  Gerard  and  Congress,  in  a 
committee  of  the  whole.  As  a  final  result  the  question  was  left  to  be  settled  when  a  treaty  of 
peace  was  formally  arranged  with  Great  Britain.* 

"In  the  mean  time  how  fared  it  with  the  whale  fishery?  The  people  of  Nantucket,  with  whom 
alone  it  was  still  encouraged,  though  in  the  face  of  the  most  terrible  discouragements,  were  reduced 
to  the  severest  straits.  To  live,  they  must  eat;  to  eat,  they  must  have  provisions ;  to  obtain  pro- 
visions, they  must  give  in  exchange  money  or  its  equivalent;  to  obtain  the  exchangeable  com- 
modity, some  business  must  be  pursued.  The  whale  fishery  was  the  only  business  available  to 

"  'Baucroft's  U.  8.,  x,  pp.  216  to  219." 


Tin:  WHAM:  FISHERY.  127 

them.  Long  practice  had  made  them  familiar  with  it,  and  a  singleness  of  pursuit  had  kept  them 
comparatively  ignorant  of  any  other  occupation.  But  the  great  problem  was  how  to  carry  it  on, 
even  in  the  limited  way  to  which,  by  the  destruction  of  their  vessels,  they  were  restricted.  If  they 
sailed  under  American  protection,  the  English  captured  and  destroyed  their  vessels  and  imprisoned 
their  men  ;  if  they  cleared  with  the  sanction  of  English  safeguards,  the  Americans  performed  for 
them  the  same  kindly  offices.  Between  the  upper  and  the  nether  millstones  of  war  they  were  quite 
ground  to  powder.  In  their  extremity  they  learned  that  the  English  were  inclined  to  be  lenient 
toward  them  in  the  matter,  and  they  had  quite  reliable  assurance  that  the  leading  men  of  the 
American  Government  looked  compassionately  upon  the  distressed  situation  of  the  unfortunate 
islanders. 

"Influenced  by  these  considerations,  the  inhabitants  sent  Timothy  Folger,  esq.,  to  New  York, 
to  represent  the  condition  they  were  in,  and  solicit  permission  to  carry  on  whaling  without  danger 
of  capture  from  British  cruisers.  They  asked  permits  for  twenty  fishing  boats  to  fish  around  the 
island,  for  four  vessels  to  be  employed  in  the  whale  fishery,  for  ten  small  vessels  to  supply  the 
inhabitants  with  wood,  and  for  one  to  go  to  New  York  for  some  fe\v  supplies  not  obtainable  else- 
where.* Their  petition  was  not  so  successful  as  they  had  wished." 

AMERICAN  VESSELS  GRANTED  PERMITS  FOR  TVHALING. — "In  1781  Admiral  Digby  succeeded 
Admiral  Arbuthnot  in  the  command  of  the  English  fleet  in  these  waters,  and  permission  to  whale 
was  asked  of  him,t  and  permits  were  issued  for  twenty-four  vessels  to  pursue  the  business 
unmolested  by  English  armed  cruisers.^  'This  privilege,' says  Macy, 'seemed  to  give  new  life 
to  the  people.  It  produced  a  considerable  movement  in  business,  but  the  resources  of  the  island 
had  so  diminished  that  but  a  small  number  of  vessels  could  take  the  benefit  of  these  permits. 
Those  who  had  vessels,  and  were  possessed  of  the  means,  fitted  them  out  on  short  voyages,  and, 
had  there  been  no  hindrance,  it  is  probable  that  they  would  have  done  well ;  for  the  whales, 

""Maey,  ll:i." 

••  t  Mr.  Macy  gives  us  to  understand  that  no  permits  were  granted,  but  this  must  be  an  error;  for  Mr.  Rotch  (vide 
MS.X  who  was  one  of  the  committee  the  succeeding  year  to  obtain  grants  from  the  English,  mentions  an  accusation 
made  by  Commodore  Affleck,  of  abuse  of  confidence  in  regard  to  the  permits  which  were  granted  the  year  before,  and 
that  scarcely  a  vessel  could  bo  found  but  had  one  of  these  documents.  To  this  Mr.  Rotch  replied:  'Commodore 

Affleck,  thou  hast  been  greatly  imposed  upon  in  this  matter.  I  dtfy  Capt. to  make  such  a  declaration  to  my 

face.  Those  Permits  were  put  into  my  hands.  I  delivered  them,  taking  receipts  for  each,  to  be  returned  to  me  at 
the  cud  of  the  voyage,  and  an  obligation  that  no  transfer  should  be  made  or  copies  given.  I  received  back  all  the 
Permits  except  two  before  I  left  home,  anil  should  probably  have  received  those  two  on  the  day  that  I  sailed.  Now 
if  any  duplicity  has  been  practiced,  I  am  the  person  who  is  accountable.,  and  I  am  hero  to  take  the  punishment  such 
perfidy  deserves.'  -Mr.  1,'otch's  character  as  a  man  ami  a  merchant  stood  too  high,  to  be  questioned,  and  the  commo- 
dore, whoa  moment  he!'<  %  ioleut.  became  more  genial,  and  replied,  'You  deserve  favor,' and  assisted  Mr. 
Rotcli  to  obtain  it.  The  termination  of  this  dilliculty  is  but  one  example  of  the  manner  in  which  all  these  slanders, 
from  both  English  and  Americans,  were  disposed  of  when  the  accused  could  have  an  opportunity  of  confronting  the 
accusers  or  those  in  authority." 

'•(The  following  is  a  copy  of  one  of  these  permits,  from  Macy,  p.  11.".: 

"  '[L.  s.]  By  Robert  Digby,  Esquire,  Rear  Admiral  of  the  Red,  and  Commander-in-chief,  &c.,  &c. 
James  <  "Permission  is  hereby  given  to  the  Dolphin  brig,  burthen  sixty  tons,  Walter  Folger  owner, 

ubailiah  iv  navigated  Ivy  Gilbert  Folger  as  master  and  the  twelve  seamen  named  in  the  margin,  to  leave  the 

island  of  Naiilnc'  -ed  on  a  whaling  voyage, — to  commence  the  first  of  January,  1782, 

and  end  i  ly  of  -      —  following,  provided  that  they  have  on  board  the  necessary  whaling 

Fetor  1'oUard  'lllf'   provisions  only,  and   that   (he  master  of  said  brig  is  possessed  of  a  certificate  from  the 

-Andrew  Coleman  selectmen  of  the  said  island.  s>  •!  ting  forth  that  she  is  bone  fide  the  property  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 
i  iiieil  llarnard  island,  with  I  he  names  of  i  he  mauler  and  seamen  in  her;  and  that  she  shall  not  be  found  proceed- 

JonathaD  iiiiggs         {n^  with  her  cargo  in  anj  Other  port  than  Nan  tucket  or  New  York. 
'"Dated  at  Xew  York,  Lb  <'>er,  17-1. 

••'ROBERT  DIGP.Y. 

"  '  To  the  eommis-siouersof  his  majesty's  ships  ami  vessels  of  war,  as  well  as  of  all  privateer. sand  letters  of  marque. 
"  '  By  command  of  the  Admiral : 

" •  THOMAS  M.  PALMER.'" 


128  HISTOTJY   AND  METHODS  OF  THE   F1SHEKIES. 

having  been  unmolested  for  several  years,  hart  become  numerous,  and  were  pretty  easily  caught. 
To  carry  on  the  whale  fishery  under  permission  of  the  Government.of  Great  Britain  was  a  proceed- 
ing somewhat  novel,  and  could  not  pass  unnoticed.  Although  it  was  not  publicly  known,  yet  it 
was  generally  believed  that  some  kind  of  indulgence  had  been  shown  by  the.  enemy  to  the  people 
of  Nautucket.  This  caused  some,  clamor  on  the  continent;  but  our  Government  well  knew  the 
situation  of  the  place,  and  its  large  participation  in  the  calamities  of  the  war,  and  was,  consequently, 
rat  her  inclined  to  favor  than  to  eondenm  the  acceptance  of  favors  from  the  English.  Although 
the  Government  could  not  grant  an  exclusive  privilege  to  any  particular  part  of  the  Union,  yet 
such  encouragement  was  given  by  the  leading  men  of  the  nation,  in  their  individual  capacity,  as 
to  warrant  the  proceeding.  Several  vessels  whaling  under  these  permits  were  taken  by  American 
privateers  and  carried  into  port,  but,  in  every  instance  they  were  soon  liberated.  Whenever  it 
was  found  that  the  permits  were  used  for  no  other  purpose,  than  that  for  which  they  had  been 
granted,  and  that  the  vessels  using  them  had  not  been  engaged  in  illicit  trade,  there  was  no 
hesitation  in  releasing  them.' 

"Nevertheless  a  great  risk  attended  this  mode  of  proceeding,  und  the  islanders  became 
satisfied  that  to  make  the  business  reasonably  safe  permits  must  be  obtained  from  both  contending 
powers  and  permission  also  to  make  use  of  each  license  against  the  other's  vessels  of  war.  Accord- 
ingly, a  town  meeting  was  convened  on  the  25th  of  September,  1782,  and  a  memorial  prepared 
and  adopted  which  was  sent  to  the  general  court  of  Massachusetts.*  This  petition  recited  the 
unfortunat<*  situation  the  people  were  in,  exposed  to  the  inroads  of  English  and  Americans,  with 
neither  side  able  or  willing  to  protect  them  against  the  other,  and  powerless,  because  of  the 
defenseless  character  of  the  island  and  the  religious  convictions  of  the  vast  majority  of  the  inhabi- 
tants, to  suitably  guard  their  own  firesides.  They  urged  that  people  in  continental  towns,  where 
the  broad  country  opened  to  them  a  place  for  retreat,  could  have  but  faint  ideas  of  the  suffering 
of  those  who  were  constantly  liable  to  hostile,  invasion  and  whose  insular  position  precluded 
all  thoughts  of  escape,  and  they  indignantly  resented  the  calumnies  which  had  been  spread  broad- 
cast through  the  State  in  regard  to  alleged  actions  of  theirs.  Kegarding  the  prosecution  of  their 
business,  they  said: 

" '  We  now  beg  leave  to  throw  a  few  hints  before  you  respecting  the  Whalefishery,  as  a  matter 
of  great  importance  to  this  Commonwealth.  This  place  before  the  War,  was  the  First  in  that 
branch  of  business,  &  employed  more  than  One  Hundred  Sail  of  good  Vessels  therein,  which  fur- 
nish'd  a  support  net  only  for  Five  Thousand  Inhabitants  here,  but  for  Thousands  elsewhere,  no 
place  so  well  adapted  for  the  good  of  the  Community  at  large  as  Nautucket,  it  being  destitute  of 
every  material  necessary  in  the  Business,  and  the  Inhabitants  might  be  called  Factors  for  the 
Continent  rather  than  Principals;  as  the  war  encreased  the  Fishery  ceased,  until  necessity  obliged 
us  to  make  trial  the  last  Year,  with  about  seventeen  sail  of  Vessels,  Two  of  which  were  captured 
&  carried  to  New  York,t  &  one  was  burnt  the  others  made  saving  voyages.  The  present  Year 
we  employed  about  Twenty  Four  sail  in  the  same  business,  which  have  mostly  coinpleated  their 
Voyages,  but  with  little  success;  \  a  great  loss  will  ensue;  this  we  apprehend  is  greatly  owing 
to  the  circumscribed  situation  of  the  Fishery ;  we  are  now  fully  sensible  that  it  can  no  longer  be  pur- 
sued by  us,  unless  we  have  free  liberty  both  from  Great  Britain  &  America  to  fish  without  inter- 

"  *By  a  very  (lisas' runs  lire  at,  Nautiicket,  in  1846,  the  records  both  of  the  town  iincl  custom-house  were  destroyed, 
hence  there  arises  much  dil'lienlty  in  getting  many  interesting  details.  Many  uf  the  custom  records  of  New  Bedford 
were  destroyed  by  fire  iu  IHiJ ;  the  corresponding  documents  of  Newport,  prior  to  1779,  were  carried  away  by  the 
English,  and  the  vessel  containing  them  being  sank,  they  were,  when  recovered,  in  a  very  damaged  condition;  the 
similar  records  of  Sag  Harbor  (the  older  ones)  were  stored  in  a  damp  place,  and  are  mildewed  and  illegible." 

"t  New  York,  al  this  lime,  \\asiu  possession  of  the  English." 


Till':   WHALE  EISHEKY. 

ruption;  As  \vt>  now  linil  One  of  our  Vessels  is  captured  &  carried  to  Now  York,  but  without  any 
Oil  on  lioanl,  and  Two  others  have  lately  been  taken  &  carried  into  Boston  &  Salem,  under  pre- 
tense of  having  double  papers  on  board,  (Nevertheless  we  presume  the  captors  will  no!  sa.v  that 
any  of  our  Whalemen  have.  gone  into  New  York  during  the  .season  as  such  a  charge  would  have 
no  foundation  in  Truth).  And  if  due  attention  is  not  paid  to  this  valuable  branch,  which  if  it  was 
viewed  in  all  its  parts,  perhaps  would  appear  the  most  advantageous,  of  any  possess'd  by  this 
Government,  it  will  be  entirely  lost,  if  the  War  continues:  We  view  it  with  regret  &  mention  it 
with  concern.  &  from  the  gloomy  prospect  nov,  before  ns,  we  apprehend  many  of  the  Inhabitants 
must  quit  the  Island,  not  being  able  even  to  provide  necessaries  for  the  approaching  Winter:  some 
will  retreat  to  the  Continent  &  set  down  in  the  Western  Governments;  and  the  most  active  in  the 
Fishery  will  most  probably  go  to  distant  Countries,  where  they  can  have  every  encouragement, 
by  Nations  who  are  eagerly  wishing  to  embrace  so  favourable  an  opportunity  to  accomplish  their 
desires;  which  will  be  a  great  loss  to  the  Continent  in  general,  but  more  to  this  Government  in 
particular.  We  beg  leave  to  impress  the  consideration  of  this  important  subject,  not  as  the  judg- 
ment of  an  insignificant  few,  but  of  a  Town  which  a  few  Years  since  stood  the  Third  in  Bank  (if 
we  mistake  not)  in  bearing  the  Burthens  of  Government;  It  was  then  populous  and  abounded 
with  plenty,  it  is  yet  populous  but  is  covered  with  poverty.  Your  Memorialists  have  made  choice 
of  Samuel  Starbuck,  Josiah  Barker,  William  Botch,  Stephen  Hnssey  and  Timothy  Folger,  as  their 
Committee  who  can  speak  more  fully  to  the  several  matters  coutaiu'd  in  this  Memorial,  or  any 
other  thing  that  may  concern  this  County,  to  whom  we  desire  to  refer  yon.  Signed  in  behalf  of 

the  Town  by  — 

'"FREDERICK  FOLGER, 

" '  Town  Clerk: 

"This  memorial  was  referred  to  a  committee  consisting  of  George  Cabot,  esq.,  on  behalf  of  the 
senate,  and  General  Ward  and  Colonel  McCobb  on  the  part  of  the  house,  which  committee  on 
the  ^9th  of  October  made  the  following  report: 

'"  That  altho' the  Facts  set  forth  in  said  Memorial  are  true  and  the  Memorialists  deserve 
Relief  in  the  premises,  yet  as  no  adequate  Relief  can  be  given  them  but  by  the  United  States  in 
Congress  assembled,  therefore  it  is  the  opinion  of  the  Committee  that  the  said  Memorial  be  referr'd 
to  the  consideration  of  Congress,  and  the  Delegates  of  this  Commonwealth  be  required  to  use 
their  Endeavours  to  impress  Congress  with  just  Ideas  of  the  high  worth  &  Importance  of  the 
Whale  fishery  to  the  United  States  in  general,  &  this  State  in  particular.'* 

"This  report  was  accepted,  and  it  was  ordered  that  the  delegates  lie  furnished  with  a  copy  of 
the  memorial,  and  be  required  to  take  the  action  indicated  in  the  report. 

''  In  addition  to  the  action  of  the  general  court,  the  town  also  sent  William  Itotch  and  Samuel 
Starbuck  to  Philadelphia  to  intercede  personally  in  the  matter.  After  conferring  with  General 

••'Mass.  Cul.  Mss  ,  Iviitmiis,  i,  \>\<.  rJl-."i-i>-7-iS-'J.  A  memorandum  a> •e-onipanie's  Ibis,  which  various  cireum- 
st. -HUM'S  .sci'in  tii  iinlii'ate  is  (In-  \vurk  of  Mr.  Kotch,  and  which  sa\s :  '  1 '<  -i  -li.-i|i.s  some  of  those  reports  may  have  origin  at  IM! 
from  this— :i  Commit  tor  of  our  Island  in  I  IK-  f'mv  part  of  tin1  ye-ar  17-1  applied  to  some  of  tin-  Members  of  the  (!<  ueral 
Court  and  spread  before  them  lh<-  pi-<  -ulhir  e-.iroumstanee-s  wherein  the  Island  was  involved,  one  whereof  was  that 
our  Vessels  whenever  thej  passed  in  or  mil  were  perfectly  uuder  the  controul  of  the  Unions  and  it  was  therefore 

neee-s:ir\   that  permits  si Id  lie  obtained  from    them   for  our  Vessels  lei   preiee-e-el   on  the-  W halt) -fishery — since  which 

time-  si  mi  e  of  them  have-  been  tal.e-n  by  i  he>  Ainei  lean  i'l  ivaliM-rs  I'm  having  such  Permits  —and  \ve  are-  thereby  reduced 
to  this  difficulty  that  if\\e  carry  our  Vessels  over  the-  bar  wiMiont  pe-mm  iVom  the  Ilritish  Admiral  they  are<  made 
pri/.e-  I, i  the-  BritOU3— if  they  have-  such  permits  tln-\  are'  ta\en  by  our  eiwn  Ciniutn  men — and  mir  harbour  is  there- 
fore completely  shut  up  — and  all  our  prospects  terminate  in  pm.  rlv  anil  distress  what  gives  us  great  cone'crn  is  that 
our  people  who  understand  I  lie  \Vli;ile-  lishery  will  be  driveu  lei  foreign  m-iil  ral  ( 'mint  lies  and  many  years  must  pass 
away  before  we-  shall  again  be  enabled  I"  puisne-  a  branch  of  business  w  Ine-h  b.i  i  li  been  in  tiine-s  past  our  snppoYt  and 
hath  yie-Ieleel  sue' It  lame  a  ill  -  I  o  1 1  ie  ( 'em  i  me  i  -e-e  of  1 1 1  i  s  (  ID  m  try.'" 

SEC.  \,  VOL.  u 0 


130  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Lincoln,  Samuel  Osgood,  Nathaniel  Gorham,  Thomas  Fitzsimuious,  and  James  Madison,  they 
approached  one  of  the  Massachusetts  delegation  who  was  a  resident  of  Boston,  and  who  was 
greatly  prejudiced  against  Nantucket.  After  an  interview  of  about  two  hours  with  no  apparent 
relaxation  of  the  bitterness  of  feeling  on  his  part,  Mr.  Eotch  questioned  him  as  to  whether  the 
whale  fishery  was  'worth  preserving  to  this  country?'  He  replied,  'Yes.'  'Can  it  be  preserved 
in  the  present  state  of  things  by  afly  place  except  Nantucket?'  'No.'  'Can  we  preserve  it  unless 
you  and  the  British  will  both  give  us  permits?'  'No.'  'Then,  pray,' continued  Mr.  Eotch,  'where 
is  the  difficulty"?'  Thus  this  interview  ended.  Messrs.  Eotch  and  Starbuck  then  drew  up  a 
memorial  and  presented  it  to  the  consideration  of  the  above  named  gentlemen,  desiring  them  to 
review  it,  at  the  same  time  telling  them  of  the  conversation  between  Mr.  Eotch  and  the  delegate 
from  Boston.  By  advice  of  these  friends  they  waited  again  upon  the  member  from  Massachusetts, 
and  he  accepted  the  charge  of  bringing  the  subject  before  Congress,  where,  after  deliberation,  it 
was  determined  to  grant  permits  for  thirty-five  vessels  to  sail  on  whaling  voyages,  and  these  were 
accordingly  granted  and  delivered.  The  very  next  day  a  vessel  arrived  from  Europe  bringing  the 
rumor  of  the  signing  of  a  provisional  treaty  of  peace.* 

'•  This  was  early  in  1783.  t  The  passage  from  the  provisional  to  the  definitive  treaty  was  long, 
circuitous,  and  at  times  dark.  One  of  the  chief  sources  of  difference  was  the  settlement  of  the 
question  of  the  fisheries,  England  with  an  apparent  feeling  of  magnanimity  conceding  favors,  and 
America  with  a  sense  of  justice  claiming  rights.  Against  what  the  United  States  considered  her 
just  dues  the  diplomacy  of  the  English,  their  late  enemies,  and  the  French,  their  recent  allies,  was 
arrayed,  and  nothing  but  firmness,  sagacity,  and  skill  on  the  part  of  the  American  commissioners 
saved  the  day.  The  English  guarded  their  assumptions  with  all  possible  jealousy ;  the  French 
sought  a  loose  place  in  the  armor  to  insert  the  diplomatic  sword,  and  gain  by  treaty  what  they 
had  bsen  unable  to  sustain  with  force.  The  Americans  were  ever  on  the  alert  to  overcome  the 
prejudices  of  a  power  from  whom  they  had  conquered  a  peace,  and  to  propitiate  the  supersensi- 
tiveness  of  a  power  which  had  rendered  them  so  valuable  assistance.  They  could  not,  however, 
depart  from  certain  propositions.  The  articles  which  must  be  inviolate  were  those  guaranteeing 
to  America  full  and  unconditional  independence,  and  the  withdrawal  from  the  thirteen  States  of 
all  British  troops ;  the  Mississippi  as  a  western,  and  the  Canadian  line  as  it  was  prior  to  the  Que- 
bec act  of  1774,  for  a  northern  boundary ;  and  a  freedom  in  the  fishery  off  Newfoundland  and 
elsewhere  as  it  had  been  enjoyed  prior  to  the  commencement  of  hostilities.  In  vain  Great  Britain 
sought  to  evade  the  latter  clause ;  the  United  States  tenaciously,  as  in  a  vice,  held  her  to  it,  and 
she  yielded. " 

EFFECTS  OF  THE  EEVOLXTI  IONAEY  WAR.— "But  the  announcement  of  peace  came  to  a 
people  whose  commerce  was  sadly  devastated.  Save  such  of  the  interest  as  had  been  preserved 
by  what  Mr.  Jefferson  termed  the  Nantucketois,  the  business  of  whaling  was  practically  ruined 
and  required  rebuilding.  To  Nantucket  the  war  had,  despite  its  holy  necessity  and  its  glorious 
conclusion,  been  a  heavy  burden.  Of  the  little  over  150  vessels  owned  there  in  1775, 134  had 
fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  English  and  15  more  were  lost  by  shipwreck;  many  of  the  young  men 
had  perished  through  the  rigors  of  war;J  in  about  800  families  on  the  island  there  were  202 
widows  and  342  orphan  children;  the  direct  money  loss  far  exceeded  $1,000,000  in  times  when  a 

"  'Memoranda  of  William  Eotch — unpublished." 

"  t  On  the  22d  of  March,  1783,  au  order  was  passed  in  Congress  granting  35  licenses  to  Nautuckot  vessels  to  whale 
ami  to  secure  theui  from  the  penalty  attached  to  double  papers.  (Madison  Papers,  p.  405.)" 

"  t  It  is  estimated  that  no  less  than  1,200  seamen,  mostly  whalemen,  were  captured  by  the  English  or  perished  at 
i  lien-  bauds  during  the  Revolution,  from  Nan  tucket  alone!  " 


THE  WHALE  FISHEIiY.  131 

mail's  pay  was  67  cents  per  day ;  oiie  merchant  alone  lost  over  $00,000.  *  And  as  it  was  with 
Nautucket,  so  it  was  in  a  degree  with  all  the  whaling  ports.!  With  an  energy  characteristically 
American,  they  sought,  on  the  return  of  peace,  to  retrieve  their  losses.  Scarcely  had  the  echo  of 
the  hostile  guns  died  away,  scarcely  had  the  joyful  news  of  peace  reached  their  ports,  when  the 
whalemen  began  to  equip  anew  for  their  fishery.  The  Bedford,  just  returned  to  Nantucket  from  a 
voyage,  was  immediately  loaded  with  oil  and  dispatched  to  L6*udon,  arriving  in  the  Downs  on  the 
3d  of  February.  Her  appearance  was  thus  chronicled  by  an  English  magazine  of  that  day :  'The 
ship  Bedford,  Captain  Mooers,|  belonging  to  the  Massachusetts,  arrived  in  the  Downs  the  3d  of 
February,  passed  Gravesend  the  4th,  &  was  reported  at  the  Custom-House  the  Cth  instant.  She 
was  not  allowed  regular  entry  uutil  some  consultation  had  taken  place  between  the  commissioners 
of  the  customs  &  the  lords  of  council,  on  account  of  the  many  acts  of  parliament  yet  in  force 
against  the  rebels  in  America.  She  is  loaded  with  487  butts  of  whale  oil;  is  American  built ;§ 
inauned  wholly  by  American  seamen ;  wears  the  rebel  colors  &  belongs  to  the  Island  of  Nan- 
tucket  in  Massachusetts.  This  is  the  first  vessel  which  displayed  the  thirteen  rebellious  stripes  of 
America  in  any  British  Port.  The  vessel  lies  at  Horseley  down  a  little  below  the  Tower,  and  is 
jnteuded  immediately  to  return  to  New  England.''  Immediately  after,  almost  simultaneously  with 
her,  arrived  another  ship  from  Nantucket — the  Industry,  Capt.  John  Chadwick,  while  the  sloop 
Speedwell,  James  Whippey,  master,  was  sent  to  Aux  Cayes.||  Those  at  Nautucket  who  had 
capital  left  resumed  the  whale  fishery  with  as  many  vessels  as  they  could  procure.  Long  compar- 
ative immunity  from  capture  had  caused  the  whaling-grounds  to  become  repopulated,  and  the 
whales  themselves  had  become  less  shy  and  hence  more  easily  killed.  Directly  succeeding  the 
war  the  products  of  the  fishery  commanded  good  prices,  and  soon  other  ports  entered  into  compe- 
tition. New  London,  Sag  Harbor,  Hudson,  N.  Y.,  Boston,  Hiugham,  Wellfleet,  Braintree,fl  Ply- 
mouth, Bristol,  each  sent  out  one  or  more  whale  huuters.  For  a  brief  time  the  business  promised 
much  profit,  but  the  fever  was  a  fitful  one.  The  excessive  prices  which  the  commodity  commanded 
immediately  after  the  war  **  rapidly  became  reduced ;  Great  Britain,  the  only  market  for  the  sperm 
oil,  had,  by  an  alien  duty  of  £18  sterling  per  ton,  practically  precluded  its  shipment  from  America. 
Oil  which  before  the  war  was  worth  £30,  now  scarcely  brought  £17,  while  to  cover  expenses  and 
leave  a  reasonable  margin  for  profit,  £25  were  required.!!  The  situation  was  indeed  desperate — 
almost  hopeless." 

ESTABLISHMENT  OF  BOUNTY  SYSTEM  BY  MASSACHUSETTS. — "In  the  discussion  of  means  for 
relief  many  of  the  people  of  Nantucket  expressed  the  opinion  that  if  the  island  could  be  made 
neutral  commercial  affairs  might  assume  a  more  healthy  tone.  A  memorial  was  finally  sent  to  the 
legislature  of  Massachusetts  praying  relief,  and  the  agents  presenting  it  were  instructed  to  have 
the  subject  of  neutrality  acted  upon.  As  may  be  readily  supposed,  however,  the  invidious  legisla- 
tion that  Nautucket  was  uuable  to  obtain  during  the  war,  she  would  scarcely  be  likely  to  get  on 
its  conclusion,  and  the  subject  of  neutrality  was  very  properly  dismissed.  That  the  depression  in 
the  whaling  business  needed  some  alleviation  was,  however,  too  evident  to  require  discussion,  and 

"  *  William  Eotch,  esq." 

"t  Warren,  R.  I.,  suffered  a  loss  of  12  vessels  (about  1,100  tons),  of  which  at  least  two  were  whalemen. — (Hist,  of 
Warren,  p.  101.)" 

"tCapt.  William  Mooers,  who  sailed  for  many  years  in  the  employ  of  Messrs.  Kotch  &  Co.  It  is  related  that  one 
of  the  crew  of  the  vessel  first  showing  the  American  flag  in  the  Thames  was  hump-backed.  Oue  day  a  British  sailor 
meeting  him  clapped  his  hand  upon  the  American's  shoulder,  saying,  'Hilloa,  Jack,  what  have  you  got  heref ' 
'Bunker  Hill  and  be  d d  to  you,'  replied  the  Yankee,  'will  you  mount?'" 

"  $  The  Bedford  was  built  in  1765,  by  Ichabod  Thomas,  at  North  River.     She  was  built  a  brig." 

"  ||  Letter  of  William  Rotch.  esq."  "  II  One  small  schooner  of  38  tous  burden  hailed  from  Braintroe." 

"**  Macy's  Nantucket,  lai."  "  tt  See  Mr.  Rotch's  MS." 


132  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

in  1785  the  legislature  passed  the  followiug  preamble  and  resolution:  'Whereas  this  court,  having 
a  due  seuse  of  the  high  worth  and  importance  of  the  whale  fishery,  are  desirous  of  its  preservation 
nut  only  to  this  State,  but  to  the  United  States  in  general ;  therefore,  Resolved,  That  there  be  paid, 
out  of  the  treasury  of  this  Commonwealth,  the  following  bounties  upon  whale  oil  of  the  different 
qualities  hereafter  mentioned,  viz  :  For  every  ton  of  white  spermaceti  oil,  five  pounds  ;  for  every 
ton  of  brown  or  yellow  spermaceti  eil,  sixty  shillings;  for  every  ton  of  whale  oil  (so  called),  forty 
shillings,  that  may  be  taken  or  caught  by  any  vessel  or  vessels  that  are  or  may  be  owned  and 
manned  wholly  by  the  inhabitants  of  this  Commonwealth,  and  landed  within  the  same,  from  and 
after  the  first  day  of  January  next,  until  the  further  order  of  the  general  court.'  The  selectmen  of 
the  various  towns  were  further  empowered  to  appoint  sworn  inspectors  to  inspect  all  oil  so  landed, 
and  mark  on  the  head  of  cadi  cask  so  inspected  the  iuitital  letters  of  his  name,  and  a  description 
of  the  oil  by  the  initials  W.  B.,  or  Y.  W.  O.,  and  deliver  to  the  selectmen  a  sworn  certificate 
thereof.  To  obtain  the  bounty,  a  certificate  from  the  selectmen  must  be  presented  to  the  governor 
and  council,*  detailing  the  kind,  quality,  and  amount  of  oil,  and  where  landed.  To  this  certifi- 
cate the  owners  were  to  make  oath  or  affirmation. 

"  But,  although  the  bounty  seemed  at  first  beneficial,  the  ultimate  effect  was  not  so  good.  The 
business  became  unduly  stimulated  and  an  overproduction  prevented  to  a  great  degree  the  desired 
advance  in  profit.  The  demand  was  greatly  limited.  A  long  suspension  in  the  use  of  oil  had 
accustomed  the  people  in  general  to  the  use  of  tallow  candles,  and  but  little  oil  was  required  either 
for  towns  or  for  light-houses." 

TRANSFER  OF  WHALING  INTERESTS  FROM  NANTUCKET  TO  FRANCE  AND  ENGLAND.— "In 
the  mean  time,  seeing  no  chance  for  any  amelioration  in  their  condition,  unable  to  carry  on  a 
business  at  a  prospective  loss,  and  accustomed  from  early  childhood  only  to  this  pursuit, 
hence  unable  and  unwilling  to  adventure  another,  some  of  the  prominent  merchants  of  Nantucket 
resolved  to  transfer  their  business  to  some  place  where  the  demand  for  their  products  and  the 
advantageous  bounty  offered  would  make  it  far  more  remunerative.  Among  these  was  William 
Rotch.  On  the  4th  of  July,  1785,  Mr.  Rotch  sailed  from  Nantucket  in  the  ship  Maria,  bound  for 
London,  arriving  there  on  the  37th.  -At  as  early  a  day  as  practicable  he  opened  negotiations  with 
the  chancellor  of  the  exchequer  (William  Pitt)  for  a  transfer  to  England  of  such  of  the  whale  fish- 
ery at  Nantucket  as  he  could  control.t  The  subject  was  laid  before  the  privy  council,  and  Mr. 
Rotch  waited  four  months  for  their  summons.  Finally,  in  deference  to  a  request  of  his  that  some 
one  be  appointed  to  close  the  matter,  he  was  referred  to  Lord  Hawksbury,  a  gentleman  not  very 
favorably  disposed  toward  America.  Mr.  Rotch  gave  him  his  estimate  of  the  sum  necessary  to 
induce  a  removal,  viz,  '  £100  sterling  transportation  for  a  family  of  five  persons,  and  £100  settle- 

"*Macy,  129." 

"t  Capt.  Alexander  Coffin  was  of  those  who  looked  upon  the  whale  fishery  as  a  peculiarly  American  pursuit, 
aud  who  denounced  any  effort  looking  to  a  transfer  of  it  to  any  foreign  government.  On  tlie  8th  of  June,  1785,  he 
addressed  from  Nantucket  a  vigorous  letter  to  the  Hon.  Samuel  Adams.  He  wrote  in  severe  terms  agaiust  the  meas- 
being  adopted  to  remove  to  England,  and  says  Mr.  Rotch  '  is  now  taking  on  board  a  double  stock  of  materials, 
such  as  cedar  boards  (commonly  called  boat-boards),  of  which  they  have  none  in  England,  a  large  quantity  of  coop- 
er's stuff  for  casks,  Are.  Xeit  her  does  it  .stop  liere  ;  the  house  of  Rotch  have  been  endeavoring  to  engage  an  acquaint- 
am  e  <>r  mine  i«  m,  t,,  I'.ennudas  to  superintend  the  business  at  that  place.'  In  a  postscript  he  adds,  'Since  writing  the 
:|l><>\  e  I  1 1  nve  I  ice  1 1  favored  with  the  original  scheme  of  establishment  of  the  fishery  at  Bermudas,  copies  of  which  are 
hero  inclosed.  One  of  the  company  is  now  at  Kennebec,  contracting  with  some  persons  for  an  annual  supply  of 
IHH>IIX,  stu\  c's,  and  other  lumber  necessary  for  the  business.'  This  letter  was  laid  before  the  senate  of  Massachusetts, 
and  tin1  result  \vas  the  passage  of  an  act  prohibiting  the  export  to  Bermudas  of  the  articles  enumerated,  and  the  trans- 
fer in  this  direction  was  prevented." 


TIIK  \YII.\u:   nsilKKY.  |;;;; 

.unit;  Cl'0,000  fur  a  hundred  families.'  Loid  llawksbnrv  demurred  ID  this  as  a  la  rye.  .sum.* 
At  a,  subsequent  interview  Mr.  Uotcli  added  ID  Iiis  previous  ])osition  the  demand  to  biini;  with  him 
thirty  American  ships,  which  demand  also  met  \vilh  remonstrance  1'roiu  Loid  Hawkshnry,  who 
.seemed  to  be  of  the  '  penny  \vise  pound  foolish  '  order  of  statesmen.  Mr.  Hotel)  finally  took  leave 
of  Lord  HawUsbnry  without  obtaining  any  satisfaction,  and,  embarking  on  board  his  vessel,  sailed 
for  France. t  Landing  at  Dunkirk,  he  drew  up  proposals  to  the  French  <!overnmeiJt  and  forwarded 
them  to  Paris.  These  proposals  were  eagerly  entertained,  and  the  preliminaries  were  speedily 
arranged  for  a  transfer  of  (lie  interest  of  Mr.  Rotch  and  his  family  and  friends  to  Dunkirk,  from 
which  port,  for  several  years,  a.  very  successful  fishery  was  carried  on.  Contemporary  with  the, 
negotiations  with  Mr.  Rotch,  a  letter  was  dispatched  to  the  people  of  Nantucket  by  Capt.  Shubael 
tlardncr,  from  L —  -  Coffin,  who  resided  at  Dunkirk,  stating  that  his  sympathy  for  the  people 
of  that  island  had  led  him  to  apply  to  the  French  Government  in  their  behalf,  and  with  excellent 
success.  Every  request  he  had  made  had  been  granted,  and  the  unlimited  freedom,  tflfc  abun- 
dance and  cheapness  of  provisions,  the  absence  of  custom-houses,  the  small  taxes,  the  regularity  ct 
the  town,  the  manners  and  industry  of  the  inhabitants,  and  its  situation,  rendered  it,  in  his  opin- 
ion, l  the  most  eligible  place  in  the  universe  for  the  people  of  Nantucket  to  remove  to.f 


••'•Ami  uli.it,'  queried  Lord  Hawksbnry,  'do  you  prop  use.  lo  givu  us  iu  return  for  this  outlay  of  money  ?'  'I  will 
nive  you,'  returned  Mr.  Rotch  proudly,  'some  of  tie  best  blood  of  the  island  of  Nun  tucket.'  At  this  interview  Hawks- 
bury  presented  his  own  figures,  where,  says  Mr.  Rotch  (see  MS.),  'he  had  made  hisnice  calculation  of  £87  10«.  for 
transportation  aud  settlement  of  a  family,'  and,  says  he,  '  Iain  about  a  fishery  bill,  and  I  want  to  come  to  something 
that  I  may  insert  it,'  &c.  My  answer  was,  '  Thy  offer  is  no  object;  therefore  goon  with  thy  fishery  bill  without  any 
regard  to  me.'  I  was  then  taking  leave  aud  withdrawing.  'Well,  Mr.  Rotch.  you'll  call  on  me  again  in  two  or  three 
days.'  '  I  see  no  necessity  for  it.'  '  But  I  desire  you  would.'  '  If  it  is  thy  desire  perhaps  I  may  call.'  However,  he 
let  me  rest  1ml  one  day  before  he  sent  for  me.  He  hud  the  old  story  over  again,  but  I  told  him  it  was  unnecessary  to 
enter  again  into  the  subject.  I  then  iu  formed  him  that  I  had  beard  a  rumor  that  Nantncket  liad  agreed  to  furnish 
France  with  a  quantity  of  oil.  He  stopped  to  his  bureau,  took  out  one  of  a  file  of  papers,  and  pretended  to  read  an 
entire  contradiction,  though  I  was  satisfied  there  was  not  a  line  there  on  the  subject.  I  said,  '  It  was  only  a  vague 
report  that  I  had  heard,  aud  I  cannot  vouch  for  the  truth  of  it,  but  we  are  like  drowning  men,  catching  at  everv 
straw  that  passes  by;  therefore  I  am  now  determined  to  go  to  France  aud  see  what  it  is.  If  there  is  any  such  con- 
tract, sufficient  to  retain  us  at  Nautucket,  neither  you  nor  any  other  nation  shall  have  us,  and  if  it  is  insufficient,  I 
will  endeavor  to  enlarge  it.'  'Ah,' says  he,  'Quakers  go  to  France?'  'Yes,' I  replied,  '  but  with  regret.'  I  then 
pai-ted  with  Lord  Hawksbury  for  the  last  time. — (Rotch  MS.)" 

"  t  His  lordship  sent  once  more  for  Mr.  Rotch  to  call  on  him,  but  Mr.  Rotch  returned  answer,  '  If  Lord  Hawks- 
bury  ib-sires  to"  see  me  be  will  find  rue  on  board  my  vessel  up  to  the  hour  when  she  takes  her  anchor.'  When  Mr. 
Rotch  was  once  gone,  Hawksbury  became  alarmed  and  sent  to  him  by  letter,  informing  him  that  he  had  made  pro- 
vision in  the  fishery  bill  for  him,  with  liberty  to  bring-  forty  ships  instead  of  thirty,  '  he  having  forgotten  the  num- 
ber;' but  it  was  too  late.  This  unexpected  ending  of  his  hopes  was  far  from  pleasing  either  to  his  lordship  or  tbe 
(  "i\  eminent.  After  tbe  interview  with  the  King  of  France,  Mr.  Rotch  returned  to  England,  and  was  importuned  to 
remove  to  Great  Britain.  In  his  memoranda  he  says  be  was  waited  upon  by  one  of  the  officials,  who  told  him  ho  was 
'  authorized  by  Mr.  Pitt  to  tell  you  that  you  shall  make  your  own  terms.'  'I  told  him,'  continues  Mr.  Rotch,  '  he  v*as 
too  late.  I  made  very  moderate  proposals  to  you,  but  could  obtain  nothing  worth  my  notice.  I  went  to  France,  senl 
forward  my  proposals,  which  were  doubly  advantageous  to  what  I  had  oifered  your  Government ;  they  considered 
them  Inn  a  -hurt  tune,  and  on  my  arrival  in  Paris  were  ready  to  act.  I  had  a  separate  interview  with  all  the  minis- 
ters ol'state  necessary  to  the  subject,  five  in  number,  who  all  agreed  to  aud  granted  my  demands.  This  was  effected 
iu  live  hours,  when  1  had  waited  to  be  called  by  your  privy  council  more  than  four  months.'  All  attempts  on 
the  part  of  the  English  Government  to  reopen  the  subject  were  politely  but.  firmly  rejected  by  Mr.  Rotch.  'In  the 
beginning  of  1793,' the  account  continues,  'I  became  fully  aware  that  war  hetueeii  England  aud  France  would 

- iiakeplaee;  therefore  it  was  lime  tor  me  to  leave  the  country  iu  order  to  save   our  vessels  if  captured  by  the 

English.  1  proceeded  lo  England.  Two  of  them  were  captured,  full  of  oil,  and  condemned,  but  we  recovered  both  by 
my  being  in  Knghiud,  where  I  arrived  two  weeks  before  the  war  took  place.  My  going  to  France  to  pursue  the  whale 
fishery  so  disappointed  Lord  Hawksbnry  that  he  undertook  to  be  revenged  on  me  for  his  own  folly,  and  I  have  no 
doubt  ".ave  directions  to  the  cruisers  lo  take  an\  of  our  vessels  that  they  met  with  going  to  France.  When  the 
Ospray  was  taken  by  a  King's  ship,  the  officer  sent  on  board  to  examine  her  papers  called  to  the  captain  and  said, 
"You'll  take  this  vessel  in,  sir;  she  belongs  to  William  Rotch."  '  Mr.  Rotch  returned  to  (he  United  .stales  with 
several  of  his  vessels  in  1794,  and.  after  residing  in  Nantucket  about  a  year,  removed  to  New  Bedford,  where  he  lived 
until  his  death,  in  May,  1828." 

"  t  The  following  is  a  list  of  advantages  secured  to  Nantucket,  whalemen  by  Mr.  Coffin  : 
'  '  1st.  An  entire  lice  exercise  of  their  religion  or  worship  within  themselves. 


134  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

"  What  effect  this  state  of  affairs  may  have  hail  in  the  arrangement  of  treaties  of  commerce 
with  Great  Britain  is  somewhat  uncertain,  but.  the  attempt  to  a  consummation  of  this  plan  was 
intrusted  to  a  man  not  only  thoroughly  imbued  with  New  England  principles,  but  of  sufficient 
statesmanship  to  realize  of  how  much  national  importance  this  matter  was.  None  knew  better 
than  John  Adams  that  the  secret  of  the  commercial  greatness  which  should  be  developed  lay  in 
the  codevelopmeut  of  the  fisheries;  that  herein  was  the  nursery  for  seamen  who  would  be  a  source 
of  wealth  in  peace  and  of  power  in  war.  It  was  desirable,  to  irake  duties  and  courtesies  more 
reciprocal,  and  one  of  the  first  duties  intrusted  to  Mr.  Adams  on  his  appointment  to  the  court  of 
St.  James  in  1785  was  the  arrangement  of  some  treaty  which  should  be  mutually  satisfactory. 
Naturally,  one  of  the  principal  points  was  the  importation  of  the  products  of  our  fishermen,  since 
that  industry,  perhaps  more  than  any  other,  was  in  danger  of  serious  injury  from  the  existing  con- 
dition of  things. 

"  I*  a  letter  to  the  Marquis  of  Carmarthen,  dated  July  29,  1785,  Mr.  Adams  refers  to  the 
trouble  accruing  from  the  alien  duties  laid  by  England  in  these  words  :  '  The  course  of  commerce 
since  the  peace,  between  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States  of  America,  has  been  such  as  to 
have  produced  many  inconveniences  to  the  persons  concerned  in  it  on  both  sides,  which  become 
every  day  more  and  more  sensible.  The  zeal  of  Americans  to  make  remittances  to  British 
merchants  has  been  such  as  to  raise  the  interest  of  money  to  double  its  usual  standard,  to 
increase  the  price  of  bills  of  exchange  to  8  or  10  percentum  above  par,  and  to  advance  the  price 
of  the  produce  of  the  country  to  almost  double  the  usual  rate.  Large  sums  of  the  circulating 
cash,  and  as  much  produce  as  could  be  purchased  at  almost  any  rate,  have  been  remitted  to 

"  '  2d.  The  concession  of  a  tract  of  ground  to  build  their  houses  and  stores. 

"  '3d.  All  the  privileges,  exemptions,  and  advantages  promised  by  the  King's  declaration  in  1662,  confirmed  by 
letters  patent  of  1784,  to  all  strangers  who  come  to  establish  there,  which  are  the  same  as  those  enjoyed  by  the  natif 
subjects  of  his  majisty. 

"  '4th.  The  importation  into  the  Kingdom,  free  from  all  duties  whatever,  of  the  oil  proceeding  from  their  fishery, 
and  the  same  premiums  and  encouragement  granted  for  the  cod  and  other  fisheries  to  natif  subjects. 

"'Sth.  A  premium  per  ton  ou  the  burthen  of  the  vessels  that  will  carry  on  the  whale  fishery,  which  shall  be 
determined  in  the  course  of  the  negotiation  either  with  Mr.  Rotch  or  with  the  select  men  of  the  island. 

"  '6th.  All  objects  of  provisions  and  victuals  for  their  ships  shall  be  exempted  from  all  duties  whatever. 

"  '7th.  An  additional  and  heavier  duty  shall  be  laid  on  all  foreign  oil,  as  a  further  encouragement  to  them,  in 
order  to  facilitate  the  sale  of  their  own. 

"  '  8th.  The  expenses  of  removing  those  of  the  inhabitants  who  are  not  capable  of  defraying  themselves  shall  be 
paid  by  the  Government. 

"  '  9th.  A  convenient  dock  shall  be  built  to  repair  their  ships. 

"  '  10th.  All  trades-people,  such  as  smiths,  boat-builders,  coopers,  and  others  shall  be  admitted  to  the  free  exer- 
cise of  their  trade  without  being  liable  to  the  forms  and  expense  usually  practiced  and  paid  by  the  natif  subjects  for 
their  admittance  to  mastership. 

"  '  llth.  They  shall  have  liberty  to  command  their  own  vessels,  and  have  the  choice  of  their  own  people  to  navi- 
gate them. 

"  '12th.  They  shall  bo  free  from  all  military  and  naval  service,  as  well  in  war  as  in  peace,  in  the  same  manner 
and  extent  as  expressed  by  the  King's  ordinance  of  the  16th  of  February,  1759.'— (Macy,  257,  258.) 

"  These  were  probably  essentially  the  same  concessions  made  to  Mr.  Rotch  in  person.  How  many  American 
captains  pursued  the  fishery  from  the  various  British  and  French  ports  subsequently  to  the  Revolution  it  would  be 
difficult  to  determine.  Nantucket  alone  furnished  eighty-three  captains  for  the  French  and  one  hundred  and  forty- 
nine  captains  for  the  English  fishery ;  probably  the  bulk  of  the  total  number  came  from  this  one  port,  though  in  the 
course  of  the  prosecution  of  whaling  by  these  nations,  New  Bedford  furnished  a  very  considerable  number.  In  a 
'  Journal  of  a  Voyage  to  Greenland  '  from  Dunkirk  in  the  ship  Penelope,  Capt.  Tristram  Gardner  (a  Nantucket  man), 
be  records,  under  the  head  of  Friday,  June  6,  1788,  in  latitude  70°  north,  '  100  ships  in  sight.'  On  the  22d  of  the  same 
month  he  states,  as  a  mere  matter  of  fact  not  worthy  of  extended  comment,  '  Wind  at  South  ;  A  Rnged  sea  ;  Plenty 
of  Snow.  Later  Part  Saw  Ise  to  ye  S.  YV.  of  us  a  4  ye  wind  Shifted  to  ye  Northward,  but  Still  thick  weather.  Saw 
A  Number  of  ships,  but  No  whale.  So  ends  this  24  hours.  Lat.  79.02.'  And  yet  this  is  within  about  175  miles  of 
the  highest  northern  point  attained  by  any  of  our  splendidly  equipped  expeditions  undertaken  with  the  express  pur- 
pose of  pushing  as  far  north  as  possible  in  vessels  armored  and  strengthened  and  equipped  in  the  most  complete 
manner,  while  the  whaling  voyages  were  pursued  in  small,  not  uncommonly  strong  ships,  not  even  having  the  feeble 
protection  of  coppered  bottoms.  As  early  as  1753,  a  schooner  was  fitted  from  Boston  for  the  discovery  of  the  north- 
west passage.  She  sailed  in  the  spiin^  and  returned  in  October  of  the  same  year." 


THE  wn ALT:  FISHEKY.  135 

[•'.upland  :  but  much  of  this  produce  lies  in  store  here,  because  it  will  not  letch,  by  reason  of  tbo 
duties  aud  restrictions  on  it,  the  price  given  for  it  in  America.  No  political  arrangements  having 
been  made,  both  the  British  and  American  merchants  expected  that  the  trade  -would  have 
returned  to  its  old  channels,  and  nearly  under  the  same  regulations,  found  by  long  experience 
to  be  beneficial ;  but  they  have  been  disappointed.  The  former  have  made  advances,  and  the 
latter  contracted  debts,  both  depending  upon  remittances  in  the  usual  articles,  and  upon  the 
ancient  terms,  but  both  have  found  themselves  mistaken,  and  it  is  much  to  be  feared  that  the 
consequences  will  be  numerous  failures.  Cash  and  bills  have  been  chiefly  remitted;  neither 
rice,  tobacco,  pitch,  tar,  turpentine,  ships,  oil,  nor  many  other  articles,  the  great  sources  of  remit- 
tances formerly,  can  now  be  sent  as  heretofore,  because  of  restrictions  and  imports,  which  are 
new  in  this  commerce,  and  destructive  of.it ;  and  the  trade  with  the  British  West  India  Islands, 
formerly  a  vast  source  of  remittance,  is  at  present  obstructed.  *  *  *  There  is  a  literal  impos- 
sibility, my  lord,  that  the  commerce  between  the  two  countries  can  continue  long  to  the. advan- 
tage of  either  upon  the  present  footing.'*  He  continues,  that  these  evils  will  increase,  and 
asserts  that  it  is  the  desire  of  the  United  States  to  be  on  good  terms  commercially  with  England, 
and  not  be  driven  to  other  markets  with  their  goods,  and  he  closes  by  proposing  the  arrangement 
of  a  treaty  of  commerce,  between  the  two  countries. 

"  It  would  be  interesting,  though  not  necessary  in  this  connection,  to  follow  the  negotiations 
through  each  step ;  to  see  how  the  English  administration  felt  compelled  to  cater  to  those  who 
upheld  the  British  navigation  laws  ;  to  see  how  jealousy  of  our  incipient  naval  power  procrasti- 
nated the  treaty  which  it  was  inevitable  must  come ;  to  see  how  self-confident  and  secure  the 
English  felt  that  our  trade  must  unavoidably  come  to  them ;  to  see  how  an  attempt  was  made  to 
throw  the  influence  of  Ireland  against  America  by  ostentatious  concessions,  and  how  the  attempt 
failed ;  to  see  how,  finally,  the  fear  of  American  reciprocity  in  restrictions  led  to  English  reci- 
procity in  concessions ;  but  those  things  can  be  more  satisfactorily  learned  from  the  diplomatic 
correspondence  of  the  day.t 

"  On  the  24th  of  August  Mr.  Adams  had  a  conference  with  Mr.  Pitt  for  the  first  time  in  this 
connection.  Passing  by  the  matter  of  the  interview,  so  far  as  it  relates  to  the  other  portions  of 
the  proposed  treaty,  we  find  that  when  the  treaty  of  commerce  was  proposed,  Mr.  Pitt  inquired " 
what  were  the  lowest  terms  that  might  be  satisfactory  to  America.  Mr.  Adams  replied  that  he 
might  not  think  himself  competent  to  decide  that  question ;  that,  because  of  the  rapidly  increas- 
ing feeling  in  America,  affairs  had  already  culminated  in  Massachusetts  in  the  passage  of  an  act 
of  navigation  by  that  State,  showing  the  tendency  of  the  times,  and  that  the  action  of  England 
would  have  much  to  do  in  arresting  that  prejudice ;  that  the  five  hundred  ships  employed  in  the 
commerce  of  the  United  States  in  1784  might  easily  be  compelled  to  become  the  property  of 
American  citizens  and  navigated  wholly  by  American  seamen  ;  that  the  simple  passage  of  an  old 
English  statute,  '  that  none  of  the  King's  liege  people  should  ship  any  merchandise  out  of  or  into 
the  realm,  but  only  in  ships  of  the  King's  liegance,  on  pain  of  forfeiture,'  modified  to  suit  the 
American  form  of  government,  would  effect  this;  that  the  nation  had  the  legal  right  to  govern 
its  own  commerce;  that  the  ability  of  the  Americans  to  build  ships  and  the  abundance  of 
material  they  had  for  that  purpose  could  not  be  doubted ;  and  that  whatever  laws  England  might 
make,  she  would  be  glad  to  receive  and  consume  considerable  American  produce,  even  though 
imported  through  France  or  Holland,  and  sell  us  as  many  of  her  manufactures  as  we  could  pay 
for,  through  the  same  channels.  The  conversation  finally  introduced  the  subject  of  ships  and  oil, 
and  Mr.  Pitt  said  to  Mr.  Adams  the  Americans  '  could  not  think  hard  of  the  English  for  encourag- 
ing their  own  shipwrights,  their  manufacturers  of  ships,  and  their  own  whale  fishery.'  To  which 
"  "  Works  of  John  Adams,  viii,  p.  288."  "\Ibid.,  p.  307." 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Mr.  Adams  replied,  '  By  no  means,  but  it  appeared  unaccountable  to  the-  people  of  America  that 
this  country  should  sacrifice  the  general  interests  of  the  nation  to  the  private  interests  of  a  few 
individuals  interested  iu  the  manufacture  of  ships  and  iu  the  whale  fishery,  so  far  as  to  refuse 
these  remittances  from  America  iu  payment  of  debts,  and  for  manufactures  which  would  employ 
so  many  more  people,  augment  the  revenue  so  considerably,  as  well  as  the  national  wealth,  which 
would,  even  in  other  ways,  so  much  augment  the  shipping  and  seamen  of  the  nation.  It  was 
looked  upon  iu  America  as  reconciling  themselves  to  a  diminution  of  their  own  shipping  and  sea- 
men, in  a  great  degree,  for  the  sake  of  diminishing  ours  in  a  small  one,  besides  keeping  many  of 
their  manufacturers  out  of  employ,  who  would  otherwise  have  enough  to  do;  and  besides  greatly 
diminish  the  revenue,  and,  consequently,  contrary  to  the  maxim  which  he  had  just  acknowledged 
that  one  nation  should  not  hurt  itself  for  the  sake  of  hurting  another,  nor  take  measures  to 
deprive  another  of  any  advantage  without  benefiting  itself.'*  From  the  questions  of  compara- 
tive gains  or  losses  to  either  power,  and  the  relations  in  which  France  would  stand  to  both,  Mr. 
Pitt  led  Mr.  Adams  into  a  lengthy  and  useless  conversation  on  the  whale  fisheries  of  the  three 
countries,  referring  specially  to  the  efforts  of  M.  de  Calonne  to  introduce  this  pursuit  into  France, 
asking  suddenly  the  question  '  whether  we  had  taken  any  measures  to  find  a  market  for  our  oil 
anywhere  but  in  France.'  To  this  Mr.  Adams  replied,  'I  believed  we  had,  and  I  have  been  told 
that  some  of  our  oil  had  found  a  good  market  at  Bremen;  but  there  could  not  be  a  doubt  that 
spermaceti  oil  might  find  a  market  in  most  of  the  great  cities  in  Europe  which  were  illuminated 
iu  the  night,  as  it  is  so  much  better  and  cheaper  than  the  vegetable  oil  that  is  commonly  used. 
The  fat  of  the  spermaceti  whale  gives  the  clearest  and  most  beautiful  flame  of  auy  substance  that 
is  known  in  nature,  and  we  are  all  surprised  that  you  prefer  darkness,  and  consequent  robberies, 
burglaries,  and  murders  in  your  streets  to  the  receiving,  as  a  remittance,  our  spermaceti  oil. 
The  lamps  around  Grosveuor  Square,  I  know,  and  iu  Downing  street,  too,  I  suppose,  are  dim  by 
midnight,  and  extinguished  by  two  o'clock  ;  whereas  our  oil  would  burn  bright  till  9  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  and  chase  away,  before  the  watchmen,  all  the  villains,  and  save  you  the  trouble  and 
danger  of  introducing  a  new  police  into  the  city.'t 

"  But  despite  the  fact  that  Mr.  Pitt  appeared  more  favorable  than  was  anticipated,  Mr.  Adams 
did  not  expect  any  immediate  response  to  his  propositions.  The  English  ministers  in  their 
individual  capacity  seemed  singularly  timorous,  and  manifested  much  fear  of  committing  them- 
selves before  joint  cabinet  action.  Adams  inclined  to  the  opinion  that  nothing  short  of  the  con- 
vincing eloquence  of  dire  necessity  would  drive  the  English  ministry  from  the  positions  they  had 
assumed  in  regard  to  the  navigation  act,  and  that  an  answer  to  his  propositions,  even  at  a  late 
day,  was  doubtful,  without  Congress  authorized  similar  acts  with  the  United  States,  and  these 
counter-irritants  were  actually  put  in  force,  to  determine  on  which  side  the  inconvenience  was 
greatest.  The  great  cry  in  the  United  Kingdom  was,  '  Shall  the  United  States  be  our  ship- 
carpenters  ?  Shall  we  depend  upon  a  foreign  nation  for  our  navigation  ?  In  case  of  a  war  with 
them,  shall  we  be  without  ships,  or  obliged  to  our  enemies  for  them  ?'  How  much  this  nightmare 
of  inability  to  cope  with  their  late  colonies  in  anything  like  a  fair  field  was  stimulated  by  the 
Government  is  uncertain,  but  the  authorities  evidently  used  no  efforts  to  allay  it.f 

"»5th  Richard,  ii,  ch.  3."  "t  Works  of  Johu  Adams,  viii,  pp.  308-309." 

"  {  In  negotiation  with  the  Portuguese  ministers  in  November,  1875,  Mr.  Adams  asked  (viii,  p.  340)  if  they  did  not 
want  our  sperm  oil.  lie  replied  that  they  had  olives  and  made  oil  from  them;  they  had  no  use  lor  their  own  sperm 
oil  and  sold  it  to  Spain.  -They  had  now,'  hi;  said,  •  u,  very  pretty  spermaceti -whale  fishery,  which  they  had  learned 
of  the  New  Euglaiidcrs,  and  carried  on  upon  the  coast  of  Brazil.'  According  to  the  Boston  News-Letter  of  April,  21, 
1774,  the  method  of  obtaining  their  knowledge  was  somewhat  open  to  objections.  In  1805  the  Portuguese  attempted 
to  carry  on  the  whaling  business  from  Mozambique,  and  Timothy  Folger,  Francis  Paddack,  William  Hull,  and  John 
Hillmau,  of  Nautucket,  \vcnf  thereto  take  charge  of  the  fishery;  but  early  in  1810  accounts  were  received  at  Nan- 
tucket  stating  that  they  had  all  been  taken  sick  anil  died  I  here." 


Till;   \\  IIALK    I--1SI1KKY.  137 

"  The  effort  to  bring  about   the  desired  compromise  continued,  as  Mr.  Adams  had  judged  it 

would,  all  the  succeeding  fall  and  winter.  In  January,  178(i,  Bowdoin  wrote  to  Adams,  in  reply 
to  a  letter  from  him,  that  Hie  navigation  act  of  Massachusetts  had  been  so  modified  as  to  be  only 
operative  against  Great  Britain,  and  copies  of  the  repealing  act  had  been  sent  to  the  executives  of 
the  other  States  in  order  to  secure  harmony  of  action  upon  this  point.  Ill  regard  to  the  effect  the 
existing  English  laws  would  have  upon  the  interest  which  is  under  consideration  here,  he  wrote: 
'It  is  very  true,  their  encouragement  of  their  whale  fishery,  by  suffering  the  alien  duty  on  oil  to 
depress  ours,  will  increase  their  shipping  iu  this  branch,  increase  their  seamen,  and,  in  several 
other  ways,  be  advantageous  to  them.  To  a  person  that  looks  no  further,  it  would  appear  that  this 
was  good  policy  ;  and  the  goodness  of  it  would  be  inferred  from  the  advantages  arising.  But  when 
he  should  extend  his  view,  and  see  how  that  stoppage  of  the  American  whale  fishery,  by  depriving 
the  Americans  of  so  much  capital  a  means  of  paying  for  the  woolen  goods  they  used  to  take  ot 
Britain,  must,  at  the  same  time,  occasion  the  American  demand  to  cease,  or  be  proportionately 
diminished,  not  to  mention  the  risk  of  a  change  or  deviation  of  the  trade  from  the  old  channel,  he 
will  calculate  the  national  profit  and  loss  that  arises  from  that  stoppage. 

"'Three  thousand  tons  of  oil  was  the  usual  annual  quantity  produced  by  the  whalemen  at 
Xantucket,  all  of  which  was  shipped  to  Englaud,  at  an  average  price  of  £35  per  ton,  making  about 
£105,500.  The  whole  of  which  went  to  pay  for  and  purchase  a  like  amount  of  woolens  and  other 
British  goods ;  nine-tenths  of  the  value  of  which  are  computed  to  arise  from  the  labor  of  the  manu- 
facturer, and  to  be  so  much  clear  gain  to  the  nation.  The  other  tenth,  therefore,  being  deducted, 
gives  the  national  gain  arising  from  the  industry  of  the  Kautucket  whalemen,  and  the  capital 
employed  in  that  business,  namely  £94,500,  without  the  nation's  paying  a  shilling  for  the  risk  of 
insurance,  or  any  other  risk  whatever. 

'"On  the  change  of  trade,  pursuant  to  the  new  regulations,  the  British  merchants  must 
employ  a  large  capital  in  the  whale  fishery,  whose  products  we  vill  suppose  equal  to  that  of  the 
Nautucket,  £105,000.  They  will  have  made  an  exceeding  good  voyage  if  the  whole  of  that  sum 
should  be  equal  to  one-half  of  the  cost  of  the  outfits ;  though,  from  many  of  the  vessels  not  meeting 
with  fish,  and  from  a  variety  of  accidents  to  which  such  a  voyage  is  subject,  it  probably  would  not 
be  a  quarter.  The  whole  of  the  product  goes  towards  payment  of  the  outfits  and  charges  of  the 
voyage,  and  a  large  sum  must  be  advanced  for  the  second  voyage,  &c. 

"'Now,  although  this  mode  of  commerce  would  be  productive  of  some  national  benefits,  yet, 
considered  in  a  comparative  view  with  the  benefits  arising  from  the  former  mode,  they  would  be 
found  of  little  importance.  A  like  comparison  maybe  made  with  other  branches  of  commerce, 
particularly  the  British  West  Indian,  and  the  result  will  be  found  the  same.  For  the  sake,  then, 
of  gaining  pence  and  farthings,  Britain  is  sacrificing  pounds  by  her  new  regulations  of  trade.  She 
has  a  right  to  see  for  herself;  but,  unhappily,  resentment  and  the  consequent  prejudices  have  so 
disordered  her  powers  of  vision  that  it  requires  the  skillful  hand  of  a  good  political  optician  to 
remove  the  obstructing  films.  If  she  will  not  permit  the  application  of  your  couching  instruments, 
or,  if  applied,  they  can  work  no  effect,  the  old  lady  must  be  left  to  her  fate,  and  abandoned  as 
ncurable.'* 

"*  Adams,  viii,  :!i;:l-4  Iu  his  reply  to  Mr.  Bowdoin,  under  dad-  of  May  9,  1786,  Mr.  Adams,  after  expressing 
surprise  that  such  reasoning  as  his  (Bowdoin's)  has  no  effect  on  the  English  cabinet,  writes:  'Mr.  Jenldnson,  an  old 
friend  of  the  British  empire,  is  still  at  his  labors.  He  is  about  establishing  a  hoimi  v  upon  fifteen  ships  to  the  south- 
ward, and  upon  two  to  double  Cape  Horn,  for  spermaceti  whales.  Americans  are  to  take  an  oath  that  they  mean  to 
settle  in  England  before  they  arc-  '-miilr,!  (,,  ||H-  bounty.'  In  September,  1781),  Mr.  Adams  wiites  to  Mr.  Jell'ersou 
from  London  (viii,  414):  'The  whalemen,  both  ;il  (In-mlaml  and  the  southward,  have  been  unsuccessful,  and  the 
\irirc  nl'  >[u' rn  i. -ice)  i  oil  lias  risen  above  £..i'  pej  inn."' 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

u  On  the  21st  of  January,  17SG,  Mr.  Adams,  iu  a  letter  to  Secretary  Jay,  writes :  '  It  will  take 
eighteen  months  more  to  settle  all  matters,  exclusive  of  the  treaty  of  commerce.'1*  And  thus  it  con- 
tinued. Argument  and  persuasion  had  no  effect.  Convinced  in  spite  of  themselves,  they  still 
clung  fondly,  obstinately,  perhaps  foolishly,  to  their  obnoxious  laws.  As  late  as  November,  1787, 
Mr.  Adams  writes  to  Mr.  Jay :  '  They  are  at  present,  both  at  court  and  in  the  nation  at  large, 
much  more  respectful  to  me,  and  much  more  tender  of  the  United  States,  than  they  ever  have 
been  before ;  but,  depend  upon  it,  this  will  not  last ;  they  will  aim  at  recovering  back  the  west- 
ern lands,  at  taking  away  our  fisheries,  and  at  the  total  ruin  of  our  navigation,  at  least.'t  Mr. 
Adams's  position  at  the  court  of  St.  James  was  terminated,  by  his  urgent  request,  soon  after  this, 
and  the  question  of  commercial  relations  between  the  two  countries  was  still  unsettled.;}: 

"This  state  of  affairs  was  scarcely  such  as  would  occasion  the  utmost  harmony.  The  United 
States  naturally  resented  this  frigid  manner  of  treating  our  overtures  for  friendship.  In  August, 
1786,  Mr.  Jefferson,  in  a  letter  from  Paris  to  Mr.  Carmichael,  writes :  '  But  as  to  every  other  nation 
of  Europe,§  I  am  persuaded  Congress  will  never  offer  a  treaty.  If  any  of  them  should  desire  one 
hereafter,  I  suppose  they  will  make  the  first  overtures.'" || 

THE  AMERICAN  WHALE  FISHERY  DECLINING. — «'  But  while  America  was  exerting  herself  so 
unsuccessfully  to  be  allowed  to  live  on  terms  of  civility  with  England,  the  whale  fishery  carried  on 
from  within  her  borders  was  languishing. 

"  Like  the  effect  of  the  heat  of  the  sun  on  the  iceberg,  so  was  the  effect  of  foreign  bounties 
upon  the  American  fishery,  dissolving  it,  breaking  off  a  fragment  here  and  a  fragment  there. 
Lured  by  the  promise  of  English  bounties,  discouraged  with  the  prospect  in  America,  where  the 
price  for  oil  would  scarcely  repay  the  cost  of  procuring  it,  and  where  there  was  no  market  for  their 
chief  staple,  several  of  the  people  of  Nantucket  removed  to  the  vicinity  of  Halifax,  in  Nova  Scotia. 
There,  in  1786  and  1787,  they  settled,  building  dwellings,  wharves,  stores,  manufactories  for 
sperm  candles,  and  such  other  structures  as  were  connected  with  their  fishery,  and  calling  their 
new  settlement  Dartmouth.*}  There  they  carried  on  the  pursuit  for  several  years  prosperously, 
and  gave  promise  of  considerable  commercial  importance.  But  the  disintegration  which  com- 
menced at  Nantucket  continued  at  Dartmouth,  and  just  as  the  settlement  seemed  about  to  become 
thrifty  and  important  it  began  to  become  divided,  pieces  again  split  off,  and  the  village,  as  a 
whaling  port,  soon  became  a  thing  of  the  past.  Those  who  were  the  earliest  to  remove  from  Nan- 
tucket  soon  grew  uneasy  of  their  new  location,  and  having  greater  inducements  offered  them  if 
they  removed  to  England,  again  migrated,  and  settled  in  Milford  Haven,  from  whence  for  many 
years  they  carried  on  the  business  with  very  considerable  success.  The  parent  died  in  giving 
birth  to  the  child ;  Milford  Haven  nourished,  but  at  the  expense  of  Dartmouth's  existence. 

"  "Adams,  viii,  363-4,  389."  "  t  Ibid.,  463." 

"  t  Works  of  Jefferson,  ii,  18.     See  also  article  on  Jefferson,  by  Parton,  in  Atlantic  Monthly  for  February,  1873." 

"  $  Referring  to  Russia,  Portugal,  Spain,  France,  Sweden,  Tuscany,  and  tbe  Netherlands." 

"II  Jefferson,  ii,  18." 

"  U  Works  of  Jefferson,  ii,  518.  Mr.  Jefferson  says,  referring  to  a  farther  hegira  of  the  islanders  :  'A  vessel  was 
already  arrived  from  Halifax  to  Nantncket,  to  take  off  some  of  those  who  proposed  to  remove ;  two  families  had  gone 
on  board,  and  others  were  going,  when  a  letter  was  received  there  which  had  been  written  by  Monsieur  le  Marquis 
de  Lafayette  to  a  gentleman  in  Boston,  and  transmitted  by  him  to  Nantucket.  The  purport  of  the  letter  was,  to  dis- 
suade their  accepting  the  British  proposals,  and  to  assure  them  that  their  friends  in  France  would  endeavor  to  do 
something  for  them.  This  instantly  suspended  their  design;  not  another  went  on  board,  and  the  vessel  returned  to 
Halifax  with  only  the  [two]  families.'  In  1796  William  Rotch  &,  Son  petitioned  Congress  to  remit  the  excess  of  duties 
and  tonnage  charged  them  on  two  whale  ships  by  the  collector  of  New  Bedford,  in  i-<pnse(|iirnce  of  their  not  being  pro- 
vided with  United  States  registers.  These  were  ships  which  sailed  from  Nantncket  in  1787  and  1789,  under  registers 
from  the  State  of  Massachusetts,  and  were  used  in  the  Dunkirk  fishery,  returning  to  the  United  States  in  1794,  some 
years  after  the  National  Government,  had  been  in  operation.  The  committee  which  was  appointed  to  consider  the 
petition  reported  favorably  upon  it,  and  the  prayer  was  granted.— (State  Papers,  vii,  p.  411.)" 


TI1K  WIIALK   I'M  SI  I  HUT.  139 

"  France  did  not  view  tliis  transfer  with  indifference.  The  scheme  for  the  building  up  of  the 
fishery  at  Dunkirk  by  emigration  from  Nantncket  having  proven  only  partially  successful,*  it  was 
desirable  to  inaugurate  some  other  measures  to  prevent  further  increase  of  the  business  in  England. 
A  committee  of  gentlemen  -well  informed  in  such  matters  was  instructed  to  investigate  and  report 
on  the  subject  of  encouragement  of  a  general  commerce  with  the  United  States.  It  was  evident 
that  the  American  whalemen  conld  not  be  induced  to  leave  their  native  country  if  they  could  sup- 
port themselves  there.  The  natural  inference  was,  if  a  market  could  be  opened  to  their  products 
which  would  replace  the  one  closed,  they  would  not  emigrate.  Accordingly  upon  this  point  the 
committee  reported  in  favor  of  an  immediate  abatement  of  the  duty  upon  oil  and  a  promise  of  a 
further  abatement  after  the  year  1790.  The  letter  of  M.  do  Calonnes  (who  was  in  treaty  with  the 
Xautucket  whalemen)  recommending  this,  was  immediately  sent  to  America,  and  after  careful 
investigation  of  the  subject,  the  arret  of  the  29th  of  December,  1787,  ratifying  the  abatement 
and  promising  a  further  one  if  the  French  King  found  such  a  proceeding  of  mutual  benefit,  was 
passed. 

"  But  the  measure  in  this  form  had  a  contrary  effect  from  what  was  intended.  'The  English,. 
says  Jefferson, t  'had  now  begun  to  deluge  the  markets  of  France  with  their  whale  oils;  and  they 
were  enabled,  by  the  great  premiums  given  by  their  Government,  to  undersell  the  French  fisher1 
man,  aided  by  feebler  premiums,  and  the  American,  aided  by  his  poverty  alone.  Nor  is  it  certain 
that  these  speculations  were  not  made  at  the  risk  of  the  British  Government  to  suppress  the 
French  and  American  fishermen  in  their  only  market.  Some  remedy  seemed  necessary.  Perhaps 
it  would  not  have  been  a  bad  one  to  subject,  by  a  general  law,  the  merchandise  of  every  nation 
and  of  every  nature  to  pay  additional  duties  in  the  ports  of  France,  exactly  equal  to  the  pre- 
miums and  drawbacks  given  on  the  same  merchandise  by  their  own  Government.  This  might 
not  only  counteract  the  effect  of  premiums  in  the  instance  of  whale  oils,  but  attack  the  whole 
British  system  of  bounties  and  drawbacks,  by  the  aid  of  which  they  make  London  the  center  of 
commerce  for  the  whole -earth.  A  less  general  remedy,  but  an  effectual  one,  was  to  prohibit  the 
oils  of  all  European  nations ;  the  treaty  with  England  requiring  only  that  she  should  be  treated 
as  well  as  the  most  favored  European  nation.  But  the  remedy  adopted  was  to  prohibit  all  oils, 
without  exception.'  J  And  this  on  the  20th  of  September,  1788,  only  nine  months  from  the  passage 
of  the  former  law.  § 

"Through  the  exertions  of  Jefferson  this  error,  political  as  well  as  commercial,  was  remedied, 
and  in  December,  1788,  the  abatement  of  duties  on  oils  was  so  arranged  as  to  make  the  American 

"  *  'Nine  families  only,  of  thirty-three  persons  in  the  whole,  came  to  Dunkirk.' — (Jefferson,  ii,  519.)" 

"  t  Jefferson,  ii,  520." 

"  t  Jefferson,  ii,  521.     '  The  annual  consnmption  of  France,  as  stated  by  a  person  who  has  good  opportunities  of 
knowing  it,  is  as  follows  : 

Tons. 

'Paris,  according  to  the  registers  of  1786 1,750 

'Twenty-seven  other  cities,  lighted  by  M.  Sangrain 500 

'  Rouen 312$ 

'  Bordeaux 375 

'Lyons 187J 

'  Other  fit i es.  tor  leather  and  light 1,875 


5,000'" 

"  $  Jefferson  states  (ii,  523)  that  before  the  war  Great  Britain  had  less  than  100  vessels  engaged  in  whaling,  while 
America  employed  309.  (This  doea  not  take  into  account  Sag  Harbor,  New  York,  nor  the  very  important  fishery  from 
Newport,  Providence,  and  Warren,  in  Rhode  Island,  which  Mr.  Jefferson  seems  to  have  overlooked  in  his  report.)  In 
1788  these  circumstances  were  reversed,  America  employing  80,  and  Great  Britain  314." 


140  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

and  the  French  on  the  same  footing,  aud  cut  off  all  danger  of  overstocking  from  European  rivals, 
and  in  January,  1789,  this  arrangement  received  its  legal  ratification.*" 

REVIVAL  OF  AMERICAN  WHALING  IN  1789.— "The  revival  of  the  business  in  the  United 
States,  and  the  growing  scarcity  of  whales  in  the  waters  heretofore  mostly  frequented,  made  the 
equipping  of  larger  vessels  a  necessity,  and  from  the  sloops  and  schooners  which  formerly  composed 
the  greater  portion  of  the  whaling  fleet  an  advance  was  made  to  brigs  and  ships  and  the  field 
.still  farther  extended.!  The  sperm  whale  being  of  the  most  value,  the  effort  to  encompass  his 
capture  was  greater;  and  he  was  pursued,  as  he  fled  from  his  old  haunts,  till  the  Pacific  Ocean 
was  attained-!  At  Nan  tucket  the  number  of  vessels  soou  increased  to  such  an  extent  that  it 
became  necessary  to  go  abroad  for  men  to  man  them,  aud  some  Indians  and  a  large  number  of 
negroes  were  brought  from  the  main  land  to  aid  in  filling  the  crew-lists.  Ups  and  downs  the  business 
had  then,  as  it  ever  has  since.  A  presumed  prosperity  induced  competition,  the  markets  became 
glutted,  and  oil  was  sold  at  less  than  the  cost  of  production.  The  price  of  whalebone  became 
reduced  to  10  cents  per  pound  and  less,  instead  of  commanding  a  dollar,  as  it  did  prior  to  the  Revolu- 
tion. The  disturbances  beiween  England  and  France,  and  the  internal  commotions  to  which  the 
latter  country  was  subjected,  effectually  aunnled  the  effect  of  the  French  arret  of  1789.  So  dis- 
astrously did  these  things  affect  whaling  that  the  quarrels  of  France  and  England  forced  many 
Nantucket  men  to  .sell  their  vessels,  others  to  dismantle  and  lay  theirs  up,  while  a  few  still  held  on, 
some  making  a  little  profit,  the  majority  suffering  a  severe  loss." 

TROUBLE  WITH  FRANCE. — "In  179S§  came  the  threats  of  disturbance  between  France  and  the 
United  States.  French  privateers,  in  the  excess  of  their  zeal,  preyed  upon  American  commerce  as 
well  as  upon  that  of  the  powers  with  whom  they  were  in  direct  conflict.  A  large  number  of  vessels 
fell  victims  to  these  depredators,  and  the  friendly  relations  existing  some  what  precariously  between 
France  and  the  United  States  became  nearly  supplanted  by  a  state  of  actual  warfare.  The  whal- 
ing interest,  as  usual,  was  among  the  earliest  sufferers.  Early  in  1799  many  parties  in  Nautucket 
sold  their  ships  rather  than  fit  them  out  at  the  risk  of  capture.  News  began  to  reach  the  island 
that  vessels  were  already  captured,  and  the  business  of  the  islanders,  both  in  fishing  and  trading, 
almost,  ceased.  Instead  of  fitting  out  a  dozen  ships  for  whaling  but  two  or  three  were  fitted,  and 
sadness  and  gloom  shrouded  every  face.  The  difficulties  were  finally  adjusted  aud  business 
resumed  its  old  channels,  but  the  losses  which  the  unfortuuate  Nautucketers  sustained  by  the 
unjustifiable,  piratical  depredations,  though  settled  to  the  satisfaction  of  our  Government  and 
duly  receipted  for,  with  others,  by  the  United  States,  have  never  been  remunerated,  while  some 
of  the  unlucky  owners,  officers,  and  underwriters,  in  comfortable  circumstances  at  the  commence- 
ment of  these  troubles,  lost  their  little  property,  the  accumulations  of  years,  and  died  in  poverty. || 

"  *  Jeft'erson,  ii,  539.  When  the  arrct  of  29th  December,  1787,  was  drawn  up,  the  first  draft  was  so  made  as  to 
Delude  all  European  oils,  but  at  the  very  moment  of  passing  it.  they  struck  our  1  he  word  '  European,' so  that  our 
oils  became  involved.  '  This,  I  believTe,'  says  he,  '  was  the  effect  of  a  single  person  in  the  ministry.'  " 

"tSag  Harbor  re-eutered  the  business  in  1785  :  New  Bedford  in  1787  or  1788." 

"  t  In  the  Pacific  the  Americans  had  been  preceded  by  the  Amelia,  Captain  Shields,  an  English-fitted  ship,  manned 
by  the  Nantucket  colony  of  whalemen,  aud  sailing  for  that  ocean  from  London  in  1787,  her  first  mate,  Archelus  Ham- 
mond, killing  the  first  sperm  whale  known  to  have  been  taken  in  that  ocean. 

"  In  Jefferson's  report  he  enumerates  three  qualities  of  oil :  1,  the  sperm  ;  2,  that  from  the  ordinary  right  whales ; 
3,  that  from  the  right  whales  on  the  Brazil  Banks,  which  was  darker  in  color  and  of  a  more  offensive  odor  when 
burned  than  from  No.  2." 

"§The  Boston  papers  of  1796  reported  that  the  Carisford  frigate  had  arrived  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  from  Eng- 
land with  credentials  constituting  General  Graig  governor  of  the  colony,  the  limits  of  which  were  to  be  so  arranged 
,as  to  cut  off  other  nations  from  part  ieipation  in  the  Delago  Bay  fishery. " 

"1|  The  subject  of  the  French  spoliation  is  one  to  which  the  people  of  Nantucket  have  been  particularly  sensitive. 
Isolated  communities  are  more  liable  to  feel  that  the  injustice  done  to  one  is  an  injusutice  to  all ;  bence,  although  com- 
paratively few  of  the  islanders  suffered  from  the  depredations  of  the  French,  or  rather  from  the  apparent  breach  of  faith 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  141 

These  unauthorized  cap  lures  were  not  confined  exclusively  to  the  French,  for  in  1800  the  Spanish 
authorities  at  Valparaiso,  emulating-  the  hostility  to  a  power  ostensibly  at  peace  with  them  which 
the  French  had  shown,  .seized  and  condemned  tlir  whale  ships  Miautonomah,  of  Norwich,  and 
Tryal,  of  ISantuekct."* 

THE  WAR  OF  1812  AND  ITS  EFFKCTS  ON  THE  WHALE  FISHERY. — "  From  this  time  till  the 
opening  of  the  second  war  with  England  whaling  was  pursued  with  a  gradually-augmenting  fleet. 
And  this  in  the  face  of  the  uncertainties  which  the  increasingly  critical  state  of  affairs  between 
the  United  States  and  England  occasioned.  In  JSOU  Xautucket  added  five  ships  to  her  fleet,  and 
Xew  London  sent  her  first  large  vessel,t  and  in  180G  the  quantity  of  oil  imported  into  the  country 
was  considerably  in  excess  of  the  consumption. 

"The  embargo  act  of  1807  almost  suspended  the  pursuit,  not  so  much  by  actual  proscription 
as  because  of  the  impossibility  of  effecting  insurance  upon  the  vessels,  but  it  soon  received  another 
impetus  on  account  of  the  prospect  of  a  general  peace  throughout  Europe. 

"The  commencement  of  the  war  of  1812  found  a  large  portion  of  the  whaling  fleet  at  sea. 
Trusting  that  the  causes  of  contention  between  England  and  America  would  be  removed  without 
the  necessity  of  a  final  appeal  to  arms,  many  owners  had  fitted  out  their  ships.  This  was  particu- 
larly the  case  at  Nautucket,  from  which  port  a  large  proportion  of  the  fleet  had  sailed  for  the 
Pacific  Ocean  on  voyages  varying  from  about  two  years  to  two  years  and  a  halt'.f  AVith  the  recep- 
tion of  the  news  of  the  declaration  of  war  a  large  portion  of  the  vessels  in  the  North  and  South 
Atlantic,  and  some  of  those  in  the  Pacific,  turned  their  prows  homeward,  hoping  to  make  the 
home  port  before  the  seas  swarmed  with  letters-of-marque  and  national  vessels  of  war.  Many  of 
these  vessels  from  Nantucket,  on  arriving  home  sailed  thence  immediately  for  Boston,  Newport, 
Xew  Bedford,  or  some  other  fortified  port,  where  they  could  ride  out  the  storm  of  war  in  security. 
After  the  month  of  July,  1812,  was  ushered  in,  reports  of  the  capture  of  whaling  vessels  came 
thick  and  fast  to  Nautucket.§  First  came  the  news  of  the  taking  and  burning  of  the  schooner 

ou  the  part  of  a  Government  bouud  to  protect  them  and  their  interests,  all  felt  that  seeming  injustice  as  a  personal 
matter.  In  a  letter  to  the  Hon.  George  McDuffie,  giving  an  account  of  the  claims  of  Nantiicket  in  this  behalf,  unh- 
lished  in  the  Warder  of  May  'JO,  1846,  the  following  is  described  as  the  actual  condition  of  the  claimants  and  character 
oltho  demands: 

"  'Ship  Joanna.  Coffiu,  taken  with  2,000  barrels  of  oil  on  board ;  value  of  ship  and  cargo,  $40,000  ;  one  of  the  origi- 
nal owners  still  living — seventy-five  years  old  and  poor  ;  one  of  the  crew  also  living,  poor  ;  the  master  and  mate  died 
recently,  poor;  children  still  surviving;  rlnim  mrrraold.  Ship  Minerva,  Fitch,  1,500  barrels  of  oil  on  board;  value, 
$30,000;  one  of  the  original  owners  living — sixty-eight  year  old,  7100)-;  master  still  alive — seventy-eight  years  old.  with 
small  means  and  many  dependents;  one  of  the  crew  alive,  /mor  :  claims  ni-nr  sold.  Ship  Active,  Gardner,  3,000  barn-Is 
of  oil  on  board  ;  value,  .^")0,000;  same  owners  as  Minerva  witli  i  aptain  ;  Captain  Gardner  died  two  years  ago,  at  the 
age  of  eighty-five,  leaving  a  large  family  and  grandchildren;  dtiims  never  soJfl.  Ship  Arm,  Coffin  (in  merchant  serv- 
ice); loss  of  ship,  $10,000 ;  the  captain  left  a  large  family  in  slender  circumstances;  one  of  "the  underwriters  died  a 
few  years  since  in  the  almshouse,  who,  at  the  time  of  the  capture,  stood  high  among  Nantucket  merchants;  claims 
ii i  i-ir  sold.' 

"  Speaking  in  the  interest  of  the  whale  fishery,  it  may  be  safely  asserted  that  the  people  of  Nantucket  view  with 
regret  and  disappointment  what  they  consider  the  gross  injustice  showed  to  them  (with  others)  in  putting  off,  upon 
untenable  pretests,  the  settlement  of  these  demands.  The  stern  logic  of  poverty  and  the  almshouseis  keener  than  the 
sophistries  of  politicians.  The  Fox,  of  New  Bedford,  Capt.  Coffin  Whippey,  captured  in  1796  with  1,500  whale  and 
500  sperm,  was  another  case.  In  1853  Captain  Whippey — captured  a  second  time  in  1798 — was  living,  but  dependent 
upon  charity." 

"  *  The  Miautonomah  was  a  new  ship,  on  her  tirsi  voyage." 

"  t  In  1794  the  ship  Commerce,  of  East  Haddam,  was  fitted  for  a  whaling  voyage,  and  sailed  from  New  London  on 
February  (j  of  that  year.     In  1770  Capt.  Isaiah  Kldridge,  of  the  sloop  Tryall,  of  Dartmouth,  spoke,  among  other  whale- 
men on  the  Davis  Strait  ground,  Thomas  Wioctmi  (Wigginf),  of  New  London." 
See  Macy,  161-2-3." 

•  .1  When  war  seemed  inevitable  the  ship-owners  of  Nantucket  held  a  nuetiug  to  take  into  consideration  the.  snli- 
jecr  oflmv.  to  In  ^  secure  the-  fleet  from  rapture.  It  was  proposed  to  request  the  British  minister  at  Washington  to 

use  his   influence  with  his  Government  to  .ihtain    from  Iliein    in iniiy  from  capture  of  whale  ships  liL-loiiging  to  tho 

island.  This  plan  was  ultimately  abandoned,  the  majority  of  tLu  owners  being  of  tta  opinion  that  'the  prospect  of 
success  was  too  faint  to  warrant  the  attempt.'— (Macy,  165.)" 


142  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Mount  Hope,  David  Cottle  master.  In  quick  succession  they  learned  of  the  capture  of  the  Alli- 
gator, Hope,  Manilla,  Ocean  (brig),  Eauger,  Fame,*  Eose,  Kenown,*  Sterling,  Edward,  Gardner, 
Mouticello,  Chili,  Eebecca,  and  others,  and  it  may  be  easily  imagined  that  the  prospect  for  the 
islanders  had  but  little  in  it  that  appeared  encouraging.  New  Bedford,  too,  although  at  this  time 
her  interest  in  this  business  was  far  less  than  that  of  Nantucket,  suffered  from  the  capture  of  her 
whaling  vessels.! 

"  Again  did  war  put  an  effectual  stop  to  the  pursuit  of  whaling  from  every  port  of  the  United 
States  save  Nantucket,  and  again  were  the  inhabitants  of  that  town,  knowing  no  business  except 
through  their  shipping,  compelled  to  strive  to  carry  their  commercial  marine  through  the  tempest 
of  fire  as  free  from  complete  destruction  as  possible.  A  new  source  of  danger  presented  itself. 
Prior  to  the  declaration  of  war  between  Great  Britain  and  America  our  whalemen  on  the  coast  of 
Peru}:  had  often  suffered  from  piratical  acts  of  the  Peruvian  privateers,  being  continually  plun- 
dered and  cut  out  from  Chilian  ports,  whither  they  had  gone  to  recruit.  The  chronic  state  of 
affairs  on  this  coast  beiiig  one  of  war,  the  Government  of  the  United  States  had  sent  the  Hon.  Joel 
E.  Poinsett,  of  South  Carolina,  to  those  parts  to  see  that  American  commerce  was  suitably  pro- 
tected, but  for  several  mouths  his  remonstrances  had  been  worse  than  useless.  The  declaration  of 
war  between  England  and  the  United  States  gave  the  Peruvian  corsairs  a  fresh  pretext  for  the 
exercise  of  their  plundering  propensities.  They  claimed  that  they  were  the  allies  of  England,  and 
as  such  were  entitled  to  capture  the  vessels  of  any  power  with  which  she  was  at  war.  An  expedi- 
tion was  equipped  by  tbe  authorities  of  Lima  and  sent  on  its  marauding  way.  This  army  suc- 
ceeded in  capturing  the  towns  of  Conception  and  Talcahuano.  In  the  latter  port  was  a  large  num- 
ber of  American  ships,  many  of  them  whalemen,  who,  having  obtained  their  cargoes  of  oil,  had  put 
in  to  recruit  with  provisions  and  water  before  making  the  homeward  voyage.  Among  these  were 
the  ships  Criterion,  Mary  Ann,  Monticello,  Chili,  John  and  James,  Lima,  Lion,  Sukey,  Gardner, 
President,  Perseverance,  and  Atlas,  of  Nantucket. 

"  This  was  in  April,  1813.  These  vessels  were  detained  in  the  harbor  by  the  Limian  armament, 
which  consisted  of  two  men-of-war,  with  about  1,500  troops.  Having  found  a  bag  containing  about 
$800  on  board  the  President,  they  carried  her  captain,  Solomon  Folger,  ashore  under  a  guard  and 
imprisoned  the  remaining  officers  and  crew,  excepting  the  mate,  one  boat-steerer,  and  the  cook. 

"Learning  of  this  condition  of  affairs,  Poiusett  immediately  joined  the  Chilian  army  and 
directed  its  movements.  On  the  15th  of  May  a  battle  was  fought  between  the,  contending  forces  near 
the  town  of  San  Carlos,  but  when  the  day  had  closed  neither  side  could  claim  the  victory.  Taking 
advantage  of  the  cover  of  the  night,  Poinsett  put  himself  at  the  head  of  four  hundred  picked  men, 
with  three  pieces  of  light  artillery,  and,  leaving  the  main  body,  marched  directly  to  Talcahuano, 
whither  the  enemy  had  withdrawn.  The  town  was  immediately  carried  by  storm  and  the  detained 
whalemen  were  released.§  Some  of  the  ships  having  had  their  papers  destroyed,  Poinsett  fur- 
nished them  with  consular  certificates.  The  friendly  regard  for  the  United  States  which  diplo- 

"*The  Fame  was  used  in  the  English  lishery,  and  the  Renown,  under  the  name  of  Adam,'  while  engaged  in  the 
same  pursuit  under  the  same  flag,  went  ashore  on  Deal  beach  and  bilged  in  1824  or  1825. 

"In  1812  the  brig  Nauina.  Capt.  Valentine  Barnard,  of  New  York,  sailed  to  the  Falkland  Islands  on  a  sealing  and 
elephant-oil  cruise.  The  British  ship  Isabella  having  become  wrecked,  her  crew  were  rescued  by  the  Nanina,  and 
showed  their  gratitude  to  Captain  Barnard  by  seizing  his  vessel  and  setting  him,  with  Barzillai  Pease,  Andrew  Hunter, 
and  E.  Pease,  of  his  crew,  ashore  on  New  Island,  one  of  the  group.  A  protest  signed  by  the  four  was  published  iu  the 
Hudson  Bee,  and  also  in  the  supplement  of  Niles's  Register  for  1814." 

"tThe  ship  Sally,  Clark  master,  was  captured  while  homeward  bound  with  1,200  barrels  of  sperm  oil  on  board. 
Value  of  vessel  and  cargo,  $40,000.  The  Triton  also  was  captured,  involving  a  loss  of  $16,000." 

"  J  These  vessels  belonged  almost  exclusively  to  New  Bedford  and  Nautuckot." 

"  §  See  Nantucket  Inquirer,  August  9,  1824  ;  also  Inquirer  and  Mirror,  September  14,  1672.  In  the  latter  paper  IN 
au  account  of  the  affair  written  by  Capt.  Nathaniel  Fitzgerald,  one  of  the  crew  on  one  of  the  detained  whalers." 


THE  WHALE  E1SHEUY.  J.4J 

inatic  address  and  persuasion  had  been  unable  to  obtain,  were  secured  iu  a  much  shorter  time 
and  probably  far  more  efficaciously  by  force  of  arms,  and  Lima  yielded  to  muskets  and  cannon 
the  respect  she  had  been  unwilling  to  concede  to  the  seal  of  the  Department  of  State.  Her  dep- 
redations on  American  commerce  did  not,  however,  entirely  cease  until  the  advent  of  Captain 
Porter  in  those  waters.*  Soon  after  this  the  United  States  Government,  realizing  the  defenseless 
condition  of  our  commerce  in  the  Pacific,  dispatched  Porter  to  that  locality  to  protect  our  interests, 
Up  to  the  time  of  the  capture  of  his  vessel  he  had  not  only  done  all  in  his  power  in  this  direction, 
but  had  effectually  destroyed  the  English  whale  fishery  in  those  seas,  and  so  turned  the  tables 
upon  the  enemy  who  had  sent  out  his  whale  ships  well  armed  and  manned  to  perform  the  same 
kindly  office  toward  our  whalemen. J 

"Up  to  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1813  the  people  of  Nautucket  had  fished  unmolested  both 
for  codfish  and  for  humpback  whales  on  the  shoals  at  the  eastward  of  the  island,  and  by  this 
means  eked  out  a  livelihood  which  was  begiuuing  to  be  quite  precarious,  but  this  resort  was  now 
taken  from  them.  An  English  privateer,  during  the  fall,  appeared  among  the  fleet,  capturing 
one  Nantucket  vessel  and  driving  away  the  remainder.  In  this  dilemma  a  town  meeting  was 
assembled  and  a  petition  prepared  and  forwarded  to  Congress  representing  the  situation  there, 
and  praying  that  some  arrangement  might  be  entered  into  l  whereby  the  fisheries  may  be  prose- 
cuted, withcut  being  subject  to  losses  by  war.'  But  no  adequate  relief  was  afforded,  and  the 
people  found  the  history  of  their  sufferings  during  the  Eevolutiou  repeating  itself  with  a  distress- 
ing pertinacity  and  fidelity,  and  they  bade  fair  to  perish  of  starvation  and  cold.  They  eventually 
succeeded  in  obtaining  permission  to  import  provisions,  but  attempts  to  get  leave  to  sail  on  whaling 
voyages,  coupled  with  immunity  from  capture,  were  unsuccessful. 

"The  return  of  peace  effected  for  them  the  protection  that  all  negotiations  had  failed  to  secure. 
Early  iu  February,  1815,  news  came  to  ^'autucket  that  the  war  was  over,  and  immediately  all 
was  hurry  and  bustle.  The  wharves,  lately  so  deserted,  teemed  with  life ;  the  ships,  lately  dis- 
mantled, put  on  their  new  dress ;  the  faces  of  the  people,  lately  so  disconsolate,  were  radiant  with 
hope.  In  May  two  ships  fitted  and  sailed  on  their  voyages ;  by  the  last  of  June  this  number  was 
increased  to  nine ;  by  the  1st  of  August  eighteen  had  gone,  and  by  the  31st  of  December  over 
thirty  ships,  brigs,  schooners,  and  sloops  were  pursuing  the  leviathans  in  the  North  and  South 

"  *  The  Walker,  of  New  Bedford,  was  captured  by  an  English  armed  whale  ship,  but  recaptured  by  Porter.  The 
Barclay,  of  New  Bedford,  also  was  captured  by  the  Peruvians,  and  recaptured  by  Porter." 

"  t  So  far  as  operations  in  the  Paciiic  were  concerned,  the  English  went  out  to  shear  but '  returned  shorn.'  Wherever  . 
our  sailors  went  ashore  in  foreign  ports  and  met  English  seamen,  a  melee  was  a  frequent  occurrence.  An  amusing 
instance  is  related  of  the  officer  of  a  whaling  vessel  incurring  the  displeasure  of  an  English  naval  officer  in  one  of  the 
South  American  Pacific  ports  by  his  zeal  in  behalf  of  his  country.  A  challenge  was  the  result.  The  American  being 
the  challenged  party,  had,  of  course,  the  right  to  a  choice  of  weapons,  and  being  most  familiar  with  the  harpoon, 
chose  that.  They  met  according  to  the  preliminaries  and  took  their  positions.  For  a  moment  the  English  officer 
stood  before  the  poised  harpoon  of  our  whaleman,  then  gave  iu,  and  the  proposed  combat  was  deferred." 

"  November  2(5,  1813.      Maey,  177.      In  an  official  report  Captain  Porter  gives  the  following  lisl  of  his  captures, 

chiefly  vessels,  as  he  says,  engaged  in  the  British  sperm-whale  tibhtr.v  : 

Tons.          Men.        Guns. 

Montezuma  .. —  ...  -..- -- - 270 

Policy 175  26         10 

Georgiana '-SO  25         6 

Greenwich 368  25        10 

Atlantic 355  24 

Rose 220  21 

Hector 270  25        11 

Catharine - .-  270 

Seringapatam 357 

Charlton 274  21        10 

NewZealander 

Sir  A.  Hammond 301 


144  IlISTOliY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Atlantic,  the  Indian  and  Pacific  Oceans.  On  the  9th  of  July,  1815,  the  first  returning  whaling 
vessel  arrived  at  Nantucket ;  in  all  probability  this  was  the  first  arrival  at  any  port  in  the  United 
States  after  the  war.  This  vessel  was  the  sloop  Mason's  Daughter,  which,  after  a  six  weeks' 
voyage,  returned  with  100  barrels  of  oil." 

8.  WHALE  FISHERY  OF  PROVINCETOWN. 

BY  CAPT.  N.  E.  ATWOOD. 

In  early  days  the  whale  fishery  was  prosecuted  off  along  the  north  shore  of  Cape  Cod  with 
.small  boats,  and  whales  were  very  plenty  in  fie  fiist  part  of  the  present  century.  In  1820,  owing 
to  the  scarcity  of  codfish  on  the  Grand  Bank,  Provincetown  ship-owners  were  casting  about  for 
new  fields  of  industry  to  employ  their  vessels,  and  five  schooners  were  fitted  out  to  engage  in  the 
sperm-  whale  fishery.  In  most  cases  experienced  whalers  were  engaged  at  Wellfleet  and  elsewhere, 
but  one  vessel,  the  Nero,  sailed  without  having  on  board  a  man  who  had  ever  seen  a  sperm  whale. 
These  vessels  left  Proviucetown  about  the  1st  of  April  and  went  directly  to  the  Azores,  where  they 
cruised  for  a  mouth  or  two.  In  June  they  went  to  the  northwestern  ground,  as  it  was  called  (situ- 
ated from  100  to  200  miles  northwest  of  Cowo  and  Flores),  and  staid  there  through  the  remainder 
of  the  cruise,  coming  home  in  the  fall.  These  vessels  did  rather  better  than  the  codfishermen. 
In  1821  the  codfishery  was  still  low  and  the  whaling  fleet  was  increased  to  twelve  vessels,  quarter- 
deck schooners  mostly,  the  largest  of  which  measured  98  tons  (about  equivalent  to  70,  new  measure. 
ment),  and  several  were  over  90  tons.  There  were  the  Neptune,  the  Kero,  the  Minerva,  the  President, 
the  Mary,  the  General  Jackson,  the  Charles,  the  Four  Brothers,  the  Hannah  and  Eliza,  the  Vesta, 
the  brig  Ardent,  and  the  brig  Laurel.  The  fleet  went  on  the  same  grounds  as  in  the  previous  year, 
and  in  August  went  into  the  islands  to  recruit  and  afterwards  cruised  about  the  islands.  They 
caine  home  in  September  and  October,  having  done  a  fair  business,  a  little  better  than  the  cod  fleet. 
The  Nero  had  the  best  fare,  obtaining  260  barrels  of  sperm  oil,  valued  at  $1  a  gallon.  In  1822  the 
fleet  was  increased  to  eighteen  vessels,  the  Fair  Lady,  the  Sophronia,  the  Olive  Branch,  the  Sev- 
enth Son,  and  the  Betsey  being  added.  They  accomplished  very  little,  and  all  returned  in  the  fall 
except  the  Laurel,  which  went  to  the  West  Indies,  and  the  Fair  Lady  to  the  Gulf  of  Guinea,  In 
1823  the  two  vessels  returned  in  March  from  the  south,  and  the  brig  Ardent  went  to  the  Azores, 
obtaining  200  barrels  of  sperm  oil,  and  was  wrecked  at  sea  on  her  return.  The  schooner  Seventh 
-Son  went  to  Africa,  obtaining  very  little. 

In  1824  no  whalers  were  sent  out,  nor  in  succeeding  years,  until  1830,  when  the  schooner 
Fair  Lady  and  the  schooner  Vesta  went  to  the  old  ground  about  the  Azores,  the  former  getting 
300  and  the  latter  140  barrels.  In  1832  the  brig  Iinogene,  170  tons,  was  bought  in  Boston  for 
sperm  whaling.  She  went  into  the  ludian  Ocean  and  was  absent  two  years,  obtaining  400 
barrels  of  sperm  oil.  In  183.5  the  Iinogene  went  another  voyage  to  some  of  the  Western  Islands 
and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  In  1836  the  schooner  Louisa  (Flora?)  was  added  to  the  fleet.  They 
went  to  the  West  Indies,  where  they  got  some  humpback  whales,  then  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico, 
and  later  to  the  Western  Islands ;  the  Louisa  obtaining  175  barrels  and  the  Imogene  560.  In 
1837  the  Imogene  got  450  barrels  in  fJie  Atlantic  and  the  schooner  Louisa  100.  In  1838  the 
Imogene  went  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  getting  400  of  sperm  and  200  barrels  of  whale  oil.  In 
1839  the  Imogene  cruised  in  the  Atlantic,  getting  350  barrels  of  sperm  and  250  of  whale  oil.  In 
1837  the  Edward  and  Eienzi  was  bought  for  black  fishing  and  went  on  the  ground  south  of  the 
Georges  Banks  and  toward  Cape  Hatteras.  No  whaling  vessels  had  ever  been  there  ln-lbre.  and 
she  found  sperm  whales  abundant,  and  since  that  lime  the  Hatteras  ground  and  the  Charleston 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  145 

ground  (the  latter  farther  south)  have  been  favorite  cruising  grounds  for  the  Provincetown  fleet. 
In  1840  the  Imogene  was  condemned  and  four  vessels  were  added  to  the  fleet,  the  brigs  Franklin, 
Fairy,  and  Phoenix,  and  a  schooner  (probably  the  Belle  Isle).  The  Phcenix  went  to  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico  (whore  she  obtained  MOO  barrels  of  sperm  oil),  the  others  to  the  Western  Islands,  where  the 
I'hceiiix  followed  them.  From  that  time  the  whale  fishery  began  to  increase.  In  1841  there  were 
nine  vessels,  one  schooner,  one  bark,  and  seven  brigs.  In  1842  there  were  thirteen.  In  1869 
the  licet  had  inereased  to  lift y  lour  vessels,  at  which  time  the  whale  fishery  was  larger  than  ever 
In  t'oie  or  since.  Ever  since  ]8u7  the  Hatteras  ground  has  been  much  visited.  At  one  time  many 
vessels  went  to  the  eastward  of  the  Grand  Banks,  principally  for  black  fish.  Three  or  four  went 
.\  ear  after  year.  They  would  be  goue  from  May  to  October,  and  sometimes  got  250  to  300  barrels. 
During  the  war  the  whaling  business  prospered,  but  began  to  fall  off  from  1869  to  1871  as  the 
whales  became  scarcer. 

9.  STATISTICAL  EEVIEW  OF  THE  AMERICAN  WHALE  FISHERY. 

The  American  whaling  fleet  was  smaller  in  1880  than  at  any  time  within  the  past  sixty  years, 
except  in  1875  and  1876.  The  decrease  in  the  number  of  vessels  has  been  going  on  since  the  year 
1846,  when  there  were  seven  hundred  and  twenty-two  vessels,  measuring  231,406  tons,  in  the  fleet. 
Accurate  statistics  for  the  period  prior  to  1840  are  wanting.  Just  before  the  Revolutionary  war  a 
lleet  of  over  three  hundred  and  fifty  sail  was  engaged  in  this  business,  but  after  the  war  the 
number  was  very  greatly  reduced.  There  was  a  gradual  growth  in  the  fleet  from  this  time  until 
the  war  of  1812,  which  proved  another  disaster  to  whaling  commerce.  After  the  war  the  business 
again  revived  and  there  was  a  steady  increase  in  the  size  of  the  fleet. 

On  January  1, 1844,  the  fleet  belonging  to  the  United  States  numbered  six  hundred  and  seven- 
teen vessels,  valued  at  $19,430,000  at  the  time  of  sailing,  and  their  entire  value  at  that  date,  includ- 
ing the  catchiugs  at  sea,  was  estimated  at  827,784,000.  The  annual  consumption  by  the  fleet  for 
outfits  at  that  time  was  $3,845,000,  and  the  value  of  the  production  of  oil  and  bone  in  the  year 
1844  was  $7,875,970.  In  1846  the  fleet  of  vessels  had  increased  in  number  to  seven  hundred  and 
twenty-two,  the  highest  number  ever  employed  in  the  fishery  at  one  time,  and  was  valued  at  about 
$21,000,000.  The  entire  capital  invested  in  the  industry  and  its  connections  at  this  time  was 
$70,000,000,  and  the  number  of  persons  deriving  from  it  their  chief  support  was  70,000. 

After  1846  there  was  a  rapid  decrease  till  1850,  when  the  tonnage  was  171,484  and  the  number 
of  vessels  five  hundred  and  thirty-nine ;  then  an  increase  till  1854,  when  there  were  six  hundred 
and  fifty-two  vessels,  measuring  208,399  tons ;  from  1854  till  the  present  time  ihe  decrease  has 
been  almost  constant,  the  tonnage  in  1865  being  reduced  to  79,696  tons,  and  the  vessels  to  two 
hundred  and  seventy-one ;  in  1875  the  decrease  was  still  greater,  when  there  were  only  one  hundred 
and  fifty-two  vessels,  measuring  37,733  tons,  and  on  the  1st  of  January,  1880,  the  fleet  numbered 
one  hundred  and  seventy -three  vessels,  of  39,433  tons  measurement. 

The  most  valuable  production  of  the  fleet  was  in  1854,  when  the  value  of  the  oil  and  bone 
was  $10,766,521.20,  against  $2,056,069.08  in  1879,  which  was  the  lowest  since  the  year  1828,  when 
the  production  yielded  $1,995,181.15.  The  year  ending  December  31, 1880,  was  somewhat  more 
profitable  than  1879  because  of  the  success  of  the  Arctic  fleet,  the  yield  this  year  reaching 
$2,659,725.03. 

The  largest  fleet  in  the  North  Pacific  and  Arctie  Oceans  was  in  1846,  when  two  hundred  and 
ninety-two  ships  were  there,  and  obtained  253,800  barrels  of  whale  oil,  averaging  869  barrels  to  a 
vessel.  The  largest  quantity  of  sperm  oil  was  produced  in  1837,  5,329,138  gallons,  averaging  in 
SEC.  V,  VOL.  u 10 


146  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

price  $1.242  per  gallon.  The  largest  quantity  of  whale  oil  was  produced  in  1851,  328,483  barrels, 
or  10,347,214  gallons,  averaging  45-^-  cents  per  gallon.  The  largest  quantity  of  whalebone  was 
produced  in  1853.  5.652.300  pounds,  averaging  34J  cents  (gold)  per  pound. 

(a)  TEA.DE    REVIEWS. 

The  following  extracts,  taken  from  the  Whalemen's  Shipping  List,  published  at  New  Bed- 
ford, Mass.,  showing  the  yearly  condition  of  the  whaling  industry  from  1*08  to  1880,  are  kindly 
furnished  by  Messrs.  I.  H.  Bautlett  &  Sons. 

The  words  "imports"  and  "importations"  in  these  reviews  mean  the  receipts  of  oil  from  I  lie 
American  fleet,  a'ad  do  not  mean  imports  of  foreign  production,  but  the  catch  <>!'  American  vessels 

in  the  various  oceans. 

Review  of  tlie  tcliale fishery  for  1868.— The  present  year  has  witnessed  the  return  of  the  usual  number  of  whalers, 
and  generally  with  sal  isf'aetory  catches,  and  quite  as  favorable  results  as  anticipated.  The  price  of  sperm  oil  ruled 
steady  through  the  year,  while  in  whale  a  generally  advancing  market  wax  maintained,  and  in  September  (owing  to 
telegraphic  advices  1'inm  the  Heel  as  late  as  the  middle  of  August,  announcing  a  failure  of  the  fishery  up  to  that  date) 
a  marked  advance  was  established,  and  holders  of  the  small  stock  (17,500  barrels)  demanded  £1.25  and  upwards. 
Whalebone,  being  similarly  affected,  sold  in  the  summer  as  low  as  85  cents,  currency,  but  upon  the  unfavorable  news 
advanced  to  sl.J-J-J,  with  sales,  and  a  further  advance  was  demanded.  A  month  later  more  favorable  reports  can  e  to 
hand  from  the  fleet  in  the  Arctic,  which  cast  a  new  feature  over  the  prospects  of  prices  and  supply.  The  season  up 
to  August  23  was  a  failure,  but  a  few  whales  having  been  taken  up  to  that  time,  some  of  the  ablest  masters  having 
taken  no  oil,  and  many  vessels  left  for  other  grounds;  those  that  remained  were  successful  in  taking  extraordinary 
cuts  of  oil ;  in  one  instance,  the  bark  John  llo\vland,  taking  1,000  barrels  of  oil  in  four  days  in  the  latter  part  of  Sep- 
tember, and  many  other  vessels  t"<>k  an  average  of  1,000  barrels  in  thirty  days,  the  laigest.  catches  being  the  ships 
Reindeer,  1,550  barrels,  and  the  Florida,  1,700  barrels. 

Owing  to  the  low  prices  ruling  for  whale  oil  and  whalebone,  in  the  early  aud  middle  pai  t  of  the  year  many  of  the 
ships  returning  from  the  North  Pacific  were  put  into  the  sperm  and  right  whale  fishery  in  the  Indian  and  Southern 
Oceans,  which  will  account  in  part  for  the  small  fleet  to  go  north  in  1869,  and  many  ships  will  return  home  this  spring, 
having  completed  three  or  more  seasons.  So  that,  as  the  whale  fishery  now  stands,  there  will  not  probably  be  over 
fifty  ships  of  all  nationalities  cruising  in  the  North  Pacific  in  1869,  a  smaller  number  than  since  1863 ;  leaving  the  rest 
of  the  whale  fleet,  about  two  hundred  and  thirty-nine  ships  to  pursue  sperm  whaling  in  whole  or  in  part  in  every 
other  ocean  and  sea. 

We  have  no  changes  to  note  of  employment  of  ships  in  the  fishery,  but  add  the  port  of  San  Francisco  to  our  list 
as  one  of  the  ports  of  the  United  States  engaged  in  the  fishery. 

The  number  of  vessels  from  the  Atlantic  ports  engaged  in  the  fishery  January  1,  1869,  is  220  ships  and  barks,  23 
brigs  and  87  schooners,  with  73,105  tonnage,  showing  an  increase  of  only  one  vessel  as  compared  with  last  year,  hut  a 
falling  off  of  1,489  tons,  of  which  878  tons  grows  out  of  remeasnrements  by  the  new  system,  to  which  we  add  6  vessels 
from  the  port  of  San  Francisco,  with  1,414  tonnage,  making  the  total  number  of  vessels  from  the  United  States,  Janu- 
ary 1,  1869,  336,  with  a  tonnage  of  74,519,  being  within  75  tons  of  that  of  1868. 

The  schooner  Etta  G.  Fogg,  of  Provincetown,  and  Money  Hill,  of  Boston,  are  missing,  aud  are  supposed  to  have 
foundered  at  sea,  the  former  not  having  been  heard  from  since  sailing,  and  the  latter  when  only  a  short  time  out. 
The  brig  Georgiana,  of  New  London,  with  700  barrels  of  oil  on  freight  from  Cumberland  Inlet  whalers  for  New  Lon- 
don, has  not  been  heard  from  since  sailing  from  the  inlet  in  October,  1868,  and  it  is  feared  is  lost. 

The  Atlantic  whale  fishery  has  been  carried  on  by  about  as  many  whalers  as  in  1867,  with  quite  as  favorable 
returns.  The  vessels  from  Provincetown  and  ports  eastward,  comprising  nearly  one-half  the  fleet,  averaged  about, 
the  same  quantity  of  oil  as  in  1867,  but,  owing  to  the  increased  cost,  of  the  vessels  added,  and  the  reduced  price  of 
sperm  oil,  the  business  was  not,  on  the  whole,  as  remunerative. 

The  "Commodore  Morris  Ground"  proved  a  failure,  hut  whales  were  found  quite  plenty  on  other  grounds,  though 
very  wild,  and  several  vessels  were  very  fortunate ;  nine  vessels  averaging  400  barrels  sperm  oil. 

The  fleet  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  was  nearly  as  successful  as  in  1867,  those  that  met  with  extraordinary  luck  in  that 
year  having  continued  to  take  large  quantities  of  oil,  more  especially  those  cruising  in  the  South  Pacific,  while  some 
of  the  vessels  cruising  on  the  west  coast  of  South  America  took  good  cuts  of  oil.  The  fleet  will  be  somewhat  increased 
the  present  year,  being  about  sixty  American  ships,  including  some  of  the  most  successful  which  are  expected  to 
return  home. 

Panama  has  proved  a  convenient  port  for  transshipment  of  oil  home,  there  having  been  quite  a  number  of  whalers 
there  the  past  year  to  receive  supplies  and  to  ship  their  oil,  amounting  to  3,250  barrels  of  sperm.  The  reduced  price  of 
freight  to  6  cents,  gold,  per  gallou,  with  prospects  of  a  further  deduction,  will  probably  induce  more  vessels  to  visit 
there  in  future. 

The  sperm-whale  fleet  for  1869  will  be  distributed  about  as  follows  :  la  the  North  and  South  Atlantic  about  150 
vessels,  the  usual  number  for  the  past,  three  years,  exclusive  of  homeward  bound  vessels.  In  the  Indian  Ocean,  35 
vessels,  against  31  in  1868.  In  the  Pacific  Ocean,  54  vessels,  against  46  in  1868.  Total,  239  vessels. 


THE  WHALE   KISHKRY.  147 

Tin'  tleet  cruising  in  the  Xorih  Pacific  consisted  of  58  vessels,  of  which  7  were  foreign,  against  101  vessels  in 
1867;  2  vessels  were  lost,  tin-  Corinthian  and  tin-  H,i<  Hawaii,  i ho  former  having  taken  1,050  barrels  oil  aud  15,000 
pounds  bone,  which  were  saved,  and  the  latter,  1,200  barrels  oil  aud  15, (100  pounds  bone,  which  were  lost  with  the 
\rssel.  There  were  also  . I  trading  vessels  that  visite.d  those  waters  and  returned  with  185  barrels  oil  aud  22,500 
IK  in  mis  bone. 

The  Arctic  Ocean  licet  comprised  :',7  American  and  4  foreign  vessels,  aud  caught  35,005  barrels  whale  oil  and 
:.?.'.. -Jtui  pounds  bDiie,  .-in  a\eiage  of  834  barrels  oil  aud  14,030  pounds  bouo ;  whereas,  in  1867,  77  vessels  caught  50,115 
banvls  whale  oil  and  SH7.SIH)  poniuls  bone,  an  average  of  651  barrels  oil  aud  10,492  pounds  boue. 

The  Oehotsk  licet  comprised  7  A'licriean  ami  I  foreign  vessel,  and  caught  '1,960  barrels  whale  oil  and  50,500  pounds 
bone,  an  average  of  (i','0  barrels  oil  and  (i,:!12  pounds  bone  :  whereas,  in  1-1.7,  14  vessels  caught  9,320  bairels  whale  oil 
and  117, '•(>(>  pounds  bone,  an  average  of  665  barrels  oil  and  S,:.',',i:j  pounds  boue. 

The  Kodiac  and  Bristol  Bay  licet  comprised  17  American  aud  2  foreign  vessels,  and  caught  7,635  barrels  whale  oil 
and  (18, sun  pounds  bone;  \\hereas,  in  ls'7,  10  vessels  caught  5,465  barrels  whale  oil  aud  47,700  pounds  boue,  an 
average  of  511',  barrels  oil  and  4,770  pouuds  bune. 

The  entire  fleet  of  68  vessels  caught  47,600  barrels  whale  oil  and  694,500  pouuds  bone,  an  average  of  700  barrels 
oil  and  10,213  pounds  bone,  showing  a  better  average  than  in  1867,  when  101  vessels  caught  an  average  of  642  barrels 
nil  and  '.t,u'.i3  pounds  bone. 

The  Cumberland  Inlet  fled  comprised  12  American  vessels,  of  which  4  returned,  bringing  2,250  barrels  whale  oil 
and  :it),OOU  pounds  bone.  The  bark  Andrews;  was  totally  lost,  having  no  oil  on  board.  The  fleet  for  1869  will  number 
about  the  same  as  in  I,-M|-I  ;  7  vessels  are  wintering  there,  aud  had  taken,  up  to  the  latest  dates,  bur  live  whales. 

The  year  opened  with  sperm  oil  dull  at  $2,  aud  continued  about  the  same  for  six  months,  -when  it  dropped  to  $1.75 
©  Si. -ii,  at  which  it  stood  for  nearly  three  mouths,  when  it  was  put  to  $2,  where  it  remained  for  a  brief  period,  aud 
when  wanted  for  export  in  October  declined  to  $1.78  @  $1.75,  at  which  10,000  barrels  were  sold. 

Whale  oil  opened  at  65  cents,  and  steadily  improved  to  82  cents  1st  of  August,  when,  under  unfavorable  news 
from  the  northern  fleet,  rapidly  advanced  to  $1.1",  aud,  in  consequence  of  the  absence  of  further  reports  from  the 
licet,  was  still  further  advanced,  with  sales  at  $1.15  ©  $1.25.  After  the  news  of  the  great  success  was  received,  in 
October,  it  was  very  dull,  and  closed  with  sales  of  400  barrels  at  about,  $1. 

Whalebone  opened  at  70  ceuts,  gold,  steadily  declined  until  July,  with  sales  at  60  cents,  gold,  when  an  improve- 
ment was  established  aud  the  market,  under  the,  unfavorable  reports,  rose  rapidly  to  $1.40  ©  $1.42|,  at  which  but  few 
sales  were  made,  and  later,  upon  full  reports  from  the  fleet,  the  market  became  demoralized,  aud  receded  to  75  ©  80 
cents,  gold,  at  which  large  sales  were  made  at  the  close  of  the  year. 

The  imports  in  18G8  were  47,174  barrels  sperm,  65,575  barrels  whale  oil,  aud  900,>s~>0  pounds  bone,  against  43,433 
barrels  sperm,  89,289  barrels  whale  oil  and  1.001,397  pounds  bone,  in  1867,  showing  an  increase  of  sperm  oil,  but  a 
considerable  decrease  of  whale  oil  and  bone. 

The  exports  for  18(18  were  18,916  barrels  sperm,  9,885  barrels  whale  oil,  and  707,882  pounds  whalebone,  against 
25,147  barrels  sperm,  18,253  barrels  whale  oil,  and  717,796  pounds  whalebone  in  1867,  showiug  a  marked  decrease 
especially  of  sperm  aud  whale  oil,  but  it  should  be  stated  that  about  4,500  barrels  sperm  oil  purchased  in  December 
for  export  have  not  beeu  cleared  at  the  New  York  custom-house. 

The  home  consumption  of  sperm  oil  in  1863  was  19,055  barrels;  of  whale  oil,  72,390  barrels,  aud  of  whalebone, 
246,968  ponuds.  In  1867  it  was  22,986  barrels  sperm  ;  58,836  barrels  whale  oil,  and  181,600  pounds  whalebone,  showing 
a  decrease  of  sperm  oil,  but  a  very  satisfactory  increase  of  whale  oil  and  -whalebone. 

The  stock  of  oils  aud  whalebone  on  hand  January  1,  1869,  was  13,000  barrels  sperm,  16,700  barrels  whale  oil,  and 
and  200,000  pounds  bone,  against  8,000  pounds  sperm,  33,400  barrels  whale,  and  274,000  pounds  bone  same  time 
1868. 

TRADE   I'.EVIEW   FOR   1869. 

Review  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1869. — The  year  1869  has  not  proved  a  satisfactory  one  to  those  engaged  in  the  whale  . 
fishery.  It  opened  with  good  prices  for  oils  and  bone,  which  were  well  sustained  through  the  summer,  since  which 
time,  owing  to  increased  stocks,  depression  in  business  everywhere,  caused  by  the  New  York  gold  panic  iu  September, 
and  the  favorable  news  from  the  Arctic  Ocean,  there  has  been  a  general  decline  to  present  quotations  of  $1.55  for 
.-perm,  70  cents  for  humpback,  85  cents  for  Arctic  oil,  and  85  cents,  gold,  for  Arctic  bone,  equal  to  about  $1  currency, 
tin-  decline  for  the  year  being  about  2.~>  per  cent.  During  the  summer  about  25,000  barrels  refined  seal  oil  were 
imported  from  the  provinces  ami  brought  here  by  our  manufacturers,  thereby  displacing  from  consumption  an  equal 
quantity  of  whale  oil,  which  is  now  held  by  our  importers,  and  which  acroruts  for  the  excess  of  the  present  stock 
over  that  of  a  year  ago.  The  seal  oil,  which  is  of  inferior  consistency  to  whale,  is  said  to  have  been  largely  mixed 
with  whale  aud  lard  oils,  thereby  prejudicing  {\\,~  reputation  of  pure  whale  and  lard  oils.  The  increased  import  of 
whale  oil  in  l.-'69  over  l.-Ji;-J  was  mainly  owing  to  the  sending  home  from  the  Sandwich  Islands  of  oil  caught  in  the 
previous  years,  only  about  3,000  barrels  having  been  carried  north  by  the  fleet  in  1869,  against  14,000  barrels  in  1868. 
The  generally  unprofitable  results  of  voyages  terminated  during  the  year,  coupled  with  the  low  prices  now  ruling, 
are  not  favorable  to  the  present  fitting  of  the  vessels  in  port  which  constitute  over  one-sixth  of  our  small  fleet. 

Of  the  one  hundred  aud  two  whalers  that  have  arrived  during  the  year,  only  about  one  quarter  may  be  said  to 
have  made  profitable  returns;  eveu  those,  at  present  prices,  would  barely  have  saved  their  owners  from  a  loss.  . 

The  new  year  opens  with  another  reduction  in  the  fleet,  both  iu  number  of  vessels  and  tonnage.  The  whole 
number  of  American  vessels  engaged  in  the  whale  fishery  January  1,  1870,  is  218  ships  aud  barks,  22  brigs,  81  schooners, 


148 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 


with  73,137  tons,  against  223  ships  and  barks,  25  brigs,  88  schooners,  with  74,519  tons  same  time  in  1869,  showing  a 
decrease  of  15  vessels  and  1,362  tons,  only  25  of  which  grows  out  of  remeasurement.  As  showing  the  extraordinary 
falling  off  in  ten  years,  we  give  the  following  figures: 


Ships  and 
barks. 

Brigs. 

Schooners. 

Tonnage. 

1870         

218 

22 

81 

73,  137 

I860               

508 

19 

42 

176,  842 

This  is  an  apparent  difference  of  103,705  tons,  but  owing  to  loss  by  remeasurenient,  the  actual  loss  in  tonnage  in 
93,095  tons;  showing  in  the  ten  years  a  decrease  of  55  per  cent.  We  predict  a  further  deduction  in  the  fleet  the 
present  year,  unless  prices  materially  improve.  At  present  there  are  eight  whalers  at  this  port  for  sale,  and  a  large 
number  of  schooners  at  Provincetown  and  other  ports. 

The  Atlantic  fishery,  taken  as  a  whole,  was  less  successful  than  in  former  years,  the  average  catch  being  12  per 
cent,  less  than  for  three  years  previous,  while  the  instances  of  good  catches  have  been  largely  reduced. 

We  give  below  a  statement  of  the  Atlantic  sperm  fishery  for  the  past  four  years : 


Number  of 
vessels. 

Total  catch. 

Average. 

1866 

150 

Barrels. 
20,  594 

Barrels. 
137 

1867 

154 

18,  809 

123 

1868 

150 

18  206 

122 

1869 

158 

17,  672 

112 

About  one-fourth  of  the  catch  was  taken  in  the  South  Atlantic. 

The  fleet  to  cruise  in  the  North  and  South  Atlantic  will  not  probably  exceed  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  vessels, 
against  an  average  of  three  years  previously  of  one  hundred  and  fifty-four  vessels;  this  being  brought  about  by  the 
reduced  average  catch  and  reduced  prices,  and  is  chiefly  shown  in  the  Provincetown  fleet,  where  seven  have  already 
been  withdrawn  and  fifteen  others  are  in  port  there,  a  number  of  which  it  is  contemplated  withdrawing. 

The  Indian  Ocean,  New  Holland,  and  Soloo  Sea  grounds  have  been  visited  by  the  usual  number  of  vessels,  but 
only  a  few  have  been  more  than  moderately  successful. 

The  Pacific  fleet  has  been  well  distributed  on  New  Zealand  and  the  West  Coast,  but  has  not  been  as  successful  as 
for  a  few  years  past ;  some  have  done  well  but  the  average  has  been  moderate.  Five  of  the  New  Zealand  fleet  changed 
their  cruising  grounds  and  went  humpbacking,  and  were  successful  in  taking  an  average  of  750  barrels.  A  single 
vessel,  the  bark  Camilla,  has  been  cruising  on  the  old  Japan  ground  with  fair  success. 

The  North  Pacific  fleet  of  1869  comprised  forty-four  American  and  six  foreign  ships,  fifty  in  all,  the  number 
anticipated  in  our  last  review,  agaiust  sixty-eight  vessels  in  1868.  Owing  to  the  scarcity  of  whales  in  the  Arctic  early 
in  the  season,  many  gave  their  attention  to  the  capturing  of  walrus,  and  about  4,000  barrels  of  oil  were  taken  from 
them,  and,  as  in  the  previous  year,  it  was  not  until  late  in  August  that  the  whales  were  found  in  abundance  at  Point 
Barrow,  where  all  present  got  good  fares  of  oil,  the  only  barrier  thereto  being  the  extreme  cold.  The  catch  was  large 
for  the  small  fleet  engaged,  and  gave  an  average  of  990  barrels  oil  and  14,000  pounds  bone.  The  fall  short  in  bone  is 
owing  to  the  walrus  oil  (which  has  no  bone  with  it)  being  included  in  the  whale.  Only  one  vessel  went  to  Bristol 
Bay,  where  she  got  500  barrels  whale  oil  and  2,000  pounds  bone,  and  but  six  to  the  Ochotsk  Sea,  where  whales  were 
scarce,  the  entire  catch  being  2,575  barrels  oil  and  '21,800  pounds  bone,  the  average  being  smaller  than  for  many  pre- 
vious years.  The  bark  Eagle,  of  New  Bedford,  was  totally  lost  in  the  Arctic  in  September,  Laving  taken  1,600  barrels 
oil  and  25,000  pounds  bone,  the  only  serious  disaster  to  the  fleet.  For  a  number  of  years  the  coast  whaling  has  been 
neglected,  but  it  is  expected  that  several  whalers  will  this  winter  visit  the  bays  there,  which  in  former  years  have 
furnished  good  whaling.  The  entire  fleet  visited  the  Sandwich  Islands  last  fall,  except  the  Florida,  which  belongs 
at  San  Francisco.  In  this  connection  we  would  invite  attention  to  the  following  article  from  the  San  Francisco 
Commercial  Herald: 

"  Of  the  large  whaling  fleet  engaged  in  the  Ochotsk  and  Arctic  Seas,  but  a  single  one  visited  this  port  last  year, 
all  the  rest  having  rendezvoused  at  the  Hawaiian  Islands.  A  good  many  of  them  found  fault  with  the  treatment 
accorded  by  the  American  consul,  and  expressed  a  determination  to  come  here  next  season.  At,  least  twenty-five  will 
adopt  that  course,  and  it  would  be  good  policy  to  pass  some  stringent  law  by  which  the  contracts  made  with  their 
crews  could  be  enforced.  The  Florida  is  the  only  vessel  that  entered  the  harbor  from  the  Polar  Seas.  Her  oil  sold  at 
a  high  figure,  say  65  <©  70  cents.  The  bone  was  forwarded  by  rail  to  New  York  at  a  merely  nominal  rate,  say  3£ 
cents  per  pound,  currency.  It  is  said  by  returned  whalemen  who  passed  through  this  city  for  New  Bedford  overland, 
in  December  last,  that  a  considerable  number  of  the  whaling  fleet  will  in  future  resort  to  this  harbor  for  supplies,  &  c., 
presenting,  as  it  does,  advantages  of  markets  and  home  advices  by  telegraph,  besides  monetary  exchanges  and  facili- 
ties that  are  not  elsewhere  attainable," 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  149 

The  Cumberland  and  Hinlsim  liay  fishery  was  very  unsatisfactory,  but  one  fair  catch  having  been  made  of  650 
barrels,  after  an  absence  of  nearly  eighteen  months.  Of  the  six  vessels  wintering  there,  five  are  owned  at  New 
London,  the  other  at  this  port.  The,  brig  Oxford,  of  Fairhaven,  was  totally  lost  in  the  inlet,  and  the  bark  Odd  Fellow, 
of  New  London,  on  her  passage  to  I. be  inlet. 

The  Desolation  sea-elephant  lishery  has  been  satisfactory  to  those  who  have  pursued  it,  it  being  a  specialty  at 
New  London. 

The  Tristan,  Cro/.ettes,  and  Desolation  grounds  were  visited  by  several  of  our  whalers  last  winter,  where  they 
found  few  whales  and  bad  weather,  and  in  two  instances  ouly  were  good  catches*  made. 

The  fleet  the  present  year  will  l>e  distributed  about  as  follows:  In  the  North  and  South  Atlantic,  125 vessels; 
Indian  Ocean.  H  vessels,  and  Paeitie  Ocean,  65  vessels,  making  231  vessels,  which  are  chiefly  sperm  whaling.  In 
Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  lulei.i'i  \eswls;  on  Desolation,  elephanting,  6  vessels;  and  in  the  North  Pacific,  44 
American  and  7  foreign  vessels,  a  total  of  (W  vessels,  exclusively  right  whaling.  There  are  13  vessels  outward  bound, 
and  11  homeward  bound:  and  of  the  number  to  go  north  the  coining  season,  18  vessels  will  be  on  the  fourth,  fifth, 
and  siith  seasons,  sn\  uuusual  number,  involving  a  larger  outlay  than  it'  fitted  at  home  ports. 

The  year  opened  with  a  good  demand  for  sperm  oil  at  §1.75,  and  rose  before  the  close  of  January  to  .$2,  and  the 
market  continued  steady  into  June,  when  the  price  gradually  receded  to  $1.75,  after  which  there  was  a  steady  decline 
to  the  close  of  the  year,  sales  being  made  at  $l.5.~>  per  gallon. 

Whale  oil  opened  at  $1  per  gallon,  and  rapidly  rose  to  $1.20,  when,  upon  the  spring  arrivals  with  a  large  supply, 
the  price  gradually  receded  t,>  $1  and  §1.05,  for  northern,  at  which  price  it  continued  steady  until  the  fall  mouths, 
when  it  further  receded  to  85  ©  90  cents,  which  were  tho  ruling  prices  at  the  close. 

Whalebone  opened  at  75  cents,  gold,  for  new,  and  80  cents,  gold,  for  old,  Arctic,  with  considerable  sales,  and 
promptly  advanced  from  85  cents  to  SI,  gold,  early  in  March.  During  the  summer  months  the  market  remained  steady, 
at  about  $1.30,  currency,  until  October,  when  sales  were  made  at  $1,  gold,  for  Arctic,  and  82  ©  83  cents,  gold,  for 
South  Sea.  Since  then  there  has  been  a  general  decline,  closing  at  85  cents,  gold,  for  Arctic,  and  75  cents,  gold,  for 
South  Sea. 

The  English  review  of  their  oil  market  for  1869  is  encouraging,  as  it  foreshadows  a  good  demand  for  our  staples. 
At  the  commencement  of  the  year  the  stock  of  sperm  oil  was  5,300  barrels,  and  there  was  in  transit  from  this  side 
10,000  barrels,  whereas  at  the  opening  of  this  year  their  stock  was  but  0,000  barrels  and  nothing  going  forward.  The 
import  into  London  in  1869  was  7,200  barrels  from  the  colonies  and  25,500  barrels  from  the  United  States,  a  total  of 
:>-', 700  barrels,  all  of  which  was  cleared  for  consumption  excepting  700  barrels.  The  information  received  here  from 
their  colonies  as  well  as  the  Talcahuano  Meet  (from  which  they  have  drawn  considerable  supply)  lead  us  to  believe 
that  their  increased  supply  for  tho  pant  two  years  of  colonial  oil  cannot  be  relied  upon  for  the  future.  About  4,500 
barrels  whale  oil  were  imported  during  the  year,  and  the  market  closed  very  firm  at  £39  ©  £40  per  tun,  with  but 
little  remaining  in  first  hands.  We  think  we  can  safely  anticipate  a  good  demand  for  sperm  oil  the  present  year. 

The  imports  in  1869  were  47,<j:>ii  barrels  sperm,  85,011  barrels  whale  oil,  and  603,603  pounds  bone,  against  47,174 
barrels  sperm,  65, 575  barrels  whale  oil,  and  900,850  pounds  bone  in  1868,  showing  a  marked  increase  in  whale  oil, 
owing  to  the  sending  home  of  oil  taken  in  previous  years,  but  a  decrease  in  whalebone  of  about  one-third. 

The  exports  in  1869  were  18,645  barrels  sperm,  3,842  barrels  whale  oil,  and  311,605  pounds  bone,  against  18,619 
barrels  sperm,  9,885  barrels  whalo  oil,  and  707,882  pounds  bone  in  1868,  showing  a  large  decrease  in  whale  oil  and 
whalebone. 

The  home  consumption  of  sperm  oil  in  1869  was  17,239  barrels,  of  whale  oil  56,236  barrels,  and  of  whalebone 
197,098  pounds,  when  in  1868  it  iras  19,055  barrels  sperm,  72,390  barrels  whale  oil,  and  246,963  pounds  whalebone. 
The  decrease  in  the  consumption  of  whale  oil  was  consequent  upon  the  large  import  (and  consumption)  of  seal  oil, 
which  we  have  reason  to  believe  will  not  be  repeated. 

The  stock  of  oil  and  whalebone  on  hand  January  1,  1«70,  was  25,052  barrels  sperm,  41,633  barrels  whale  oil,  and 
294,900  pounds  whalebone,  against  13,000  barrels  sperm,  16,700  barrels  whale  oil,  and  200,000  pounds  whalebone  same 
time  in  1869. 

TRADE   REVIEW   FOR   1870. 

Review  of  thr.  whale  fishery  for  1870. — The  year  1870,  like  its  predecessor,  has  been  one  of  poor  returns  to  those  engaged 
in  the  whale  fishery.  The  prices  for  our  staples,  which  at  the  opening  were  considered  uuremunerative,  steadily 
declined  throughout  the  year,  closing  at  the  lowest  quotations  of  any  year  since  Ijt51.  The  decline  in  sperm  oil  was 
owing  to  the  limited  consumption  of  the  article,  together  with  a  large  stock  on  hand  at  the  beginning  of  the  year,  and 
the  unexpected  large  import,  being  about  10,000  barrels  in  excess  of  the  estimate  for  the  year,  while  whale  oil  and  whale- 
bone were  similarly  effected  by  the  introduction  largely  of  co  ,  foreign  market,  caused  by  the 
European  war,  to  which  we  export  largely,  especially  of  bone.  We  note  that  while  tho  importation  of  seal  oil  has  been 
retricted  by  a  higher  tariff,  that  cotton-seed  oil  has  stepped  inio  its  place,  and  claims  its  share  of  consumption,  which 
i-  by  no  means  limited,  75.  in  HI  barrels,  it  is  estimated,  having  been  marketed  the  present  year.  But  few  of  the  returned 
whalers  made  profitable  voyages,  whereas  most  of  tho  voyages  were  uuremunerative,  and  many  very  much  so. 

Because  of  the  poor  results  and  low  prices,  eombined  with  the  high  cost,  of  outfits,  many  were  deterred  from  fitting 
out  their  ships  again,  and  the  fleet  at  home  ports  on  the  new  year  was  largely  in  excess  of  former  years.  Oar  mer- 
chants do  not  look  upon  the  future  of  whaling  with  enconra-  m  disposed  to  distrust  it  as  to  its  pecu- 
niary results,  induced  more  by  extra  -.es  than  inherent,  having  to  add  to  tho  list  of  competitors  lard,  petro- 
leum, and  seal  oil,  that  of  cotton-seed  oil,  said  by  its  advocates  to  bo  but  in  its  infancy. 


ISO  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

The  decline  in  the  number  of  the  fleet  foreshadowed  a  year  ago  has  been  realized,  and  we  have  not  only  a  smaller 
number  now  engaged,  but  of  that  small  number  fully  one-fourth  are  at  home  ports. 

The  Atlantic  fishery  has  furnished  less  sperm  oil  than  in  former  years,  chiefly  owing  to  the  small  number  prose- 
cuting the  business  there,  though,  as  in  former  years,  some  good  fares  were  taken,  six  vessels  in  the  North  Atlantic 
having  averaged  350  barrels.  The  fleet  to  cruise  there  the  present  year  will  be  much  reduced  from  that  of  last  year, 
and  will  probably  not  exceed  one  hundred  vessels. 

The  whole  number  of  American  vessels  engaged  in  the  fishery  January  1,  1871,  is  216  ships  and  barks,  18  brigs,  54 
schooners,  with  69,372  tons,  against  218  ships  and  barks,  22  brigs,  81  shooners,  with  73,137  tons  same  time  in  1870, 
showing  the  large  decrease  for  the  past  year  of  33  vessels,  with  3,765  tons,  which  proceeds  from  the  withdrawal  of 
vessels  from  Newburyport,  Wellfleet,  Groton,  and  largely  from  Provincetown,  the  entire  fleet  at  the  latter  port  being 
27  vessels  against  49  a  year  ago,  and  of  that  number  it  is  thought  7  will  not  be  fitted. 

We  fear  that  a  continuation  of  the  present  low  prices  for  our  staples  will  deter  our  merchants  from  fitting  many 
of  the  whalers  in  port  and  to  arrive,  by  which  the  vessels  disengaged  throughout  the  year  will  be  larger  than  for 
many  years  past. 

On  the  various  sperm-whaling  grounds  the  cases  of  marked  success  in  1870  were  few.  Whales  were  very  scarce 
upon  the  grounds  around  New  Zealand,  which  have  been  more  largely  visited  the  past  year  because  of  the  previous 
marked  success  there.  Many  of  the  sperm  whalers  visited  the  several  right- whaling  and  humpback  grounds,  and  met 
with  good  success,  more  particularly  in  humpbacking.  The  Tristan  and  Crozettes  grounds  were  poor,  with  heavy 
weather,  the  best  cut  being  760  barrels  on  Crozettes,  while  the  average  was  not  probably  over  250  barrels. 

The  North  Pacific  fleet  of  1870  consisted  of  forty-eight  American  and  ten  foreign  vessels,  of  which  two  American, 
the  Hibernia  and  Almira,  and  one  foreign,  the  Japan,  of  Sidney,  New  South  Whales,  were  totally  lost,  the  latter  sup- 
posed, with  all  her  officers  and  crew,  in  the  Arctic.  As  in  the  two  years  previous,  the  whaling  was  done  in  August  and 
September,  and  the  average  catch  was  larger  than  for  many  years.  Whales  were  small  but  very  numerous,  and  it  is 
said  were  never  more  abundant.  The  catch  of  walrus  oil  was  very  large,  being  nearly  10,000  barrels. 

But  one  whaler  visited  the  Ochotsk  Sea,  the  Monticello,  and  took  200  barrels,  and  Bristol  Bay,  the  George,  and 
took  400  barrels. 

Coast  whaling  seems  to  have  been  abandoned.  Ten  whalers  visited  San  Francisco,  the  balance  of  the  fleet  going  to 
Honolulu.  A  new  feature  in  the  transshipment  of  bone  is  that  of  sending  it  "  across  the  continent "  by  rail,  direct  to 
New  Bedford,  at  the  small  cost  of  2  cents  per  pound,  currency. 

At  Honolulu  three  foreign  right  whalers  have  been  withdrawn,  the  business  n  ot  proving  remunerative,  but  in 
San  Francisco  there  is  a  corresponding  increase,  and  a  disposition  manifested  to  extend  further  in  this  branch  of 
whaling. 

The  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet  fishery  was  fair,  the  Milwood  doing  the  best,  having  come  out  with 
1,000  barrels.  The  schooner  Quickstep,  of  New  London,  is  supposed  to  have  been  lost  in  coming  out,  with  all  on 
board. 

The  fleet  is  now  distributed  about  as  follows:  North  and  South  Atlantic,  51  vessels;  Indian  Ocean,  41  vessels ; 
Pacific  Ocean,  65  vessels,  principally  sperm  whaling ;  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet,  5  vessels;  the  remaining 
51  vessels  comprise  the  North  Pacific  fleet,  8  of  which  are  outward  and  20  homeward  bound.  The  North  Pacific  fleet 
for  1871  will  comprise  about  40  ships  of  all  nationalities.  The  total  number  of  vessels  now  at  sea  is  213. 

The  export  of  sperm  oil  to  foreign  countries  in  1870  was  22,773  barrels,  mostly  to  London,  against  18,645  barn-Is 
in  1869,  showing  an  increase  of  4,323  barrels;  but  the  stock  on  hand  at  London,  1st  instant,  was  200  tons  in  excess  of 
the  previous  year.  The  foreign  consumption  of  this  article  lias  not  increased  under  low  prices,  as  was  anticipated, 
which  it  would  seem  was  owing  to  the  European  war,  causing  a  large  falling  off  in  the  demand  for  manufactured 
goods,  but  which  we  think  an  early  peace  will  restore.  The  home  demand  has  materially  increased,  and  we  think  will 
be  maintained  under  present  prices. 

The  year  opened  with  sperm  oil  at  $1.50  ©  $1.55,  and  advanced  in  February  to  *1.(10,  whi'ii,  becoming  in  large 
supply,  it  steadily  declined  throughout  the  year  to  $1.20,  closing  at  if  1.23  ©  £1. •-'•"'. 

Whale  oil  opened  at  70  @  72i  cents,  and  advanced  to  80  cents  in  February,  and  in  July  the  price  had  declined  to 
67  ©  68  cents,  when  it  again  advanced  to  70  cents  in  August,  after  which  it  gradually  declined  to  65  cents,  which  was 
the  nominal  price  at  the  close. 

Whalebone  was  in  good  demand  early  in  the  year  at  85  cents  per  pound,  gold,  for  Arctic,  when  in  May  and  June 
large  sales  were  made  at  80  cents,  gold,  aud  since  July,  when  war  was  declared  in  Europe,  the  price  has  gradually 
declined  to  65  cents  per  pound,  gold,  the  decline  in  price  and  demand  being  consequent  upon  the  two  large  and  only 
consumers,  Franco  aud  Germany,  being  a-t  war.  The  export  to  July  IS,  when  the  war  broke  out,  was  285,000 
pounds,  being  nearly  equal  to  the  entire  previous  year,  and  but  for  this  interruption  we  should  have  probably  had  a 
large  increased  foreign  demand,  and  soon  after  the  declaration  of  peace  we  shall  expect  to  see  the  foreign  dealers  in 
oils  and  bone  turning  their  attention  to  our  staples  at  the  attractively  low  prices  ruling  here. 

The  imports  in  1870  were  55,183  barrels  sperm,  72,691  barrels  whale  oil,  and  708,365  pounds  bone,  against  47,936 
barrels  sperm,  85,011  barrels  whale  oil,  and  603,603  pounds  bone  in  1869,  showing  a  large  increase  in  sperm  oil  and 
whalebone,  but  a  large  decrease  in  whale  oil.  Of  the  imports  of  whale  oil,  4,013  barrels,  and  of  whalebone,  66,000 
pounds,  were  the  catch  of  San  Francisco  vessels. 

The  export  in  1870  was  22,773  barrels  sperm,  9,872  barrels  whale  oil,  and  347,918  pounds  bone,  against  18,645 
barrels  sperm,  3,842  barrels  whale  oil,  and  311,605  pounds  bone  in  1869,  showing  an  increase  in  each  article. 


THK  WHALE  FISHERY.  151 

'flu*  home  consumption  <>l's|>rrm  oil  in  ls;o  was  •.'.-<. s|_>  barrels  a.ud  of  whale  oil  64,812  barrels,  and  of  whalebono 
-•Jii.'JlT  pounds,  when  in  18(>9  it  was  17. '.':!!_)  barrels  sperm,  5b',236  barrels  whale  oil,  and  197,098  pounds  bone,  showing 
a  gratifying  increase  the  past  year. 

The  sMick  of  oil  and  bone  on  hand  .January  1,  1871,  was  26,650  barrels  sperm,  36,000  barrels  wbale  oil,  and 
400,000  pounds  bone.  exclusive  of  ;;.?.'()  barrels  whale  oil  and  27,500  pounds  bone  held  in  San  Francisco,  against 
•J."i,0.vj  barrels  sperm,  41,03:5  barrels  whale  oil,  and  294,000  pounds  bone  same  time  in  1870. 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR  1871. 

Keru'w  ill'  tin-  wlitilc Jixlicri/for  1871. — We  have,  to  n-cord  another  year  of  poor  success  in  the  whale  fishery,  both  as 
concerns  oil  taken  and  pecuniary  results,  only  about  twenty-four  vessels  out.  of  ninety-one  returned  having  met  with 
good  success  in  taking  oil,  and  scarcely  ten  of  the  whole  fleet  having  left  their  owners  any  gains  in  the  net  results  of 
the  voyages  terminated;  the  average  low  prices  ruling  for  oil  and  bone  for  the  first  ten  months  of  the  year,  when 
most  of  onr  arrivals  occurred,  tending  to  this  result,  and  the  large  advance  brought  about  by  the  almost  total  disaster 
to  our  Arctic  fleet  coming  too  late  to  change  such  results.  Sperm  oil  from  its  own  weight  of  heavy  stock  on  hand  at 
the  opening  of  the  year,  and  the  frequent  arrivals  during  the  first  half  of  the  year,  continued  to  sag  from  $1.40  in 
February  to  $1.22  in  July  and  August,  when,  under  a  good  foreign  demand  and  some  speculative  inquiry,  it  reacted 
in  September  and  advanced  in  October  to  f  1.30,  and  with  a  good  home  demand,  stimulated  by  erroneous  views  of 
consumers  in  the  manufacturing  districts,  as  to  the  kind  of  disaster  \ve  had  met  with,  it  was  put  up  to  $1.60,  where  it 
stood  at  the  closing  day  of  the  year.  An  impression  gained  credence  with  some  consumers  in  this  country  and  Europe 
that  our  sperm-whale  fishery  was  the  sufferer,  and  the  whaling  business  severely  crippled  ;  whereas  our  wharves  had 
thiny  ships  lying  at  them  for  sale,  and  which  the  loss  of  ships  in  the  Arctic  simply  made  a  partial  market  for.  With 
so  great  a  loss  of  vessels,  we  have  with  us  for  sale  at  least  ten  good  ships,  the  owners  not  feeling  willing  to  embark  in 
new  voyages  with  them. 

The  consumption  of  sperm  oil  has  been  rather  more  than  last  year,  say  56,000  barrels,  of  which  22,000  barrels  were 
exported  to  Great  Britain,  more  than  usual  going  to  Glasgow.  The  London  market  received  from  the  colonies  800 
tnus,  which  was  more  than  for  either  of  the  three  preceding  years.  The  stock  on  hand  in  London,  December  31,  was 
b'30  tuns,  au  average  of  the  stocks  for  the  three  preceding  years,  and  200  tuns  were  also  being  lauded  from  New  York 
for  refiners.  The  home  consumption  in  1871  was  about  34,000  barrels,  against  29,000  ban-els  in  1870,  showing  the 
increased  consumption  of  1871  over  1870  to  have  been  in  this  country. 

The  import  of  sperm  oil  was  8,000  barrels  less  than  was  looked  for  at  the  beginning  of  the  year,  which  is  due 
rather  to  the  poor  whaling,  and  not  to  delay  of  the  whalers  out  in  returning  home.  We  have  a  much  smaller  stock 
than  for  1871  to  open  the  year  with,  say  14,500  barrels,  and  can  hardly  expect  as  large  an  import  in  1872  as  in  1871,  as 
the  fleet  is  much  smaller,  and  must  so  remain  for  the  present,  while  some  few  sperm  whalers  may  go  to  the  Aictic 
Ocean  and  some  whalers  here  may  be  sent  to  the  same  place  this  year.  With  the  low  prices  ruling  in  1871  for  lard, 
cotton-seed,  and  petroleum  oils,  it  would  seem  that  sperm  oil  has  its  own  place  to  till  at  a  fail  price,  regardless  of 
su hsti tines,  and  better  success  iu  finding  sperm  oil  would  no  doubt  encourage  some  owners  of  vessels  to  fit  them  again 
at  present  prices.  The  sperm  oil  on  board  of  whalers,  already  caught,  is  about  33,000  barrels,  against  36,000  barrels 
the  year  previous. 

There  will  be  an  increase  in  Provincetowu  whalers  fitted  this  spring,  several  of  them  having  been  temporarily 
engaged  iu  the  coasting  business. 

The  destruction  of  thirty-three  Arctic  whalers  out  of  forty  cruising  in  the  Arctic  in  1871  will  work  a  new 
experience  to  us  in  the  way  of  importation  iu  1872,  as  but  two  Arctic  whalers  will  arrive  this  year,  the  ships  Daniel 
Webster  here,  and  Europa  at  Edgartown,  and  the  arrival  of  Arctic  oil  will  be  only  about  2,300  banels.  We  can 
hardly  hope  to  import  more  than  30,000  barrels  whale  oil  from  all  quarters  in  1872,  which  would  unly  give  a  supply 
of  60,000  barrels  for  the  year,  against  110,000  in  1871.  The  market  will  be  cleared  before  another  import  of  Arctic- 
oil  can  be  caught,  unless  the  extreme  views  of  holders  may  lead  to  I  he  importation  of  seal  oil  to  bo  caught  this 
spiiug,  and  a  supply  of  cotton-seed  oil.  which  shall  make  up  for  our  lar<;e  deficiency.  Since  the  news  was  received  of 
the  Arctic  disaster  wo  have  fitted  and  sent  to  the  Arctic  six  ships,  and  one  from  New  London,  of  which  four  were 
toimerly  sperm  whalers.  Of  the  eleven  whalers  fitted  aud  which  sailed  for  the  Arctic  previous  to  the  news  of  the 
loss,  live  were  sperm  whalers;  three  sperm,  whalers  have  been  ordered  to  the  Arctic  from  speim-whale  grounds.  The 
Faraway,  owned  in  Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  has  sailed  from  Honolulu,  under  command  of  Captain  Herendeen, 
formerly  of  the  Mary,  of  Edgartowu,  for  the  Arctic.  TUe  fleet  of  1872  will  com pn-  -ix  vessels,  of  which  only 

three  Americans  and  one  Hawaiian  were  there  in  1871.  San  Francisco  will  probably  have  no  whalers  there,  under- 
writers in  San  Francisco  declining  to  insure  on  them  ;  their  past  ,  ''ing  to  them  almost  a  fatality,  they 
having  had  to  pay  for  every  Arctic  whaler  that  has  heretofore  fitted  from  Ihai  port. 

Wha'e  oil  lias  been  in  good  demand,  both  for  home  use  and  export,  though  the  market  was  a  declining  one, 
Mom  65  cents  iu  January  to  50  ©  54  cents  in  July,  and  until  the  November  news  of  the  loss  of  the  Arctic  whalers, 
when  the  maiket  was  entirely  demoralized,  more  from  insurance  and  other  questions  pending  solution  than  any 
other  pressing  want  to  bay  or  anxiety  to  sell  at  the  advance.  When  the  excitement  was  allayed  sales  -were  made 
of  Arctic  at  75  @  80  cents,  which  is  the  current  price.  The  consumption  has  equaled  the  previous  year,  G4,000 
barrels  being  used  here,  and  18,000  barrels  exported  to  France. 

Seal  oil  has  not  interfered  with  us  during  the  year,  ouly  one  cargo  American  catch  coming  to  this  country. 
Cotton-seed  oil  has  been  in  the  market,  but  the  low  juices  ha\i:  unquestionably  discouraged  the  manufacturers  of  it, 
with  similar  results  in  their  experience  as  by  our  whaling  owners. 


j52  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Whalebone  has  continued  in  good  demand  during  the  year,  although  at  low  prices,  the  prices  ranging  from  65 
cents,  gold,  early  in  the  year,  to  79  cents,  gold,  in  October,  when  the  ten  months'  sales  having  more  than  aggregated 
our  imports,  and  the  disastrous  Arctic  news  having  come  to  hand,  holders  being  few  in  number,  put  their  prices  to 
$2  per  pound.  Sales  were  made  of  South  Sea  at  $1.70  and  Arctic  at  $1.75  @  $1.85,  and  the  year  closed  with  a  stock  of 
290,000  pounds,  held  at  $1.90  ©  $2.  There  can  be  no  import  of  bone  in  1872  except  of  South  Sea  and  Cumberland, 
and  possibly  an  early  arrival  of  Arctic,  all  nncaught  as  yet. 

There  has  been  a  large  reduction  in  our  email  whaling  fleet,  and  of  the  thirty-fonr  vessels  now  in  port  half  are  for 
sale,  and  some  to  arrive  will  probably  change  hands  before  being  fitted  again.  Could  present  prices  be  assured  for  three 
years  to  come  probably  nearly  every  vessel  would  go  to  sea,  but  with  the  uncertainty  in  prices,  partly  from  substi- 
tutes and  low  prices  of  them,  only  good  prices  can  be  hoped  for  and  not  counted  upon.  There  were  no  whalers  in 
Ochotsk  Sea  or  on  Kodiac  last  season.  The  Arctic  fleet  had  done  well  up  to  the  time  of  their  having  been  lost ; 
whales  were  plenty  and  the  prospects  good  for  a  large  average.  The  oil  abandoned  with  the  ships  was  about  12,000 
barrels,  and  about  100,000  pounds  of  bone.  The  natives  were  at  work  saving  the  bone  when  last  seen,  and  it 
is  expected  that  by  trading  with  them  that  at  least  50,000  pounds  may  be  got  of  them  within  three  years.  It  is  not 
improbable  that  some  of  the  ships  may  be  found  near  where  abandoned,  but  not  at  a  time  nor  in  such  condition  as  to 
make  it  an  object  to  save  them.  The  salvors  would  hardly  expect  to  save  more  than  half  to  themselves  of  the 
property  recovered,  and  good  whaling  would  offer  better  results. 

The  Atlantic  fishery  has  been  a  fair  one  to  the  small  fleet  cruising  there.  The  weather  has  been  rugged  late  in  the 
season.  The  best  catch  was  made  by  the  Commodore  Morris,  of  New  Bedford,  1,200  barrels  sperm  oil  in  nineteen 
months,  550  barrels  this  season ;  others  have  done  well.  The  South  Atlantic  fleet  have  done  well  sperm  whaling  and 
humpbacking.  The  fleet  took  3,000  barrels  humpback  oil  on  the  coast  of  Africa.  The  Nautilus,  of  New  Bedford, 
took  800  barrels,  the  best  catch. 

The  Indian  Ocean  and  Crozettes  have  furnished  nothing  extraordinary  ;  nor  have  the  Soolo  Sea  and  New  Holland 
given  their  usual  share  of  oil.  The  New  Zealand  fleet  has  done  well  tperm  whaling  and  humpbacking,  nearly  5,000 
barrels  of  humpback  oil  having  been  taken  on  Brampton  Shoals;  the  Cleone,  of  New  Bedford,  having  taken  1,000 
barrels.  The  West  Coast  whaling  has  been  only  fair  sperm  whaling,  while  in  humpbacking  some  good  cuts  have 
been  made,  aggregating  nearly  5,000  barrels.  Panama  Bay  was  alive  with  humpbacks  in  the  season  of  them,  and  one 
coast  whaler  took  1,000  barrels.  Margueritta  Bay  has  not  been  visited,  though  in  former  years  it  furnished  great 
attractions  to  our  ArcticTleet  between  seasons. 

Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet  has  barely  sustained  its  average,  though  the  Ansel  Gibbs,  of  New  Bedford, 
returned  with  1,300  barrels  of  oil  and  22.000  pounds  of  bone — the  only  good  catch,  and  paying  one,  and  perhaps  the 
best  paying  one  of  the  year  in  its  percentage.  The  Scotch  Greenland  fishery  was  very  successful ;  they  report  some 
catches  of  2,000  barrels  to  a  vessel — steamers. 

The  Desolation  voyages  have  been  a  sharer  with  all  the  other  kinds  of  whaling  in  having  less  oil  taken  and  less 
price  received  than  the  owners  found  profitable.  The  year  in  a  general  view  outside  the  Arctic  disaster,  which  was 
unforeseen  and  unexpected,  has  been  fully  as  discouraging  as  any  former,  and  if  extreme  prices,  caused  by  our  loss,  do 
not  raise  up  enemies  to  our  future  interest  in  substitutes,  then  we  may  hope  for  better  days  to  those  whose  courage 
keeps  them  in  the  way  of  whaling  because  they  believe  we  shall  see  a  return  of  prosperity  in  this  branch  of  creative 
industry. 

The  promptness  with  which  the  Commercial  Mutual  Marine  and  Union  Mutual  Marine  Insurance  Companies  have 
had  their  resources  reinforced  by  stock  notes,  the  former  by  $110,000  and  the  latter  by  $300,000,  shows  that  our  pres- 
ent and  former  owners  in  whaling,  who  have  come  to  the  rescue  to  replenish  the  enormous  losses  by  the  Arctic  disaster, 
believe  in  a  future  of  whaling,  if  not  as  extensive  as  in  the  past  at  least  partially  as  remunerative. 

* 

TRADE  REVIEW  FOR  1872. 

J?ert«o  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1872. — The  year  just  closed  has  been  but  a  continuance  of  the  former  one  in  results, 
few  prizes  and  many  blanks.  With  a  small  and  steadily  declining  fleet,  we  have  been  suable  to  proportionately  gain 
in  average  quantity  of  oil  taken  or  in  reaching  more  satisfactory  results.  Those  who  began  the  year  with  the  inten- 
tion of  selling  whalers  have  seen  nothing  so  encouraging  in  the  business  as  to  induce  them  to  change  their  minds, 
and  though  only  seven  of  the  fourteen  ships  then  for  sale  were  sold  during  the  year,  yet  others  since  arrived  have 
been  sold,  and  we  have  now  at  home  ports  some  seventeen  more  good  whalewliips  known  to  be  for  sale,  their  owners 
not  intending  to  fit  them  again.  The  great  loss  of  whalers  in  the  Arctic  in  1871  has  been  followed  by  the  sale  of 
twenty  and  loss  of  four  whalers  in  1872,  exclusive  of  ships  that  have  changed  hands  in  the  business,  aud  still  we  begin 
the  year  1873  with  about  one-third  of  the  whalers  at  home  ports  for  sale,  or  about  seventeen  out  of  forty-eight  vessels. 
The  continued  purpose  to  sell  whalers  after  so  great  a  depletion  in  little  more  than  a  year  shows  the  judgment  of 
those  who  have  long  and  successful'y  been  engaged  in  the  business,  viz,  that  it  has  become  too  hazardous,  and  its 
results  too  uncertain  to  continue  it,  when  capital  is  promised  a  safer  employment  and  surer  rewards- in  enterprises 
on  the  land,  and  in  our  own  city,  where  the  products  of  two  large  cotton  mills  equal  very  nearly  the  aggregate  value 
of  the  imports  of  the  fishery  yearly.  There  are  those  who  think  that  the  Arctic  whaling  will  be  given  up  in  a  few 
years  because  of  the  perils  attendant  on  whaling  there,  where  ice  has  to  be  encountered,  with  extreme  cold  and  severe 
storms,  and  from  which  causes  shipwrecks  and  damage  to  hulls  are  very  common.  This  view  is  confirmed  by  the 
recent  action  of  our  insurance  companies  in  charging  3  per  cent,  extra  each  season  on  whalers  visiting  that  ocean,  ( 
ttep  long  contemplated  but  now  felt  necessary  by  the  insmance  companies. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  153 

The  fleet  starts  to-day  with  two  handred  and  three  vessels  in  the  business,  against  t\\o  hundred  and  eighteen  a 
year  ago.  and  two  hundred  anil  eighty-eight  two  years  ago,  showing  a  decrease  of  15  per  cent,  per  annum  for  two 
years  past.  Auother  installment  of  15  PIT  ei-ni.  in  s.ile of  ships  during  1873  wo  tUink  would  reconcile  interested 
parties  for  tin-  time  to  t  ho  present  condition  of  the  business.  Of  nine  vessels  (schooners)  added  to  the  flee.t  in  1872 
seven  had  previously  been  temporarily  withdrawn,  and  two  were  bought  to  engage  in  the  South  Shetland  whaling 
and  sealing  business,  which  was  revived  last,  year  with  considerable,  prolit,  the  skins  being  the  finest  fur  seals  known. 

The  24  whalers  sold  and  lost  represented  5,192  tons,  while  the  9  schooners  added  show  only  706  tons.  The  fleet 
at  sea  January  1,  187:i,  numbers  155  vessels,  against  165  a  year  ago.  We  had  employed  in  1853  571  vessels,  with  a 
tonnage  of  200,286,  averaging  350  tons;  in  18G3,  357  vessels,  with  a  tonnage  of  103,146,  averaging  288  tons;  in  1873, 
•JO;;  vessels,  with  a  tonnage  of  47,99li,  averaging  236  tons.  The  comparison  shows  a  large  reduction  iu  number  of 
vessels,  also  a  reduction  in  the  average  size  of  the  ships  employed.  The  largest  ileet,  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  was  in  1854, 
when  2:>2  ships  were  there  and  obtained  1-4,063  barrels  whale  oil,  averaging  794  barrels.  The  largest  quantity  of 
sperm  oil  was  imported  in  1853,  103,077  barrels,  averaging  iu  price  $1.24.  The  largest  quantity  of  whale  oil  was 
imported  in  1S.M,  :;-Js,  isl  barrels,  averaging  45  cents.  The  largest  quantity  of  whalebone  imported  was  in  1853, 
5. (',:,•_', :;00  pounds,  averaging  34  cents,  gold. 

These  figures  serve  to  show  how  great  a  change  the  whale  fishery  has  undergone  at  horn  e  and  among  consumers. 
Our  entire  import  of  sperm  and  whale  oil  in  1872  was  about  three-fourths  of  our  import  of  sperm  in  1853  and  about 
one- fourth  of  our  import  of  whale  in  1851 ;  and  our  import  of  -whalebone  in  1872  was  about  one  twenty-eighth  of  the 
import  of  1^53. 

In  twenty  years  the  consumption  of  sperm  oil  has  reduced  one-half,  at  same  prices,  103,000  against  45,000  barrels. 
In  whale  it  is  reduced  five-sixths,  at  an  increased  price  of  20  per  cent.,  328,000  barrels  against  50,000  barrels;  and  in 
whalebone  it  is  reduced  nine-tenths,  with  an  increased  price  of  100  per  cent.,  5,652,300  pounds  against  500,000  pounds. 
We  do  not  get  oil  and  whalebone  enough  in  the  average  to  get  our  money  back,  and  those  who  get  the  largest  catches 

>mpetitiou  prices  have  failed  to  make  money.  And  so  onr  oldest  and  most  successful  ship-owners  are  willing  to 
.sell  their  ships.  But  there  are  a  few  firms  who,  having  fine  ships  and  good  and  skillful  masters,  are  resolute  and  deter- 

•d  not  to  succumb  to  the  untoward  elements  in  the  business  until  they  have  tested  the  matter  thoroughly,  and  to 
such  we  believe  success  will  come  and  should  come. 

No  whaling  grounds  have  been  abandoned ;  every  sea  and  ocean  is  at  present  explored  by  our  whalers.  The 
Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet  whaling  was  a  failure,  some  seven  vessels  being  there  and  obtaining  only  about 
I , ..no  barrels  oil.  The  bark  Milwood  -was  lost  there,  the  crew  being  saved,  also  her  cargo  of  150  barrels  oil  and  1,600 
pounds  of  bone.  Three  whalers  are  wintering  in  Hudson  Bay  and  three  in  Cumberland  Inlet. 

The  Arctic  Ocean  was  visited  by  twenty-eight  American  and  four  foreign  whalers,  and  though  the  September 
whaling,  which  is  usually  the  best,  was  a  failure,  still  the  fleet  averaged  700  barrels  oil  and  10,UOO  pounds  of  bone. 
Xearly  5,000  barrels  walrus  oil  was  taken  in  the  Arctic,  though  some  masters,  who  were  disposed  to  give  up  walrus- 
ing,  abstained  from  it.  The  bark  Roscoe  was  totally  lost,  crew  saved.  The  Helen  Snow  and  Sea  Breeze  were  aban- 
doned :  the  former  was  found  by  the  Jireh  Perry,  and  a  crew  put  on  board  of  her,  and  sent  to  San  Francisco,  where 
she  has  since  been  sold  to  the  Alaska  Sealing  Company.  The  latter  ship  was  recovered  again  by  her  crew,  and 
continued  her  whaling.  The  Live  Oak,  Joseph  Maxwell,  and  Arnolda  were  badly  stove,  but  reached  port  safely. 
The  bark  Florence  went  up  to  the  wrecked  whalers  and  secured  the  Minerva,  also  250  barrels  sperm,  1,200  barrels 
whale  oil,  and  15,000  pounds  of  bone,  and  brought  them  all  to  San  Francisco.  Other  bone  was  traded  for  and  came 
to  San  Francisco ;  in  all  about  50,000  pounds. 

Humpbacking  has  been  successfully  carried  on  everywhere.  In  Panama  Bay  10,000  barrels  were  taken ;  at 
Harper's  and  Tonga  Islands  and  Chesterfield  Shoals,  8,000  barrels ;  on  the  coast  of  Africa,  2,000  barrels ;  and  around 
the  West  Indies,  2,000  barrels;  in  all  22,000  barrels  and  equal  to  the  entire  Arctic  catch.  Not  much  was  done  on 
Crozettes  and  Desolation.  Only  two  whalers  arrived  from  the  Arctic  Ocean  in  1872,  being  of  the  seven  saved  from 
the  fleet  of  1871.  A  fair  catch  was  made  sea  elephanting  and  sealing. 

The  Arctic  fleet  for  1873  will  number  about  thirty-two  vessels.  Two  whalers  only  return  home,  and  one  goes  to 
New  Zealand.  Six  ships  left  this  port  in  1872  to  join  the  Arctic  fleet.  One  or  two  ships  may  go  to  the  Ocbotsk  Sea 
this  year,  which  has  not  been  visited  by  whalers  since  1870.  One  firm,  who  lost  all  three  ships  in  the  Arctic  in  1871, 
has  sent  out  three  to  replace  them  in  the  season  of  1873.  There  were  no  whalers  on  Kodiac  in  1871  or  1872.  It  is 
possible  Margueritta  Bay  may  be  visited  this  winter  by  one  or  two  of  our  Arctic  fleet. 

Sperm  whaling  lias  been  but  partially  snceessful  in  the'  Atlantic.  Several  good  cuts  were  obtained,  and  the 
whaling  was  very  fair,  but  it  was  poor  in  the  South  Atlantic.  In  Indian  Oceau,  on  New  Zealand,  and  the  west  coast 
of  South  America,  wit*  few  exceptions,  the  sperm-whale  fleet  has  been  largely  engaged  in  hnmpbacking  between 
seasons,  with  good  lares,  as  before  stated.  As  nearly  three-fourths  of  the  fleet  is  sperm  whaling,  there  is  a  reasonable 
prospect  of  having  a  good  supply,  at  least  so  long  as  whales  can  be  found  :  and  this  branch  of  onr  business  promises 
to  survive,  as  substitutes  are  not  so  readily  found  as  for  whale  oil,  and  the  Ileet  is  well  distributed  on  all  the  known 
{•rounds  for  sperm  whaling.  Some  good  catches  have  been  secured  during  the  year,  ami  in  most  eases  were  needed 
to  put  their  respective  vessels  in  creditable  position. 

The  stock  of  sperm  oil  on  board  of  whalers  now  is  about  -J7,OM>  barrels,  against  33,000  barrels  a  year  ago. 

Last  fall  twenty-two  ont  of  thirty-two  ships  from  the  Arctic  came  to  San  Francisco  and  seven  went  to  Honolulu, 
and  two  home  to  Sydney  ;  fourteen  of  the  San  fleet  were  met  there  by  their  agents,  comprising  some  ten  of 

our  merchants,  part  of  them  taking  their  wives  with  them.  In  part  owing  to  difficulties  in  shipping  oil  home  from 
there,  five  ships  were  ordered  to  Panama  to  land  and  ship  home  their  cargoes  ;  four  were  ordered  direct  to  Honolulu, 


154  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

ami  two,  after  refitting  for  the  north,  sailed  to  cruise  and  touch  at  the  islands  in  the  .spring.  The  high  rate  offered 
for  grain  freights  absorhed  all  the  available  ships.  The  whaler  Minerva,  saved  from  the  wreck  of  1871,  was  bought 
by  two  of  our  merchants,  and  loaded  with  oil  for  home.  Also  the  Lagoda  and  Tamerlane  took  freight  for  home. 

Sperm  oil  has  been  in  good  demand  during  the  year.  The  import  was  45,000  barrels,  5,000  to  7,000  barrels  more 
than  was  anticipated.  We  consumed  the  entire  amount,  and  drew  on  stock  at  the  commencement  of  the  year  foi 
3,000  barrels.  Yet  there  was  a  falling  otf  of  7,000  barrels  in  the  consumption  as  compared  with  the  previous  year. 
The  price  opened  high  at  $1.60,  and  during  the  summer  declined  to  §1.35,  when  in  the  fall  it  strengthened  to  $1.50, 
where  it  btood  at  the  opening  of  this  year.  A  few  sales  were  reported  at  $1.52-J  ©  $1.55.  The  consumption  has  been 
about  equally  divided  between  home  and  foreign  demand,  and  the  fall  off  has  been  in  this  country,  probably  induced 
by  the  abundance  and  low  price  of  lard  oil.  With  the  oil  caught  and  at  home  we  have  promise  of  a  good  supply 
this  year. 

Messrs.  Bowes,  Game  &  Co.'s  Annual  Market  Report,  reports  the  importation  of  sperm  oil  into  the  United  King- 
dom in  1872  at  3,423  tons,  against  3,811  tons  in  1871.  During  the  demand  from  January  to  April  the  price  advanced 
from  £91  to  £100,  and  when  that  fell  off  it  declined  in  September  to  £85.  The  consumption  was  3,595  tuns  in  1872, 
against  3,823  tuns  in  1871.  The  stock  on  hand  January  1,  1873,  was  609  tuns  against  849  tuns  January  1,  1872.  The 
consumption  fell  off  in  1872  228  tuns,  and  the  stock  to  open  the  year  with  was  reduced  180  tons.  Messrs.  Maclean, 
Maris  &  Co.'s  circular  shows  the  imports  from  the  colonies  in  1872  to  be  722  tuns,  being  nearly  one-half  of  the  import 
of  the  United  States. 

Whale  oil  has  been  in  moderate  demand  with  small  supply.  The  import  was  very  small,  31,075  barrels,  conse- 
quent upon  the  loss  of  the  Arctie  fleet  in  the  fall  of  1871.  Only  two  right  whalers  returned  during  the  year,  and  the 
import  was  little  more  than  one-third  that  of  the  previous  year,  when  it  was  75,000  barrels.  The  supply  was  61,000 
barrels  whale,  and  consumption  45,000  barrels,  against  80,000  barrels  in  1871.  The  consumption  of  whale  oil  has  not 
been  reduced  by  seal  oil,  for  none  has  come  here  from  the  provinces,  nor  from  fish  oils,  for  the  catch  has  been  a  small 
one,  not  over  two-thirds  that  of  previous  years,  but  rather  from  lard  and  petroleum,  which  have  been  plenty,  good, 
and  cheap. 

The  year  opened  at  73  cents  for  Arctic  oil,  and  eased  during  the  summer  to  66  ©  68  cents,  when  humpback  oil 
arrived  in  large  quantities,  and  was  taken  in  preference,  because  of  its  lower  cost,  say  60  ©  62^  cents.  Since  the 
Boston  fire,  in  which  8,000  barrels  fish  oil  were  lost,  causing  tanners  to  buy  some  of  our  oil,  rather  better  figures  were 
obtained  closing  at  68  cents  for  Arctic,  and  a  small  stock  of  16,500  barrels  of  all  kinds.  There  was  but  little  whale 
oil  exported  in  1872,  say  1,528  barrels. 

The  London  circulars  call  the  import  of  whale  oil  there  80  tuns,  and  the  stock  on  hand  January  1,  1873,  47  tuns. 
Also,  imports  of  seal  oil  there  822  tuns,  and  the  stock  on  hand  January  1,  1873,  152  tuns. 

Whalebone  was  in  good  supply  at  the  opening  of  the  year,  about  285,000  pounds;  but  with  little  to  come  during 
the  year,  or  until  the  new  Arctic  arrivals  late  in  the  year,  and  which  amounted  to  132,000  pounds.  Only  about  60,00(1 
pounds  came  from  all  other  sources,  including  South  Sea  and  Cumberland.  Small  sales  were  made  early  in  the  year, 
at  ^1.90  per  pound  and  then  it  declined  to  $1.75  and  $1.50  by  May,  and  in  June  it  was  sold  at  $1,  gold,  to  $1.20,  cur- 
rency, since  which  it  has  been  steady  at  $1.15  ©  $1.20,  closing  the  year  at  $1.18  for  old.  The  first  MX  months  the 
sales  were  about  50,000  pounds,  but  when  prices  got  down  to  $1,  gold,  the  sales  for  the  remaining  s^x  months  were 
about  200,000  pounds,  of  which  consumption  of  250,000  pounds  about  180,000  pounds  were  exported.  A  circular  issued 
by  J.  A.  Sevey,  of  Boston,  a  large  bone-cutter,  shows  that  he  lost  by  being  burnt  out  in  the  Boston  fire  some  10,000 
pounds  of  bone,  but  was  at  work  again  in  twenty-two  days  cutting  bone  with  tools  patented  by  him,  and  which  he 
claims  are  a  great  improvement  on  the  old  method  of  cutting.  Some  60,000  pounds  of  bone  were  brought  into  San 
Francisco  last  fall,  which  was  picked  up  from  the  wrecked  whalers  or  traded  for  with  the  natives. 

London  circulars,  aforesaid,  report  the  importations-including  the  catch  of  Davis  Strait  and  Greenland  whalers, 
as  90  tons,  against  101  tons  iu  1871.  Stock  in  London,  357  tons,  against  56  tons  in  1871.  Consumption  111  tons, 
against  91  tons  in  1871,  107  tons  in  1870,  and  122  tons  iu  1809.  The  import  of  humpback  bone  was  22  tons,  and  the 
stock  on  hand  January  1,  1873,  was  27  tons. 

TKADK    KKVIEW    FOI!    1S7U 

Review  of  the  whale,  fishery  for  1873. — The  opening  paragraph  of  our  last  year's  review  might  be  copied  and  would 
be  equally  appropriate  in  commencing  our  present,  for  it  has  been  a  year  starting  with  a  small  fleet,  steadily  reducing 
through  the  year  by  sales  and  losses  of  vessels,  wflh  moderate  catches,  meager  net  results,  no  change  of  purpose  to 
sell  whalers  now  here,  and  no  new  signs  of  encouragement  in  the  business.  A  proposition  for  the  sale  of  a  whaler  in 
more  tempting  than  a  proposal  to  fit  one.  Of  the  nineteen  whalers  in  the  port  of  New  Bedford  January  1,  1873,  four 
were  sold,  live  fitted  for  whaling,  and  ten  still  remain  iu  port;  of  the  seven  at  New  London  January  1,  1873,  one  has 
been  sold  and  broken  up,  and  the  remaining  six  are  still  for  sale.  Of  the  eleven  whalers  now  in  this  port  that  arrived 
in  l-<7.!,  six  are.  for  sale;  and  of  the  twenty-one  whalers  now  wintering  here  not  over  seven  are  likely  to  be  fitted. 
Of  forty  whalers  to  arrive  in  1874  probably  about  thirty  will  be  sent  to  sea  again. 

The  striking  features  in  the  business  have  been  the  steadiness  of  prices  during  the  year,  except  during  the,  panic, 
the  absence  of  many  good  catches  of  oil  in  sperm  and  Arctic  whaling,  the  good  success  in  humpbacking  in  Panama 
Bay  and  coast  of  Africa,  the  loss  of  three  whalers  in  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet,  and  immunity  from  disas- 
ter in  the  Arctic  Ocean,  not  a  ship  being  lost  or  seriously  damaged. 

Our  present  fleet  is  171,  against  203  a  year  ago,  218  in  1-C.',  and  288  in  1871.  The  15  per  cent,  reduction  which 
has  been  going  on  for  three  years,  and  which  a  year  ago  we  ventured  to  think  would  relieve  us  of  an  anxiety  to 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY. 


155 


fiirtlirr  sell,  lias  not  been  realized  ;  for  <ii'  the  liity-onc  whalers  at  homo,  we  now  want  to  sell  twenty-live  at  least, 
\\liirli  is  still  another  15  per  cent,  discount  we  would  make  on  our  lleet,  and  unless  we  get  better  catches  and  better 
results  in  1874  than  in  1873,  we  can  now  safely  apply  lor  another  reduction  in  1875  of  nearly  15  per  cent.  The  thirty- 
two  whalers  withdrawn,  &c.,  represented  6,912  tons,  and  the  one  schooner  added  at  Proviucetown  was  117  tons. 

The  fleet  at  sea  January  1,  1874,  was  one  hundred  aud  twenty-three  vessels,  against  one  hundred  and  lifty-five  a 

year  ago. 

FLEET. 


Tear. 

No.  of 
vessels. 

No.  of 
tons. 

1854              

668 

208,  399 

1864                 

304 

88,  785 

1874                    

171 

41,  191 

ARCTIC  FLEET. 


Tear. 

No.  ot 

vessels. 

Oil. 

Average. 

1853  

108 

Barrels. 
146,  800 

Barrels. 
1,349 

1863  

42 

30,  010 

857 

1873         

28 

19,  400 

700 

IMPORTED. 


Tear. 

Sperm  oil. 

Whale  oil. 

Bone. 

1853 

Barrels. 
103  077 

Barrels. 
260,  114 

Pounds. 
5,  652,  300 

1863 

65  055 

62,  974 

488,  750 

1873 

42,  053 

40,  014 

206,396 

We  have  given  these  comparative  figures  to  show  the  inclined  plane  down  which  whaling  is  at  present  going. 
Right  whaling  is  not  remunerative,  and  cannot  be  unless  larger  catches  can  be  made  with  smaller  expenses  attending 
them. 

The  Arctic  Ocean  had  in  1873  thirty-two  whalers,  and  the  Ochotsk  Sea  two,  and  yet  the  aggregate  catch  was 
about  21,000  barrels  of  oil  and  250,000  pounds  of  bone,  or  an  average  of  600  barrels  of  oil  aud  7,500  pounds  of  bone, 
worth  about  $20,000,  one-half  of  which  is  used  up  in  drafts,  refitting  for  another  season,  and  the  expense  of  getting 
oil  aud  houo  home.  The  past  season  was  a  poor  one  for  whaling,  being  open,  free  from  ice,  whales  very  scarce  until 
very  late  in  the  season,  when  they  were  plenty,  but  the  weather  became  bad;  the  remaining  fleet,  after  a  week  of  good 
work,  came  out  with  a  fair  catch.  Six  whalers  did  not  take  a  whale  in  the  Arctic,  aud  two  got  not  even  a  walrus.  In 
1854  fifteen  whalers  out  of  forty-eight  got  nothing,  and  the  season  was  a  failure.  The  Progress  found  whales  outside 
and  took  seven,  making  750  barrels  oil;  also  the  Louisa  found  whales  on  Kodiac,  and  got  five,  making  550  barrels; 
and  the  Live  Oak  found  whales  in  Japan  Sea,  and  got  nine,  making  900  barrels.  About  6,000  barrels  walrus  oil  was 
taken  in  the  Arctic  in  July.  Whalers  went  farther  north  this  season  than  ever  before.  Four  Arctic  whalers  will 
return  home,  and  not  one  has  been  fitted  out  during  the  past  year  to  go  to  the  Arctic,  nor  will  there  be  during  the 
year  1-71.  From  present  appearances,  with  the  present  feeling  existing  about  Arctic  whaling,  we  should  doubt  it 
anv  one  of  the  fleet  now  out,  upon  their  return  home,  would  be  tilted  again  to  go  there.  About  one-half  of  the 
lleet  went  to  San  Francisco  to  refit  and  the  balance  to  Honolulu,  it  having  become  evident  that  the  gains  at  San 
Francisco  are  not  equivalent  for  advantages  the  Sandwich  Islands  have  for  getting  and  keeping  crews  and  freighting 
home  catchiugs.  In  the  fall  of  187-J  live  whalers  went  to  Panama  to  ship  their  catchings  home;  owing  to  unavoid- 
able circumstances  the  oil  was  long  delayed  at  the  Isthmus,  and  was,  on  arrival  here,  found  to  have  much  leaked. 
1'anama  Bay  has  been  as  good  whaling  ground  I  he  past  year  for  humpbacks  as  in  previous  years,  about  10,000  barrels 
bring  the  catch  there,  some  vessels  getting  1, (Mill  to  1,400  barrels  each.  But  little  has  been  heard  from  the  sperm 
whalers  humpbacking  at  the  shoals  and  grounds  in  the  Pacific  Ocean.  On  the  coast  of  Africa  there  were  good  catches 
of  humpbacks,  some  vessels  taking  .",00  to  TOO  barrels  each. 

The  (.'rozette  whaling  was  good,  but  two  vessels  visited  the  ground,  the  China  and  John  P.  West,  taking  750  and 
800  barrels,  respectively.  Cumberland  Inlet  and  Hudson  Bay  whaling  was  disastrous;  the  schooner  Abbie  Bradford 
returned  with  a  good  catch,  and  brought  news  of  the  loss  of  the  barks  Ansel  Gibbsaud  Orray  Tafr,  of  this  port. 
The  schooner  S.  B.  Howes,  of  Xew  London,  was  also  lost  there.  Many  seamen  died  with  scurvy.  The  bark  Glacier, 
of  this  port,  returned  with  only  about  70  barrels.  South  Shetland. seal  ing  and  whaling  was  very  successful,  and  another 
fleet  has  gone  to  complete  the  work  of  extirpation. 


156  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Sperm  whaling  has  had  hardly  a  better  average  result  than  right  whaling,  but  while  its  catches  are  perhaps  less 
in  value,  its  expenses  of  continuing  a  voyage  are  also  less.  In  the  North  Atlantic  many  good  fares  were  taken,  the 
largest  being  about  300  barrels,  whereas  in  former  years  500  to  700  barrels  have  been  reached  in  a  single  cruise.  In 
the  South  Atlantic  less  oil  has  been  taken  than  formerly,  though  several  good  catches  were  made,  one  vessel  taking 
600  barrels  in  sis  weeks.  In  the  Indian  Ocean  and  on  New  Holland,  with  few  exceptions,  the  whaling  has  been  slim  ; 
whales  were  quite  plenty  early  in  the  year,  but  the  weather  was  bad ;  for  the  greater  part  of  the  year  but  few  whales 
were  seen.  The  New  Zealand  ground  has  been  dry  and  deserted  by  whales,  only  a  few  ships  having  done  fairly,  while 
one  or  two  have  been  fortunate  in  seeing  and  getting  them.  The  fleet  is  small  there.  The  West  Coast  has  but  few 
sperm  cruisers  there,  and  several  have  done  quite  well,  others  poorly.  The  bark  Courser,  with  700  barrels  of  sperm 
oil  on  board,  was  run  down  by  an  English  steamer. 

All  around,  the  sperm-whaling  grounds  have  not  been  np  to  former  years  in  takings,  and  it  would  seem  that  a 
small  fleet  does  not  increase  the  chances  of  a  great  catch.  At  present  prices  for  sperm  oil,  say  $1.50,  we  think  sperm 
whaling  will  outlive  all  other  kinds,  though  even  with  a  reduced  catch  we  find  a  reduced  consumption. 

The  fleet  for  the  coming  year  will  be  distributed  about  as  follows :  North  and  South  Atlantic,  50  vessels ;  Indian 
Ocean,  17  vessels;  Pacific  Ocean,  31  vessels;  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet,  3  vessels;  North  Pacific,  27  vessels. 

The  demand  for  sperm  oil  was  good  during  the  year.  The  import  exceeded  but  very  little  the  highest  estimate, 
and  by  reference  to  the  comparative  statement  of  consumption  of  oils,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  supply  was  53,300  barrels, 
against  59,700  barrels  in  1872,  and  that  the  home  consumption  was  equal  to  that  of  the  preceding  year,  while  the 
export  fell  off  about  8,000  barrels,  a  little  more  than  the  reported  decrease  in  consumption  of  this  kind  of  oil  in  the 
United  Kingdom.  The  price  opened  at  $1.50  and  advanced  to  $1.57  in  February,  fluctuated  between  $1.52  and  $1.55 
until  May,  after  which  it  gradually  declined  until  June,  when  it  touched  $1.40,  and  remained  steady  until  the  middle 
of  August,  when  it  advanced  to  $1.45  ©  $1.50,  remaining  at  these  figures  until  October  1,  when,  under  the  pressure  of  the 
panic,  a  small  parcel  of  ordinary  oil  was  sold  at  $1.31,  but  upon  the  return  of  an  easier  money  market  in  November  sales 
were  made  at  $1.39  <2>  $1.42,  and  in  December  at  $1.50,  with  a  good  demand  and  closing  firm  at  this  price. 

The  demand  for  whale  oil  seems  to  be  affected  by  the  large  supply  of  other  cheap  oils,  such  as  menhaden,  cotton- 
seed, and  petroleum  which  is  unprecedeutedly  low.  The  home  consumption  was  about  9,000  barrels  less  thau  in  1872, 
while  the  average  price  was  lower.  There  has  been  very  little  life  to  the  market,  the  cheap  oils,  such  as  humpback 
and  South  Sea,  seem  to  bo  preferred  at  the  lower  prices  which  they  can  be  bought  at,  Arctic  of  good  quality  being 
neglected  in  consequence,  the  rule  seeming  to  be  that  the  poorest  oil  is  sought  at'trr  In-causo  of  the  low  prices.  A 
demand  sprung  up  at  the  close  of  the  year  for  the  cheaper  oils,  humpback,  South  Sea,  and  coast  for  export,  50  cents 
per  gallon  being  paid  for  all  qualities,  in  or  out  of  bond,  and  the  same  price  was  offered  for  the  poorest  Arctic  oil,  but 
no  sales  were  made.  The  year  opened  at  68  cents  for  Arctic  and —  cents  tor  humpback,  the  market  being  steady 
until  June,  when  63  cents  per  gallon  was  the  quoted  pric«  for  Arctic,  at  about  which  the  market  ruled  the  rest  of  the 
year.  The  price  for  humpback  ranged  from  55  <®  60  cents  per  gallon  during  the  year  for  manufacturing.  The  stock  of 
this  kind  of  oil  on  hand  January  1, 1874,  was  about  2,000  barrels.  The  export  the  past  year  was  2,150  barrels,  against 
1,500  in  1872. 

Whalebone  opened  at  $1.15,  currency,  with  a  good  demand,  which  continued  into  February  and  March,  with  a 
slight  reduction  to  $1. 10,  currency,  ruling  at  this  price  until  May,  when  the  demand  was  good  at  $1.08  @  $1.12,  currency, 
for  Aetic,  and  95  cents  for  South  Sea.  During  the  summer  months  the  demand  was  good,  sales  reaching  in  August 
51,000  pounds,  when  the  price  advanced  from  $1.08  to  $1.20,  currency;  for  the  remainder  of  the  year  the  demand  was 
light,  and  prices  receded  to  $1.10,  currency,  for  old,  and  $1  for  new  Arctic.  The  home  consumption  was  very  good, 
reaching  155,000  pounds,  against  74,500  pounds  the  previous  year.  The  Scotch  whalers  did  very  well  taking  bone  the 
last  season,  and  the  entire  import  has  been  sold,  showing  the  trade  in  this  article  in  England  and  on  the  continent  to 
be  in  a  healthy  condition.  About  25,000  pounds  of  new  unculled  bone,  including  10,000  pounds  Japan  Sea  bone,  was 
sold  in  San  Francisco  at  87^  cents,  gold,  per  pound  for  export. 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR  1874. 

Review  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1874. — Although  the  past  year  has  not  been  one  of  large  profits  to  our  whalemen,  we 
are  able  to  state  to-day  that  the  business  wears  a  more  cheerful  aspect,  with  a  promise  of  a  brighter  future. 

The  number  of  profitable  voyages  arriving  was  not  greater  than  during  the  previous  year,  but,  with  better  prices 
prevailing,  a  more  hopeful  feeling  lias  been  engendered. 

The  decrease  of  the  fleet  (about  3,400  tons  during  the  year)  is  gradually  resulting  in  a  better  average  catch, 
experience  showing  that  any  decided  increase  in  the  number  of  vessels  engaged  in  the  business  must  eventually 
bring  about  lower  prices  and  small  average  catches. 

Of  the  twenty-five  vessels  in  the  port  of  New  Bedford  January  1,  1874.  three  were  sold,  fourteen  fitted  for  whal- 
ing, and  eight  still  remain  in  port,  of  which  five  are  for  sale.  Of  the  seven  at  New  London  January  1,  1874,  four 
have  been  sold  for  whalers  and  three  are  still  in  port.  Of  the  nineteen  whaleis  now  in  this  port  thirteen  will  prob- 
ably be  fitted  before  the  close  of  spring,  and  of  the  thirty-five  vessels  to  arrive  in  1875  nearly  all  will  be  sent  to  sea 
again. 

The  absence  of  any  unusual  features  in  the  business  is  noticeable.  There  have  been  but  few  losses  at  sea,  and 
vessels  in  the  Arctic  regions  have  been  quite  free  from  disasters. 

Our  present  fleet  is  103  vessels,  agaiust  171  a  year  ago,  203  in  1873,  and  218  in  1872,  and  the  number  at  sea  January 
1,  1875,  was  119  vessels,  against  123  a  year  ago  and  155  in  1873. 


THE  WHALE  FISHERY.  157 

The  fleet  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  the  past  summer  met  with  good  success  during  the  latter  part  of  the  season,  fifteen 
ships  taking  an  aggregate  of  17,480  barrels  of  oil  and  189,500  pounds  of  bone,  being  an  average  of  1,165  barrels  of 
oil  and  12,033  pounds  of  bone,  about  double  that  of  the  previous  year.  Three  vessels  on  Kodiak  and  in  Bristol  Bay 
took  '.2,625  barrels  of  oil,  an  average  of  about  875  barrels  each,  and  7,667  pounds  of  bone. 

The  (Vhotsk  Sra  whaling  was  a  failure,  nine  vessels  taking  unitedly  but  2,805  barrels  of  oil  and  34,600  pounds  of 
bone',  the  whales,  lonnerly  plenty  in  that  locality,  apparently  having  been  exterminated  or  gone  to  other  parts. 
Although  occasionally  a  season  iu  the  Arctic  Ocean  is  partly  a  failure,  judging  from  the  present  and  past  it  would  seem 
reasonable  that  a  moderate  number  of  ships  could  continue  to  prosecute  their  voyages  in  that  ocean  for  many  years  to 
come,  and  considering  the  advancing  price  of  the  products  obtained,  particularly  of  whalebone,  we  do  not  believe  our 
merchants  will  allow  this  branch  of  our  business,  once  so  remunerative,  to  be  entirely  given  up. 

Might  whaling  on  Desolation  and  the  Crozottes  has  been  neglected  during  the  past  year,  and  the  number  of  ves- 
sels in  Cumberland  Inlet  and  Hudson  Bay  has  been  very  small,  with  a  moderate  catch. 

Iluitipb.-icking  has  been  prosecuted  on  the  coast  of  South  America,  in  Panama  Bay,  about  the  islands  of  the  South 
Pacific  Ocean,  and  on  the  coast  of  Africa,  with  about  the  usual  success. 

Sperm  whaling  has  made  rather  a  better  exhibit  than  for  two  or  three  years  previous,  although  good  catches 
have  been  confined  rather  to  certain  localities,  than  general  throughout  the  different  oceans.  The  best  account  came 
to  us  from  the  North  Atlantic,  where  a  number  of  vessels  took  large  fares,  while  many  others  on  the  same  or  adjacent 
grounds  were  not  fortunate  in  finding  whales,  the  distribution  of  catches  being  quite  unequal.  On  the  west  coast  of 
South  America  and  the  oil-shore  ground  whales  seem  plentier  again  and  vessels  have  done  well.  In  the  South 
Atlantic  and  in  the  Indian  Ocean  the  fleet  have  met  with  average  success,  while  on  New  Holland  and  the  grounds  iu 
that  vicinity  whales  have  been  unusually  scarce.  New  Zealand  has  yielded  but  poorly  during  the  past  year,  and 
but  few  vessels  in  that  locality  are  doing  well,  which  leads  us  to  remark  that  at  present  there  appear  to  be  no  whal- 
ing grounds  that  will  support  a  large  fleet  for  any  great  length  of  time;  and  in  this  respect  our  errors  in  the  past 
should  be  guides  for  our  future. 

The  fleet  during  the  coming  year  will  be  distributed  nearly  as  follows :  North  and  South  Atlantic,  68  vessels ; 
Indian  Ocean,  17  vessels;  Pacific  Ocean  and  New  Zealand,  33  vessels;  Cumberland  Inlet  and  Hudson  Bay,  4  vessels; 
North  Pacific,  18  vessels. 

The  demand  for  oil  and  whalebone  has  continued  good  throughout  the  year,  the  markets  having  been  without 
marked  fluctuations,  and  with  prices  slowly  but  steadily  advancing.  With  an  increased  importation  of  sperm  oil 
during  the  coming  year  it  would  be  natural  to  look  for  a  decrease  in  price,  but  whale  oil,  considering  the  present 
prospects  of  lard  and  other  oils,  seems  quite  low  ;  while  whalebone,  with  a  constantly  reduced  importation,  ought  to 
command  good  figures. 

The  price  of  sperm  oil  January  1,  1874,  was  $1.50,  having  been  depressed  by  the  recent  panic.  It  rapidly  recovered, 
however,  and  in  a  few  weeks  advanced  to  $1.67^  (the  highest  prices  for  the  year  usually  prevailing  about  that  time), 
dropping  to  .$1.60  in  April,  continuing  to  decline  till  June,  when  it  reached  $1.50.  During  the  remainder  of  the  year 
its  course  was  gradually  upward,  standing  at  $1.57  in  August,  $1.6'2J  in  October,  and  closing  the  year  at  $1.70,  the 
highest  price  reached  since  the  mouth  of  October,  1869,  a  period  of  more  than  five  years. 

Whale  oil  opened  the  year  at  61  cents  for  Arctic,  slightly  declining  during  the  summer  months,  and  closed  the 
year  at  li?^  cents,  at  which  price  it  would  be  difficult  to  purchase. 

Humpback  and  South  Sea  oil  during  the  year  have  varied  from  54  @  64  cents,  closing  at  the  latter  figure. 

Whalebone  opened  at  $1  ©  $1.10,  continued  firm  throughout  the  year,  and  advanced  during  the  fall  months  to 
f  1.25,  which  price  is  still  maintained. 

It  will  be  seen  by  our  last  annual  review  that  our  estimate  of  importations  for  1874  approximated  to  the  result, 
except  in  the  quantity  of  whalebone,  caused  by  shipments  overland  during  the  month  of  December  (about  85,000 
pounds),  and  received  here  in  advance  of  the  usual  time. 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR   1875. 

7iVnric  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1875. — The  year  just  closed  has  been  quite  free  from  disasters  to  the  fleet  at  sea,  and 
no  great  changes  have  taken  place  in  the  business.  Gains  and  losses  have  been  about  equally  divided,  the  arrivals  at 
this  port  during  the  year  showing  eighteen  voyages  that  were  fairly  profitable  and  sixteen  that  resulted  in  quite  a 
large  average  loss,  but  with  a  revival  of  business  throughout  the  country  we  anticipate  better  results  in  the  future. 

Of  the  eighteen  vessels  iu  port  at  New  Bedford  January  1,  1875,  sixteen  have  beeu  fitted  for  whaling  and  two 
are  now  in  port.  Of  the  ten  whalers  now  in  this  port  eight  will  probably  be  fitted  during  the  season,  and  of  the 
t  wenty-live  vessels  to  arrive  here  this  year  nearly  all  will  go  to  sea  again.  Some  vessels  may  possibly  he  added  to  the 
licet  from  the  merchant  service;  but  as  such  ventures  are  attended  with  so  heavy  an  outlay  for  repairs,  alterations, 
and  whaling  inventories,  it  is  not  probable  that  many  such  additions  will  be  made. 

The  present  whaling  fleet  is  169  vessels,  against  163  January  1,  1875,  171  iu  1874,  and  203  in  1873,  and  the  number 
at  sea  January  1,  187G,  was  137  vessels,  against  119  a  year  ago,  and  123  in  1874.  Any  further  increase  in  the  fleet  must 
necessarily  result  iu  lower  prices  for  oil. 

Right  whaling  makes  a  good  exhibit  for  the  year,  vessels  in  the  Arctic  Ocean  having  been  very  successful,  thirteen 
vessels  taking  18,000  barrels  whale  and  walrus  oil  and  180,030  pounds  whalebone,  an  average  of  1,38-1  barrels  oil 
and  13,848  pounds  of  whalebone.  Three  vessels  on  Kodiak  and  Bristol  Bay  took  3,980  barrels  whale  oil  and  45,430 
pounds  whalebone,  thus  making  for  the  fleet  an  average  of  1,374  barrels  whale  and  walrus  oil  and  14,091  pounds  of 
e,  the  lar:j>  ;e  oi'anv  season  since  the  j 


158  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

As  we  stated  in  our  review  last  year,  we  do  not  believe  Arctic  whaling  will  be  given  up,  and  certainly  the  whales 
have  never  been  plentier  on  these  grounds  (ban  during  the  past  season.  The  fleet  have  all  come  out  safely,  except 
the  bark  Desmond,  which  is  supposed  to  have  been  obliged  to  winter  there. 

A  few  vessels  in  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet  have  had  fair  success,  while  right  whaling  in  the  southern 
oceans  has  been  neglected.  Humpbacking  has  been  very  successful  on  the  coast  of  South  America,  while  in  other 
in  other  localities  the  catches  have  been  m  derate. 

Sperm  whaling  has  been  only  moderately  successful,  there  having  been  but  few  large  catches  the  past  year. 
Vessels  have  done  best  on  Chili  aud  the  off-shore  ground,  while  elsewhere  the  average  has  been  moderate.  A  sum- 
mary is  as  follows:  On  Chili  and  off  shore,  seventeen  vessels  cruised,  taking  7,010  barrels  sperm,  an  average  of  412 
barrels ;  on  New  Zealand,  seventeen  vessels  took  6,095  barrels,  making  an  average  to  each  of  358  barrels;  in  the  Indian 
Ocean  and  on  New  Holland  there  were  thirteen  vessels,  taking  4,335  barrels,  an  average  of  333  barrels,  and  in  the 
North  and  South  Atlantic  Oceans,  eighty-seven  vessels  with  a  catch  of  19,405  barrels,  averaging  223  barrels,  the  last 
named  being  for  an  average  period  of  about  ten  months,  as  many  of  the  fleet  winter  in  port.  With  any  increase  of  the 
fleet  a  smaller  average  catch  may  be  looked  for,  and  it  will  be  already  seen  by  reference  to  our  columns  that  the 
number  of  vessels  at  sea  which  have  obtained  1,000  barrels  or  more  of  sperm  oil  is  smaller  than  for  many  years. 

The  distribution  of  the  whaling  fleet  for  the  present  year  wo  estimate  as  follows:  North  and  South  Atlantic. 
77  vessels;  Indian  Ocean  and  New  Holland,  15  vessels;  New  Zealand,  13  vessels;  Pacific  coast  aud  off-shore  ground, 
23  vessels ;  North  Pacific,  18  vessels ;  Cumberland  Inlet,  4  vessels. 

The  number  of  vessels  estimated  to  arrive  at  this  port  the  coming  year  is  twenty-five,  of  which  apparently  thirteen 
will  be  good  voyages,  while  twelve  will  show  a  loss,  the  net  results  being  much  the  same  as  for  the  past  few  years. 

The  demand  for  oils  and  bone  has  been  fair  throughout  the  year  past.  Sperm  oil  opened  in  January  at  $1.70, 
with  a  very  small  stock  on  hand,  and  was  held  at  $1.80  ©  $1.85  in  March,  and  at  $1.90  in  April.  Few  sales  could  be 
effected  at  these  figures,  and  the  price  gradually  declined  to  $1.4?  ©  $1.50  in  midsummer,  remaining  at  about  these 
figures  until  December,  when  it  advanced  to  $1.60,  closing  the  year  at  that  price,  at  which,  however,  there  were  more 
sellers  than  buyers.  Whale  oil  opened  the  year  at  67*  cents  per  gallon  for  Arctic,  advancing  to  70  cents  in  January, 
declining  to  63  ©  65  cents  in  May  and  June,  and  in  September  advancing  again  to  70  cents,  at  which  price  it  con- 
tinued to  the  close  of  the  year.  Humpback  and  South  Sea  oils  have  continued  at  60  ©  65  cents  through  the  year, 
with  little  variation.  Whalebone  opened  at  about  $1.20  per  pound  for  Arctic,  and  continued  firm  during  the  year, 
advancing  in  the  fall  months,  and  finally  closing  at  $1.30. 

By  reference  to  our  last  year's  review  it  will  be  seen  that  onr  estimate  of  importations  are  not  far  from  the  result, 
except  in  whalebone,  caused  by  shipments  overland  in  advance  of  the  usual  time.  Onr  figures  are  made  after  careful 
consideration,  and  we  are  not  swayed  by  the  interests  of  either  importer  or  purchaser. 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR  1876. 

Review  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1876. — During  the  year  but  few  disasters  were  reported  among  whalemen  until  late 
in  the  fall,  when  news  reached  us  of  the  destruction  of  a  number  of  the  Arctic  fleet,  and  the  probable  loss  of  many 
lives,  which  cast  a  cloud  of  sadness  over  the  community. 

Tbe  success  of  the  business  the  past  year  has  been  fair,  the  arrivals  at  this  port  showing  nineteen  profitable  voy- 
ages, while  fourteen  resulted  in  a  loss,  this  being  fully  up  to  the  average  of  late  years. 

The  building  of  ships  for  the  whaling  service  marks  a  new  era  in  the  business,  and  is  an  encouraging  feature. 
We  welcome  them  as  adding  to  the  character  of  the  fleet,  which  has  suffered  of  late  by  the  adding  of  worn-out  mer- 
chant vessels  which  obtain  insurance  at  the  same  rates  as  new  ships  just  from  the  stocks. 

The  present  whaling  fleet,  after  deducting  the  recent  losses  in  the  Arctic  Ocean,  is  172  vessels,  against  169 
January  1,  1876,  163  in  1875,  and  the  number  at  sea  January  1,  1877,  was  146  vessels,  against  137  a  year  ago,  and  119 
in  1875.  Five  barks  are  being  built  for  the  business,  aud  others  will  follow,  while  from  the  merchant  service  there 
is  a  prospect  of  adding  a  number  of  vessels,  thus  making  the  fleet  larger  than  it  has  been  for  years.  Should  the  catch 
be  proportionate  to  the  number  of  vessels  in  the  business,  the  importation  of  oil  would  be  in  excess  of  the  demand, 
but  all  our  past  experience  has  shown  that,  with  an  increase  of  the  fleet,  many  of  the  whaling  grounds  are  over- 
crowded, and  the  result  is  a  smaller  average  to  each. 

The  Arctic  Ocean  has  again  been  a  scene  of  disaster.  Of  a  fleet  of  twenty  vessels,  twelve  were  lost  or  abandoned 
in  the  ice,  and  while  the  masters  with  most  of  the  officers  and  crews  were  enabled  to  escape,  more  than  fifty  men  were 
left  behind  who  were  unequal  to  the  exertion  necessary  to  save  their  lives.  But  the  sad  and  fatal  result  of  pushing 
too  far  north  will,  we  hope,  be  a  lesson  to  our  whalemen  in  future  not  to  venture  where  there  seems  hardly  a  chance 
of  escape  when  opposing  circumstances  arise. 

The  average  catch  of  the  vessels  not  lost,,  including  two  on  Kodiak  and  Bristol  Bay,  was  656  barrels  oil  aud  4,225 
pounds  whalebone,  aggregating  to  eight  vessels  5,250  barrels  oil  and  33,800  pounds  of  Done.  A  few  vessels  cruised  in 
Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet  with  fair  results.  Humpbackiug  has  been  neglected  the  past  year,  except  on  the 
African  coast,  where  the  catches  were  unusually  good. 

In  sperm  whaling  the  success  has  been  varied,  vessels  having  been  fortunate  in  the  North  Atlantic,  on  Chili  a.nd 
the  off-shore  ground,  while  in  other  quarters  the  catch  has  been  moderate  or  quite  small.  In  the  North  Atlantic 
upwards  of  13,000  barrels  of  sperm  oil  were  taken,  a  larger  yield  than  for  many  years.  Whales  were  plenty,  and 
many  vessels  took  large  fares.  On  Chili  aud  the  off-shore  ground  the  fleet  were  very  successful,  nearly  every  one 
getting  an  uuu.sual  calch,  \vliilc  on  \e\v  Zealand  the  results  have  been  moderate.  On  the  River  Plate  a  few  vessels 
did  very  well,  but  the  majority  took  but  lit  lie  oil,  aud  on  the  Congo  River,  with  two  or  three  exceptions,  the  fleet 


TIIE   WHALE  FISHERY.  159 

has  doue  poorly,  it  being  a  small  ground  and  overcrowded  with  vessels.  In  the  Indian  Ocean  we  cannot  report 
anything  better,  there  being  too  largo  a  floet,  and  consequently  tbo  catch  lias  been  very  small.  There  is  a  growing 
tendency  of  late  years  for  ships  to  congregate  on  small  grounds,  in  order  to  look  for  the  oil  which  somebody  caught 
the  previous  year,  and  a  persistenee  in  I  his  course  ruins  our  best  whaling  opportunities.  The  success  of  the  vessels 
in  the  Pacific  Ocean  is  largely  due  to  their  character  and  appointments.  They  are  the  crack  ships  of  the  fleet,  have 
in m  many  years  in  the  service,  ami  cnu>r,[uciitly  have  vastly  superior  opportunities  for  being  well  commanded, 
officered,  and  manned. 

For  the  coming  year  the  whaling  Meet  will  lie  distributed  about  as  follows:  North  Atlantic,  80  vessels;  Congo 
Kiver  and  coast  of  Africa,  20  vessels;  Indian  Ocean,  10  vessels;  Xe\v  Zealand,  !.">  vessels;  Chili  and  off  shore,  20 
vessels;  Sooloo  Sea,  ::  vessels  ;  North  Pacific,  20  vessels;  Cumberland  Inlet  and  Hudson  Bay,  5  vessels. 

The  number  of  vessels  expected  to  arrive  at  this  port  the  coming  year  is  twenty-two,  of  which  nine  will  appar- 
ently make  good  voyages. 

Oil  and  bone  have  been  in  moderate  demand.  Sperm  oil  opened  the  year  at  $1.60,  declined  to  $1.4-2  in  April,  $1.30 
in  May,  $1.25  in  the  summer  mouths,  and  in  the  fall  advanced  to  $1.40  per  gallon,  which  was  maintained  to  the  close 
of  the  year.  Whale  oil  opened  at  70  cents,  declined  to  58  cents  in  the  summer  and  fall  months,  and  in  October  ad- 
vanced to  70  cents,  at  which  price  the  year  closed.  Humpback  and  South  Sea  oils  have  corresponded  to  the  price  of 
whale,  selling  generally  at  5  cents  less  per  gallon.  Whalebone,  from  $1.30  in  January,  advanced  to  $1.150  in  February, 
and  $2  in  March,  at  about  which  figure  it  continued  till  news  reached  us  in  October  of  the  loss  of  the  Arctic  fleet, 
when  it  advanced  to  $-2.50  and  later  to  $3.50  per  pound,  at  which  price  the  year  closed. 

TRADE   RKVIEW   FOR   1877. 

Rerieio  of  the  while  fishery  for  1877.— The  past  year  has  been  free  from  especial  disasters,  and  there  have  been  no 
changes  in  the  business  worthy  of  note,  except  the  continued  additions  made  to  the  fleet. 

Ship  building  has  revived,  ami  twelve  whalers  were  built  during  the  year,  it  being  now  apparent  that  at  the 
present  prices  new  vessels  can  be  built  cheaper  than  merchantmen  can  be  altered  into  whale  ships. 

The  present  whaling  fleet  is  one  hundred  and  eighty-seven  vessels,  against  one  hundred  and  seventy-two  January 
1,  1H77,  one  hundred  and  sixty-nine  in  1876,  and  one  hundred  and  sixty  three  in  1875 ;  but,  although  the  increase  is 
mostly  in  the  sperm-whale  fleet,  the  catch  of  the  past  year  is  not  greater  than  for  1870,  on  account  of  some  of  the 
grounds  being  overcrowded  with  vessels.  The  present  tendency  being  to  cruise  on  those  grounds  nearest  home,  so 
that  the  catchings  may  bo  shipped  at  the  earliest  moment,  we  find  in  the  North  and  Smith  Atlantic  Oceans  a  fleet  of 
one  hundred  vessels,  while  the  more  fruitful  grounds  of  the  Pacific  Ocean,  Japan,  New  Zealand,  and  Sooloo  Sea  are 
almost  neglected.  The  constant  shipments  of  sperm  oil  have  been  largely  instrumental  in  reducing  the  price  to  the 
present,  figures,  which  are  the  lowest  reached  for  many  years,  and  are  innch  below  the  cost  of  catching  oil,  excepting 
the  vessels  that  are  very  fortunate. 

The  frequenting  of  ports  in  order  to  ship  oil  is  the  cause  of  a  large  part  of  the  expenses  to  which  whaling  voyages 
are  subject,  and  occasions  the  loss  of  officers  and  crews.  In  view  of  these  facts  and  the  low  prices  of  sperm  oil  now 
ruling,  we  understand  several  of  our  merchants  have  advised  their  vessels  to  retain  their  oil  on  board  when  possible, 
and  no  doubt  this  example  will  bo  followed  by  others. 

The  North  Pacific  whaling  fleet  was  very  successful  the  past  season.  The  catch  was  small  until  September,  when 
whales  were  found  plenty,  and  large  fares  were  taken.  Three  vessels  were  lost,  and  sixteen  vessels  came  out  with  an 
average  of  1,065  barrels  of  oil  and  8,550  pounds  of  whalebone.  Arctic  whaling  is  now  safer,  because  of  caution  bor- 
rowed from  the  experience  of  the  past,  and  we  trust  it  will  be  long  before  we  record  any  unusual  losses  in  that  ocean. 

In  Hudson  Bay  and  Cumberland  Inlet  but  few  vessels  have  cruised.  In  the  South  Atlantic  many  sperm  whalers, 
on  account  of  the  low  price  of  sperm  oil,  ha\c  tried  right  whaling  with  good  success,  the  value  of  the  whalebone 
being  the  chief  incentive.  About  a  dozen  vessels  have  cruised  for  humpback  oil,  with  good  success,  their  total  catch 
being  5,500  barrels, 

In  sperm  whaling  the  results  were  varied,  the  catch  in  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean  being  13,500  barrels  by  eighty- 
two  vessels,  the  largest  fare  taken  for  many  years.  The  vessels  that  were  well  pointed  were  generally  successful,  but 
the  presence  of  so  large  a  fleet  in  one  locality  will  result  soon  in  smaller  catches,  and  the  experience  of  ten  years  ago 
is  likely  to  be  repeated. 

The  fleet  on  Chili,  the  off-shore  ground,  New  Zealand,  and  in  the  Sooloo  Sea  have  taken  good  catches.  In  the 
South  Atlantic  vessels  have  had  fair  success,  the  fleet  being  rather  large,  and  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  with  too  large  a 
licet,  but  little  oil  has  been  taken.  At  the  present  time  not  a  vessel  is  cruising  in  the  Western  Pacific  Ocean  and 
Sooloo  S,-a,  and  those  excellent  grounds  bid  fair  to  be  entirely  neglected.  Large  catches  of  sperm  oil  are  becoming 
infrequent,  aud  it  is  noticeable  that  during  the  past  year  no  vessel  has  obtained  1,000  barrels,  while  in  previous 
v-ars  several  vessels  have  generally  exceeded  that  quantity. 

Oils  aud  bone  have  been  in  fair  demand  throughout  the  year.  Sperm  oil  opened  in  January  at  $1.40  per  gallon, 
declined  to  $1.31  in  February,  $1.28  in  March,  $1.13  in  June,  $1.12  in  August,  $1.10  in  November,  and  to  $1.03  in 
December,  closing  the  year  at  $1.03J,  the  lowest,  prices  that  have  ruled  for  mure  than  twenty  years.  Arctic  whale  oil, 
from  Tu  cents  in  January,  gradually  declined  to  60  cents  in  July,  at  which  price  it  closed  the  year.  Humpback  and 
South  Sea  oils  have  ruled  at  from  5  to  10  cents  per  gallon  less  than  Arct  ic. 

Arctic,  whalebone  opened  the  year  at  s;!..">o  per  pound,  declining  to  $•>.:,(!  in  August,  and  to  about  £2  in  October, 
"losing  tli,  il.oiit  the  latter  figure.  South  S,  .1  «  halobone  lias  ~.,ld  at  from  $1.25  to  $1.70  per  pound. 


160  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR  1878. 

J/erieif  of  the  whale  fisher;/ for  1878. — The  result  of  the  year's  business  is  far  from  being  satisfactory,  the  catche*  of 
the  fleet  having  been  moderate  aud  the  prices  of  oil  low.  Of  the  vessels  arriving  during  the  year  a  majority  had  taken 
too  small  a  quantity  of  oil  to  reimburse  their  cost  even  at  higher  prices,  aud  those  which  brought  good  voyages  netted 
but  little  profit  to  their  owners.  The  number  of  disasters  to  the  fleet  has  not  been  large,  good  weather  having  gen- 
erally prevailed  except  iu  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean,  where,  during  the  past  few  months,  storms  have  been  unusually 
severe.  The  new  vessels  added  recently  have  improved  the  general  character  and  average  quality  of  whale  ships, 
but  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  so  many  vessels  in  an  unseaworthy  condition  are  sent  out  upon  whaling  voyages. 

The  whaling  fleet  at  present  numbers  one  hundred  and  eighty-six  vessels,  against  one  hundred  and  eighty-seven 
a  year  ago,  aud  one  hundred  and  seventy-two  in  1877.  The  increase  during  the  past  four  years  has  resulted  iu  losses 
to  those  engaged  in  the  business,  and  the  average  catch  on  the  different  grounds  has  been  sensibly  diminished,  while, 
to  add  to  the  existing  depression,  there  has  seemed  to  be  almost  a  rivalry  as  to  whom  shall  oftenest  ship  home  their 
oil,  aud  thus  assist  in  reducing  prices  already  too  low. 

The  results  of  sperm  whaling  have  not  been  encouraging.  With  too  largo  a  fleet  on  nearly  all  the  grounds,  catches 
have  everywhere  been  small,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  good  fares  in  the  high  latitudes  of  the  North  Atlantic,  and 
off  Patagonia  on  either  side  of  Cape  Horn.  The  total  amount  of  the  catch  reported  during  the  year  is  several  thou- 
sand barrels  less  than  during  1877,  and  it  is  evident  that  with  the  continued  scarcity  of  whales  there  must  be  a  large 
reduction  in  the  fleet  to  make  the  business  profitable. 

In  right  whaling,  although  the  amount  of  oil  and  bone  taken  was  not  large,  the  result  has  been  better  on  account 
of  the  unprecedented  high  price  of  whalebone.  The  Arctic  Ocean  fleet  lost  but  one  vessel,  and  averaged  856  barrels 
of  oil  and  7,3*2  pounds  of  whalebone.  Whales  were  not  abundant,  but,  considering  the  varied  character  of  the  differ- 
ent seasous,  it  may  be  presumed  that,  with  occasional  fortunate  years,  whaling  in  that  ocean  will  continue  to  be 
profitable.  South  Sea  right  whaling  is  attracting  increased  attention,  and  there  is  no  reason  why  the  Antarctic 
grounds  should  not  be  compelled  to  disgorge  their  valuable  stores  of  whalebone.  We  expect  during  the  next  decade 
to  see  profitable  whaling  grounds  brought  to  light  in  the  high  latitudes  of  the  south,  and  success  reward  those  who 
are  pioneers  in  the  enterprise.  A  number  of  whalers  are  wintering  iu  Hudson  Bay  aud  Cumberland  Inlet,  several 
of  which  cruised  off  Greenland  for  right  whales  during  the  summer,  but  without  success.  No  doubt  whales  will  yet 
be  taken  in  great  numbers  around  Spitsbergen  and  Nova  Zernbla,  where  the  English  and  Dutch  ships  took  such  large 
quantities  of  oil  and  bone  during  the  early  part  of  the  present  century,  and  the  field  remains  open  for  those  who  will 
assume  the  risk.  Many  vessels  have  been  humpbacking  daring  the  year  on  account  of  the  unusually  low  price  of 
sperm  oil,  aud  have  met  with  fair  success. 

We  are  pleased  to  note  an  increased  traffic  between  New  Bedford  aud  the  Azores,  but  regret  to  learn  of  greater 
stringency  at  those  islands  in  the  enforcement  of  tobacco  regulations.  When  ships  are  detected  in  smuggling  it  is 
but  just  they  should  pay  the  peualty  attached,  but  it  seems  a  relic  of  by-gone  ages  to  subject  inoffensive  vessels  to  a 
rigid  search  for  tobacco,  and  to  impose  heavy  fines  on  such  as  are  found  with  small  quantities  in  the  possession  of  the 
crew,  for  which  the  master  cannot  bo  accountable.  If  such  arbitary  measures  are  persisted  in,  our  whalemen  will 
seek  other  ports  for  the  transshipment  of  their  oil  aud  the  recruiting  of  their  vessels. 

There  has  been  no  great  change  in  the  consumption  of  oil,  the  usual  quantities  having  been  consumed  in  this 
country  and  in  Europe.  In  San  Francisco  there  appears  to  be  an  increased  demand,  and  all  the  importations  through 
that  port,  both  sperm  and  whale,  find  a  ready  sale. 

The  demand  for  sperm  oil  and  whalebone  has  been  good  throughout  the  year,  while  whale  oil  seems  to  be 
neglected. 

Sperm  oil  opened  in  January  at  $1.03J  per  gallon,  declined  to  94  cents  in  April,  86  cents  in  June,  advanced  to  90 
cents  in  July,  and  92  cents  in  August,  declined  to  86  cents  in  September,  82  cents  in  October,  and  80  cents  in  Novem- 
ber, and  advanced  to  85  cents  in  December,  closing  the  year  with  87  cents  offered,  with  no  sellers  under  90  cents.  The 
price  touched  in  November,  viz,  80  cents,  was  the  lowest  known  for  thirty-five  years. 

Arctic  whale  oil  opened  the  year  at  60  cents,  gradually  declining  to  39  cents  at  the  close.  South  Sea  and  hump- 
back oils  have  been  quoted  generally  at  about  5  cents  per  gallon  less  than  Arctic. 

The  price  for  whalebone  is  without  precedent.  Opening  the  year  at  about  $2  per  pound  for  Arctic,  it  declined 
to  $1.65  in  February,  from  which  figure  it  steadily  advanced,  closing  in  December  at  $3.25.  South  Sea  whalebone  has 
commanded  about  two-thirds  the  price  of  Arctic. 

Referring  to  our  estimate  of  imports  for  1878,  it  will  be  seen,  especially  in  sperm  oil,  that  our  calculations  were 
correct,  the  predictions  of  dealers  and  correspondents  in  neighboring  cities  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding.  We 
find  it  more  difficult  than  usual  to  calculate  the  importation  for  1879,  as  the  expressed  determination  of  many  of  our 
merchants  to  retain  sperm  and  whale  oil  on  board  their  vessels,  because  of  the  low  price  at  home,  may  possibly  result 
in  reducing  the  importation  below  our  estimates.  At  the  close  of  1878  the  quantity  of  sperm  oil  landed  at  the  Azores 
and  in  transit  was  about  the  same  as  a  year  ago,  viz,  nearly  4,000  barrels.  The  import  of  whale  oil  for  1879  will  be 
lowei'  than  in  any  previous  year,  on  account  of  the  sale  at  San  Francisco  of  about  one-half  of  the  catch  of  the  Arctic 
fleet. 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR  1879. 

Review  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1879.— The  past  year  has  not  been  marked  with  any  unusual  features,  except  the 
low  prices  of  oil  that  have  prevailed.  More  than  the  ordinary  number  of  disasters  has  occurred,  bnt  no  serious 
calamity  has  overtaken  any  special  pori  ion  of  tin-  fleet.  Of  the  arrivals,  several  have  taken  good  cargoes  of  oil,  bn$ 
the  majority  have,  done  poorly. 


THE  W I  TALK  FISHERY.  161 

The  continued  depression  in  whaling  interests  has  at  length  been  checked  by  UK-  retirement  of  a  large  number  of 

\  essels,  now  lying  at,  our  wharves,  assist ed  Ivy  I  hi'  general  revival  of  business  throughout  the  country,  and  it  is  possi- 
1'lc  that  \\  ith  a.  nioilorato  number  of  vessels  engaged  whaling  may  again  become  fairly  profitable. 

The  business,  however,  is  siilijeel.  to  many  serious  drawbacks,  some  of  whieh,  if  mil,  corrected,  liid  fair  In  impair 
its  success.  C'hief  among  these  are  the  inlliieiiees  al  those  ports  where  officers  ;lnd  crews  arc  constantly  leaving  ves- 
sels, causing  a  largo  expense  in  replacing  them,  and  the,  frequency  with  which  officers  arc  so nl,  out  to  join  ships  during 
their  voyages  indicates  thai  tin1,  control  of  a  whaleship  is  only  to  a  limited  extent  in  the  hands  of  its  owners.  Bj 
united  action  among  our  merchants  it  is  possible  10  check  these  disorders,  and  protect  themselves  against  the'  losses 
occasioned  by  wholesale  desertion  from  whaling  vessels,  which  is  too  often  fostered  by  those  who  are  in  duty  bound 
to  act  otherwise.  San  Francisco  being  a  port  of  discharge,  tho  above  would  not,  apply  to  the  Arctic  whalers  visiting 
I  hat  port. 

The  present  whaling  licet  consists  of  one  hundred  and  seventy-eight,  vessels,  against  one  hundred  and  eighty-six  a, 
year  ago,  one  hundred  and  eighty-seven  in  1878,  and  one  hundred  and  seventy-two  in  1877,  showing  a,  considerable 
net  increase  during  the  past  few  years. 

Sperm  whaling  has  not  been  attended  with  great  success,  the  whales  being  scarce  on  nearly  every  ground,  owing 
to  the  size  of  the  fleet.  No  very  largo  catches  have  been  obtained,  the  best  fares,  perhaps,  having  been  taken  in  the 
South  Atlantic,  oft' the  coast  of  Africa. 

Eight  \\haling  has  yielded  better  results,  the  Arctic  Heel  averaging  951  barn-Is  of  oil  and  1 1,000  pounds  of  whale- 
bone, the  best  exhibit  for  many  years.  One  vessel  was  lost,  and  two  others  are  supposed  to  be  frozen  in  the  ice. 
Even  should  these'  vessels  be  lost  no  apprehensions  are  felt  for  the  safety  of  those  on  board,  as  they  are  commanded 
by  experienced  Arctic  navigators,  who  are  equal  to  almost  any  emergency,  and  the  near  presence  of  the  exploring 
steamer  .leannette  is  an  additional  safeguard.  In  the  South  Atlantic  the  fleet  met  with  fair  success,  as  did  also  some 
of  the  vessels  in  Hudson  Bay  and  that,  vicinity.  Humpbackiiig  has  been  followed  with  average  success,  and  is  at 
present,  in  better  favor  on  account  of  the  high  price  of  the  oil.  The  price  of  whalebone  has  stimulated  both  northern 
ami  southern  right  whaling,  of  which  many  vessels  have  availed  themselves  to  their  advantage  during  the  continued 
scarcity  of  sperm  whale.s. 

The  export  of  sperm  oil  has  fallen  off  (be  past  year,  principally  owing-  to  the  largo  purchases  the  previous  year, 
1-T'J  opening  in  England  with  a  stock  of  20,000  barrels  and  about  7,000  barrels  then  being  in  transit.  Of  the  35,000 
barrels  estimated  to  arrive  the  coming  year,  it,  is  probable  the  greater  portion  will  be  needed  for  home  consumption. 
Dining  the  fall,  when  the  price  remained  at  71  cents  per  gallon,  our  manufacturers  purchased  freely,  it  being  very 
evident  that  it  must  advance  in  sympathy  with  other  merchandise,  and  they  were  rewarded  for  their  enterprise  by 
largely  increased  siles  to  consumers  at,  better  rales. 

Sperm  oil  opened  the  year  at  (,)0  cents  per  gallon,  advanced  to  94  cents  in  February,  and  from  that  time  gradually 
declined  to  70  cents  in  September,  remaining  at  those  figures  during  that  month  and  through  October,  advancing  in 
November  to  si  and  closed  the  year  with  oilers  at  an  advance  on  the  latter  figure,  holders,  however,  asking  from  $1.05 
to  si. 10.  Present  prospects  point  to  a  gradual  advance  during  the  year,  and  as  it  has  been  proved  that  the  oil  cannot 
be  produced  at  a  l"ss  cost  than  SI. •_';">  per  gallon,  owing  to  the  heavy  advance  in  the  cost  of  oullits,  owners  of  vessels 
arriving  will  not  incline  to  send  them  to  sea  again  unless  they  are  confident  a  paying  price  can  be  obtained. 

The  present  stock,  consisting  of  about  Hi, 000  barrels,  a  portion  of  which  is  of  inferior  quality  and  unsuitable  for 
export,  is  probably  sufficient  to  supply  the  demand  until  the  new  oil  commences  arriving  in  May,  being  at  a  period 
rather  later  than  usual. 

Arctic  whale  oil  opened  the  year  at  38  to  40  cents  per  gallon,  at  which  figures  it  remained  until  October,  when  a 
gradual  advance  in  oils  having  taken  place,  quotations  gradually  rose  to  f>5  ©  (iO  cents  at  the  close  of  the  year,  there 
being  uo  stock  on  hand  except  some  lots  that  have  remained  on  our  wharves  many  years. 

South  Sea  and  humpback  oil  opened  in  January  at,  !!5  cents  per  gallon,  declined  to  32  cents  in  June,  gradually 
rose  to  40  cents  in  October,  to  50  cents  in  November,  and  59  cents  iu  December,  closing  the  year  at  the  latter  figure, 
a.  most  gratifying  fact  after  the  dcpressii f  the  last  two  years. 

Arctic  whalebone  from  |3.25  per  pound  in  January,  declined  to  ,s,',  in  ilareh,  f-J.f>0  in  June,  |2  in  .September,  and 
to  §1.90  in  November,  advancing  iu  December  to  s-J.'25,  at  which  price1  purchases  could  not  be  effected  at  tho  close  of 
the  year.  South  Sea  whalebone  from  about  $2.50  per  pound  in  January ,  declined  to  si  .70  in  June,  $1.50  in  September, 
and  then  advanced,  closing  the  year  with  sales  at  §1.110  per  pound. 

Referring  to  our  estimate  of  imports  for  the  past  year,  our  calculations  wen-  correct  as  regards  sperm  and  whale 
oil.  The  importation  of  whale-bone  slightly  exceeds  our  limit,  it  being  difficult  to  foresee  the  success  of  the  Arctic 
fleet. 

TRADE    REVIMW    FOU    1880. 

Hi-rii'ir  of  lh<-  whale  Jixlifri/  j'"r  l^~o. — The  year  I860  will  be  long  remembered  as  a  remarkable  period  in  tho  business 
enterprises  of  i  he  country,  ami  although  the  wave  of  prosperity  that  has  swept  over  the  United  States  has  not 
placed  whaling  interests  in  a  profitable  position,  we  cherish  the  hope  they  may  yet  be  benefited. 

The  business  has  been,  to  a  certain  extent,  changed  during  the  past  two  or  three  years  by  the  constant  retirement 
of  vessels,  of  which  twenty-eight  now  lie  at  our  wharves  and  a  few  others  have  been  sold.  Of  the  number  to  arrive 
the  present,  year  many  will  be  rclircd,  and  the  fleet  bids  fair  to  be  much  reduced.  Right  whaling  is  now  the  order 
of  the  day,  as  its  prospects  appear  better  than  catching  of  sperm  oil  a!  present  prices,  and  if  the  sperm  whales  are 
neglected  for  a  time,  u  h,  knows  but  that  we  shall  find  them  after  a  while  as  abundant  as  a  few  years  since. 

SEC.  v,  VOL.  ii 11 


102  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

Largo  lares  of  wbale  oil  are  more  easily  taken  than  of  sperm,  and  the  business  is  of  a  more  lively  and  exciting 
nature,  while  the  usual  high  price  of  whalebone  makes  it  more  profitable.  May  success  attend  the  efforts  of  the  many 
vessels  who  are  to  follow  t  bat  branch  of  the  fishery  during  the  present  and  coming  years! 

Our  present  licet  numbers  177  vessels  at  sea  and  in  port,  against  178  last  year,  Iftj  in  lr<?9,  and  1*7  in  1878. 

Sperm  whaling  lias  m>t  been  a  success,  vessels  in  the  North  Atlantic  making  a  fair  average,  and  those  on  liiver 
1'late  and  Tristan  doing  poorly,  \vbile  on  the  coast  of  Africa  catches  were  good,  and  some  vessels  took  large  fares. 
On  New  Zealand  the  fleet  met  with  poor  success,  excepting  one  vessel,  and  on  Cbili  .sperm  whales  were  not  so  abun- 
dant as  formerly.  Near  Gallipagos  Island  and  vicinity  two  vessels  did  well,  and  the  Indian  Ocean  and  New  Holland 
were  entirely  neglected.  Tbe  continued  low  price  for  sperm  oil  and  the  scarcity  of  whales  have  discouraged  many 
who  have  long  followed  this  branch,  and  the  success  of  right  whalers  induces  them  to  change  to  that  which  appears 
more  remunerative. 

Eight  whaling  has  yielded  good  results.  In  the  Arctic  Ocean  whales  were  very  abundant,  and  the  quantities  ol1 
oil  taken  were  limited  by  the  size  of  Hie  vessels  and  the  number  of  casks,  the  fleet  averaging  ],400  barrels  of  oil  and 
22,000  pounds  of  whalebone,  being  tbe  handsomest  return  for  many  years.  No  traces  were  found  of  the  two  whalers 
missing  the  year  previous.  In  the  different  southern  oceans  right  whaling  was  prosecuted  by  a  large  number  of  ves- 
sels with  varying  success,  and  during  the  summer  large  catches  of  humpback  were  made  on  the  coasts  of  South 
America  and  Africa,  the  high  juice  compared  with  other  oils  stimulating  many  in  that  direction. 

Sperm  oil  opened  the  year  at.  $1  per  gallon,  advanced  to  $1.07  in  March,  declined  to  §1.02-$  in  May,  and  to  87 
cents  iii  July  ;  advanced  to  90  cents  in  August,  to  95  cents  in  September,  and  to  9-<  cents  in  October,  closing  the  year 
at,  the  latter  figure.  Tbe  stock  of  crude  oil  in  hands  of  importers,  manufacturers,  and  others,  both  in  Europe  and  this 
country,  is  much  less  than  at  this  time  last  year.  The  quantity  afloat  is  4.. Mill  barrels  less. 

Tbe  consumption  of  sperm  oil  has  been  fully  equal  to  that  of  the  past  few  years,  and  possibly  somewhat  increased, 
ami  in  Europe  it  is  expected  the  figures  when  received  will  show  that  the  consumption  there  was  nearly  if  not  quite 
up  to  the  average  of  previous  years. 

Arctic  whale  oil  opened  the  year  at  60  cents  per  gallon,  declined  to  50  cents  in  April,  and  to  46  cents  in  May, 
advanced  to  fi5  cents  in  August,  and  declined  to  50  cents  at  the  close  of  the  year.  South  Sea  and  humpback  oils  have 
sold  at  from  2  to  3  cents  less  per  gallon  than  Arctic. 

Arctic  whalebone  was  at  $2.25  per  pound  in  January,  $2  in  May,  and  $2.30  in  June,  advanced  further  to  $2.50  in 
Angust,  but  declined  in  November  to  $1.30,  closing  the  year  at  that  figure,  the  heavy  catch  weakening  the  market. 
The  price  of  South  Sea  whalebone  has  ruled  at  about  25  cents  per  pound  less  than  Arctic. 

TRADE   REVIEW,   1858  TO  1881. 

The  Oil,  Paint,  and  Drug  Reporter,  of  November  23, 1881,  gives  the  following  interesting  review 
of  the  whale  fishery  in  an  article  entitled  "Whale  and  sperm  oils": 

The  appearance  of  large  bodies  of  whales  in  the  Atlantic  along  the  United  States  coast,  during  the  summer  and 
up  to  a  very  recent  date  has  suggested  the  possibility  of  resuming  operations  on  tbe  ground  abandoned  years  ago.  The 
reason,  perhaps,  that  the  presence  of  those  whales  has  not  attracted  more  attention  is  tbat  they  belong  to  the  hump- 
back [mostly  finback]  species,  which  produce  no  whalebone,  and  therefore  aie  not  a  prolitable  catch  except  in  times 
of  high  prices.  The  only  demount  rat  ions  tbat  have  been  made  against  them  so  far  liase  been  the  shooting  of  a  few  in 
Provincetown  Harbor,  Massachusetts,  and  the  fitting  out  of  a  schooner  from  that  port.  This  vessel  cruised  along  tbe 
eoast  of  Maine  during  the  summer  and  took  about  100  or  150  barrels  humpback  oil.  This  result  was  not  sufficiently 
alluring  to  induce  others  to  follow  the  example  of  the  owners  of  the  schooner,  though  we-  believe  a  menhaden  steamer 
did  cruise  in  tbe  neighborhood  of  Block  Island  for  a  time  without  making  a  haul.  The  recent  appearance  of  a  large 
school  of  sperm  whales  in  ihc  Middle  Atlantic,  however,  suggests  the  idea  that  the  whaling  industry  might  be  profit- 
ably revived  in  these  waters  at  no  distant  day.  There  are  many  considerations  to  be  taken  into  account,  before  such 
a  venture  could  be  made,  the  most  important  of  which  are  the  prices  that  can  be  obtained  for  the  oil.  Since  the  time 
when  whale  and  sperm  oils  began  to  be  supplanted  by  cheaper  illurninat  ing  and  lubricating  oils,  the  whale  fisheries 
have  been,  naturally,  on  the  decrease,  as  the  result  of  competition  has  been  to  force  prices  down  to  a  point  barely 
covering  the  cost  of  catching.  The  cost  of  catching  sperm  oil  largely  depends,  of  course,  upon  the  price  of  labor  at 
the  port  where  the  vessel  is  fitted  out  and  the  cost  of  such  fitting  out,  an  important  article  of  which  is  the  provision, 
which,  for  a  long  voyage,  such  as  is  now  made,  is  composed  largely  of  salt  pork,  beef,  and  canned  goods.  The  lowest 
prices  at  which  sperm  oil  can  now  lie  laid  down  in  New  Bedford  is  variously  estimated  at  90  to  95  cents  per  gallon, 
which  at  the  best  prices  at  present  obtainable  for  export  or  home  consumption  leaves  a  very  small  margin  of  profit  to 
I  lie  whalemen.  The.  profits  in  right-whale  oil  fishing  are  largely  dependent  upon  a  freak  of  fashion.  At  tirst  sight 
such  a  statement  might  seem  somewhat  ludicrous  to  the  ordinary  reader,  but  nevertheless  the  change  in  the  mode  of 
female  attire  plays  an  important  part  in  the  market  rates  of  whale  oil.  If  it  is  the  fashion  to  wear  much  whalebone 
in  articles  of  dress,  then  the  demand  for  that  article  becomes  of  such  importance  that  the  whale-catcher  derives  a 
sufficient  profit  from  its  sale  to  render  the  price  of  oil  a  matter  of  secondary  importance.  But  it  would  require  an 
enormous  demand  for  whalebone  to  do  away  with  the  necessity  of  obtaining  something  for  the  oil,  and  although  the 
i.isbiou  in  dress  for  a  number  of  sears  past  has  required  the  annual  use  of  immense,  quantities  of  whalebone,  still  this 
has  not  been  sufficient  to  keep  t  he  s\  haling  industry  from  going  into  a  decline,  because  a  sufficient  return  could  not  be 
had  for  the  oil.  As  sperm  oil  has  to  depend  upon  its  own  merits,  the  sperm  whale. yielding  no  other  valuable  product , 
its  competition  with  other  oils  has  seriously  detracted  from  its  importance,  and  at  the  same  time  reduced  the  profits 
of  the  industry  to  a  point,  as  we  said  above,  a,  little  niorp  than  half  tbe  cost  of  catching.  * 


Till']  WHALE  FISHERY.  1(53 

Tlir  annual  report  ot"  the  New  York  Chamber  of  Commerce  for  1838,  in  commenting  upon  the  condition  of  the 
\\  li:ilr  fisheries  during  that  year,  says: 

prospects  for  the  coming  year  arc  far  from  flattering,  but  upon  the  whole,  perhaps  not  less  encouraging  than 
:ii  the  commencement  of  the  year  thai  has  now  passed.  There  will,  from  present  appearances,  be  a  further  diminu- 
tion nl'  vessels  employed  in  the  fleet,  and  with  a  diminished  competition  the  business  may  again  regain  a  healthy 
state.  Oilier  fields  of  enterprise  now  opened  and  opening  present  better  opportunities  for  investment  than  are  now 
utl'ered  ill  the  \\  hale  fishery." 

li  \\asalniut  this  lime  that  pet i oleum  oils  for  illuminating  and  lubricating  purposes  wore  beginning  to  attract 
attention,  but  they  had  not  yet  attained  much  commercial  importance.  The  same  authority  quoted  above,  in  its 
i<  \  ie\v  ot  (ho  industry  for  the  year  1861,  says: 

•'  The  average  price  of  whale  oil  has  been  something  more  than  5  cents  per  gallon  less  than  the  year  1860.  This 
has  been  owing  to  the  introduction  of  petroleum  and  kerosene  oils,  which  have  in  a  great  measure  taken  the  place  of 
\\  hale  oil  for  illuminating  purposes." 

The  first  of  hydrocarbon  Inbricatiugoils  was  produced  at  Mecca,  Ohio.  It  is  undoubtedly  the  best  oil  of  its  class 
ever  put  on  the  mark. -t  ;  but,  unfortunately,  it  did  not  last,  and  it  is  now  almost  forgotten.  Small  quantities  of  it  are 
still  produced  by  sand  pumps,  and  tii  id  a  read}  sale  at  I  he  wells  at  $40  per  barrel.  It  was  a  natural  oil,  and  when  it  first 
Appeared  on  the  market  was  of  about  v!fi  gravity.  In  1866  or  1868,  West  Virginia  natural  oils  first  began  to  attract 
ihe  attention  of  the.  oil  trade.  They  were  obtained  mostly  from  shallow  wells  and  were  from  27  to  28  gravity.  Their 
appearance  on  the  market  had  a  very  serious  effect  on  the  sale  of  whale  oil,  for  the  railroad  companies  who  had  pre- 
viously taken  the  latter  for  lubricating  purposes,  owing  to  the  high  cost  of  sperm  oil,  readily  took  the  mineral  oil  at 
good  prices,  one  road  paying  as  high  as  §1  per  gallon  for  it.  The  result  was  that  whale  oil  steadily  declined  from 
si  -.'.",  per  gallon  to  about  70  cents,  and  it  has  never  since  (with  the  exception  of  a  short  time  in  1869)  got  beyond  that 
point.  The  West  Virginia  oils  have  deteriorated  somewhat  since  then,  and  prices  are,  of  course,  much  lower.  The 
shallow  wells  are  nearly  all  exhausted,  and  the  oils  now  produced  run  from  33  to  40  gravity,  though  a  small  percent- 
age of  oil  of  a  specific  gravity  as  heavy  as  29  degrees  is  still  obtained.  From  the  time  of  the  introduction  of  the  hydro- 
carbon oils.the  importance  of  the  products  of  the  whale  has  steadily  declined,  and  thus  one  of  the  largest  industries  of 
the  United  States  has  sunk,  comparatively  speaking,  into  insignificance.  By  the  end  of  1869  it  began  to  be  apparent 
that  the  business  had  entirely  lost  its  former  prestige,  and  verj  discouraging  views  of  the  future  were  entertained. 
From  a  review  published  at  the  beginning  of  1671  we  extract  the  following: 

"  The  year  1870.  like  its  predecessor,  has  been  one  of  poor  returns  to  those  engaged  in  the  whale  fishery.  The 
prices  of  our  staples,  which  at  (he  opening  were  considered  unremunerative,  steadily  declined  throughout  the  year, 
closing  at  the  lowest,  quotation  of  any  year  since  1861.  The  decline  in  sperm  oil  was  owing  to  the  limited  consump- 
tion of  the  article,  together  wit  h  a  large  stock  on  hand  at  the  beginning  of  the  year,  and  the  unexpected  large  import, 
being  about  10,000  barrels  in  excess  of  the  estimate  for  the  year,  while  whale  oil  and  whalebone  were  similarly  affected 
by  the  introduction  largely  of  cotton-seed  oil  and  a  closed  foreign  market,  caused  by  the  European  war,  to  which  we 
export  largely,  especially  of  bone.  We  note  that  while  the  importation  of  seal  oil  has  been  restricted  by  a  higher 
tariff,  that  cotton-seed  oil  has  stepped  into  its  place,  and  claims  its  share  of  consumption,  which  is  by  no  means  limited, 
7.1,000  barrels,  it  is  estimated,  having  beeu  marketed  the  present  year.  *  *  '  Our  merchants  do  not  look  upon  the 
future  of  whaling  with  encouragement,  and  seem  disposed  to  distrust  it  as  to  its  pecuniary  results,  induced  more  by 
extraneous  causes  than  inherent,  having  to  add  to  the  list  of  its  competitors  lard,  petroleum,  and  seal  oil,  that  of  cot- 
ton-seed oil,  said  by  its  advocates  to  be  but  in  its  infancy." 

The  importance  of  the  competition  with  cotton-seed  oil  was  not  overestimated,  as  has  been  practically  demonstrated 
since.  Fish  oil  also  has  assumed  an  important  place  among  the  list  of  competitors.  It  is  not  astonishing,  in  view  of 
all  the  circumstances,  that  the  whale  fishery  should  have  ceased  to  exert  an  important  influence  upon  the  commerce 
of  the  country;  but  it  has  left  many  evidences  of  its  former  glory  behind.  Along  our  coast  are  a  number  of  ports 
once  teeming  with  life  and  activity,  their  inhabitants  nearly  all  identified,  in  one  way  or  another,  with  what  was 
then  one  of  the  most  remunerative  industries  of  the  United  States.  Now  these  ports  are  silent  and  deserted;  their 
once  busy  wharves  arc  vacant  and  fallen  into  decay  ;  their  streets  are  grass-grown,  and  most  of  their  inhabitants 
have  long  since  departed.  In  place  of  the  numerous  harbors  affording  shelter  for  the  large  fleet  of  whalers,  one  or 
Iv."  ports  now  sut'liee  to  shelter  them  all. 

What  possibilities  there  may  be  for  a  revival  of  the  former  greatness  of  Ihe  industry  remains  for  the  future  to 
show  ;  bur  so  far  as  the  immediate  future  is  concerned  there  seems  to  be  no  good  reason  to  believe  that  further  depre- 
riai  ion  in  t  lie  value  of  whale  or  sperm  oil  will  occur.  Prices  have  at  last  touched  "  rock-bottom,"  and  there  are  now 
indications  of  improvement.  Foreign  consumers  manifest  a  strong  prejudice  in  favor  of  these  staples,  and  as  long  as 
they  can  be  obtained  at  a  reasonable  price,  an  export  outlet  is  assured.  With  regard  to  the  home  consumption,  it  is 
impossible,  unless  the  production  of  mineral  oils  should  greatly  decrease,  that  it  can  ever  again  attaiu  the  prominence 
it  once  enjoyed.  The  h\ ilrocarboii  oils,  which  at  tirst  seriously  interfered  with  the  consumption  of  whale  and  sperm, 
now  help  it.  as  many  of  the  manufactured  mineral  lubricating  oils  contain  more  or  less  of  these  products  which  are 
used  to  give  body  and  weight  to  the  lubricants.  In  this  way,  also,  a  certain  outlet  is  assured.  *  * 

A  factor  in  the  whale-oil  trade,  which  promises  to  attain  some  prominence  in  the  future,  is  the  shipment  of  oil  by 
rail  from  San  Francisco  by  tank  cars.  The  project  was  first  made  known  last  fall  at  the  close  of  the  whaling 
season,  but  did  not  make  much  headway.  This  year  it  was  renewed,  but  so  far  has  met  with  little  success,  apart  from 
exerting  a  depressing  influence  upon  the  Eastern  markets.  So  far  as  we  can  learn  there  is  not  much  oil  to  come  that 
way,  the  bulk  of  the  catch  being  shipped  in  the  usual  manner.  It  is  likely  that  5,000  to  8,000  barrels  will  be 


1(54  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

marketed  in  San  Francisco,  and  part  of  this  may  find  its  way  East  by  tank  cars.  Some  of  this  has  already  been  sold, 
but  it  is  impossible  to  tell  how  much.  On  its  way  to  the  East  its  arrival  at  different  points  on  the  route  has  been 
telegraphed  here,  and  such  inforinatiou  has  usually  been  taken  as  indicating  a  new  s;ile. 

The  following  reviews  for  1881,  18S2,  1883,  and  1884  are  by  Messrs.  I.  H.  Bartlett  &  Sous,  of 
New  Bedford: 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR   1881. 

Review  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1881. — The  year  has  been  generally  free  of  disasters,  only  four  vessels  having  been 
lost.  Otherwise  their  has  been  no  special  feature  of  note.  Arctic  whaling  has  yielded  good  returns,  while  sperm  oil 
has  not  been  found  abundant.  The  most  of  the  voyages  closed  during  the  year  were  successful,  and  the  outlook  for 
the  future  would  be  good  if  better  prices  could  be  obtained,  and  tbe  business  relieved  of  the  many  clogs  and  hin- 
drances which  have  lor  many  years  oppressed  United  States  shipping,  and  which  have  been  so  ably  set  forth  in  the 
recent  report  of  the  cominil  lee  appointed  by  the  New  York  Chamber  of  Commerce.  Promiueut  features  in  that, 
report,  were,  the  payment  of  time  mouths'  wages  to  discharged  seamen,  now  exacted  by  no  other  nation,  and  the 
protection  granted  to  deserters  by  consular  authorities  and  foreign  Governments. 

The  piesent  whaling  Heel,  numbers  one  hundred  and  sixty-one  vessels,  against  one  hundred  and  seventy-seven  a 
year  ago.  a  icduelion  of  sixteen. 

Sperm  whaling  continues  to  droop,  and  vessels  have  generally  had  but  moderate  MICCT.SS,  those  on  the  African 
coast,  and  on  Chili  having  made  the  largest  catches,  while  in  other  quarters  (lie  year's  work  has  been  small. 

li'iglit  whaling  has  beeu  successfully  prosecuted.  The  Arctic  ileet  took  good  tares  of  oil  and  bone,  as  our  tables 
will  show,  remunerating  those  who  invested  their  capital  and  labor  in  that,  direction,  but  we  sadly  record  the 
evii  lei  ice  indicating  there  is  no  hope  of  finding  alive  the  crews  of  the  two  whalers  that  were  ice-bound  two  years  since. 
We  however  welcome  the  news  of  the  safety  of  a  part  or  all  of  the  Jeauuctte's  company,  and  further  tidings  of  them 
is  now  daily  expected. 

The  price  of  sperm  oil  in  January  last  was  nominally  98  cents  per  gallou,  but  owing  to  the  immense  stock  on  hand 
sales  could  not  have  been  effected  to  any  extent  at  over  8.")  to  OH  cents.  The  price  declined  to  rtl  cents  in  May  and 
June,  rose  to  82|  cents  in  July,  and  gradually  advanced  till  it  reached  '.).",  cents  in  October,  at  which  price  it  closed 
the  year,  with  some  sales  in  the  latter  part  at  a  slight  advance  on  that  figure.  The  incubus  of  stock  that  has  for  so 
long  a  time  weighed  like  a  wet  blanket  on  our  sperm-whaling  interests  has  now  been  removed,  and  no  mariner 
returning  from  a  four  years'  voyage  ever  hailed  with  more  satisfaction  the  sight  of  his  home  port,  than  do  our  mer- 
chants the  contemplation  of  the  fact  that,  the  stock  of  sperm  oil  for  the  whole  of  the  present,  year  will  be  less  in 
quantity  than  the  consumption  of  the  last. 

Whale  oil  opened  the  year  at  48  cents  per  gallon  for  Arctic,  dropped  temporarily  to  45  cents  in  May,  advanced  in 
June  and  July  to  55  cents,  and  continued  at  about  that  figure  the  remainder  of  the1  year,  closing  at  53  cents.  Hump- 
back and  South  Sea  oils  have  ruled  at  about,  3  cents  per  gallon  less. 

The  price  of  whalebone  opened  the  year  at  $1.:!U  per  pound,  advancing  soon  to  $1.75  to  $1.90,  and  continuing  at 
about  these  figures  until  fall,  closing  the  year  at,  §1.40.  South  Sea  bone  has  sold  for  about  20  cents  per  pound  less. 

TRADE  REVIEW  FOB  1B82. 

Review  of  the  whale  fishery  for  1882. — The  year  just  closed  has  been  without  features  of  special  note.  Several  vessels 
have  been  lost  at  sea,  mostly  in  different  localities,  the  only  loss  of  life  being  the  officers  and  crew  of  schooner  Pilot's 
Bride,  of  New  London.  At  home,  the  continued  low  price  of  sperm  oil  has  discouraged  those  engaged  in  that  branch 
of  the  business,  and  fast  leading  to  its  discontinuance. 

The  present  whaling  fleet  numbers  one  hundred  and  forty-seven,  against,  one  hundred  and  sixty-one  a  year  ago, 
of  which  number  one  hundred  and  five  are  now  at  sea.  Many  of  those  in  port  are  to  be  withdrawn  for  merchant 
service,  while  others  have  become  too  dilapidated  to  warrant  repairs. 

Sperm  whaling  during  the  past  year  has  continued  to  droop,  only  eight  vessels  having  taken  in  excess  of  500 
barrels  each,  of  which  four  cruised  on  the  coast  of  Chili,  and  four  in  other  localities.  The  owners,  tired  of  small 
catches  and  ridiculously  low  prices,  are  changing  their  vessels  to  right  whaling  or  withdrawing  them  from  the  busi- 
ness. Indications  point  to  an  import  of  20,000  barrels  for  the  present  year,  and  a  probable  reduction  in  the  future. 
As  the  oil  cannot  be  produced  at  a  less  cost  than  $1.25  per  gallon,  we  cannot  blame  our  merchants  for  transferring 
their  time  and  capital  to  other  enterprises. 

Right  whaling  has  been  prosecuted  with  fair  success.  Thirty  vessels  cruised  in  the  Northern  Pacific,  averaging 
to  each  707  barrels  of  oil  and  11,730  pounds  of  whalebone,  in  addition  to  which  they  took  on  their  between-season 
cruises  an  aggregate  of  2,800  barrels  sperm,  720  barrels  whale  oil,  and  4,0(0  pounds  of  whalebone. 

Two  vessels  were  lost  in  the  Arctic  in  the  early  part  of  the  season  by  being  crushed  in  the  ice.  If  bad  weather 
had  not  unexpectedly  prevailed  during  the  latter  part  of  tbe  season,  the  catch  would  have  been  much  larger.  Many 
additions  are  to  be  made  to  the  fleet  the  coming  vear. 

The  Southern  right  whalers  were  quite  fortunate,  and  fair  catches  were  made  on  the  Tristan  grounds  and  other 
localities. 

The  consumption  of  our  different  products  is  an  interesting  subject,  and  one  that,  requires  from  us  some  attention. 
It  has  always  been  our  custom  to  report  as  the  consumption  for  the  year  the  amounts  clea  red  from  our  import,  markets 
by  tbe  refiners  and  manufacturers,  regardless  of  the  stocks  the  latter  were  carrying  at  the  close  of  the  year.  The 


Till:   NVHALE  FISHERY.  165 

continuance   ut'  this  ciislnm    h-d  us  in   report  for   the  year    lss|  ;,  i>iuisiiiii|il  inn  nf  sperm  nil  in  this  cminlry  nf  2,r>,S7.ri 
barrels,  and  iu  Kngland  c>t'::,lllill  Inns  or  :',0,OIMI  barrels,  an  aggregate  of  55,000  barn-Is,  when  actually  the  large  sfncUs 
in  refiners'  bauds  a.  year  ago  makes  it  probable  that  the  actual  consumption  was  not   much  in  excess  nl' Ki.niin  barrels. 
\\V  give  below  a,  carcfnlh   made  statement  of  the  estimated  actual  consumption  i'or  1H82: 

Barrels. 

Crude  sperm  nil  in  importers'  Lands  January  1,  1882 Hi,  275 

Crnde  sperm  oil  in  re  liners'  hands  in  United  States  and  England 10,300 

Crude  sperm  oil  imported  into  United  States  in  1882 29,875 

Crude  sperm  oil  imported  into  England  from  the  colonies,  &c 3,850 


66,300 
Less  stock  in  importers'  hands  January  1,  1883 20,100 

Less  stock  in  rentiers'  hands  in  United  States  and  importers'  and  refiners'  hands  in 
England 6,  000 

26, 100 


Net  eonsii  nipt  inn  for  the  year 40,200 

Whale  ml  is  rapidly  absorbed  as  snon  as  it  arrivesin  market,  and  whalebone  has  been  used  during  the  past  year 
In  a  greater  extent  than  heretofore. 

Sperm  oil,  from  9.3  cents  at  the  commencement,  nf  the  year,  advanced  steadily  to  $1.05  in  February,  si. 1(1  in  April. 
$1  11  in  July,  and  then  gradually  receded,  touching  il(>  cents  at  the  close  of  the  year. 

Whale  nil,  from  53  cents  in  .January,  gradually  advanced,  touching  .7.)  eentsin  September,  and  declining  in  Decent- 
IM-I  in  ~~>  cents. 

Whalebone  opened  the  year  at  $1.40  and  steadily  advanced,  touching  :•>.'.  25  in  October,  and  closing  I  he  \ear  at  frj. 

The  ipiautity  of  sperm  oil  at  present  on  board  of  the  whaling  fleet  is  5,300  barrels,  against  12.IWIO  barrels  a  year 
agn.  being  the  smallest  amount  known  in  our  experience. 

TRADE   REVIEW  FOR  1883. 

lieriew  uf  the  u-liale-jidicry  for  1883. — The  past  year  has  been  one  of  loss  to  those  engaged  in  this  business,  and  ils 
results  ha\e  been  discouraging.  The  failure  of  the  Arctic  season,  wiih  small  catches  in  other  localities,  has  bronuht. 
lint  small  remuneration  to  those  who  risk  their  capital  in  the  whale-fishery. 

The  fleet  now  numbers  one  hundred  and  twenty  MM-  vessels  of  all  .-lasses  hailing  from  Atlantic  ports,  against  one. 
hundred  and  thirty-eight  a  year  ago,  and  nineteen  from  San  Francisco,  as  against  eight  last  year.  The  number  of 
vessels  engaged  in  sperm  whaling  has  been  considerably  decreased,  owing  to  the  low  prices  of  oil,  while,  on  account 
nf  the  value  of  whalebone,  agents  are  inclined  to  send  most  of  their  vessels  to  the  Arctic  Ocean  and  other  right-whale 
regions.  Indications  point  to  a  steady  decrease  in  the  number  of  vessels  sailing  from  Atlantic .ports,  and  perhaps  a 
small  increase  in  the  number  sailing  from  San  Francisco  for  the  Arctic  Ocean. 

A  new  feature  of  the  past  year  arising  from  the  increase  of  Arctic,  whaling  a  t  San  Francisco  has  been  the.  estab- 
lishment of  extensive  works  at  that  place  for  the  manufacture  and  sale  of  whale  and  sperm  oil,  thus  enabling  the 
owners  there  located,  as  well  as  others  who  import  oils  at  that  place,  to  find  a  market  without  paying  the  heavy  cost 
of  shipping  tin-  same  to  the  Atlantic  seaboard.  It  is  understood  that  the  whole  Arctic  catch  of  oil,  about  10,00i I  barrels, 
has  been  purchased  at  San  Francisco  at  increased  prices.  Their  works,  in  addition  to  large  facilities  for  the  manu- 
t'act  lire  of  sperm  candles,  have  a  capacity  of  150  barrels  of  oil  per  day,  and  arc  to  be  enlarged  if  the  imports  at  I  hat 
place  and  the  sales  of  their  products  shall  warrant. 

Sperm  whaling  continues  to  decline,  and  no  catches  of  any  amount  were  made  during  the  year  except  a  few  in  the 
Atlantic  Ocean,  and  two  or  three  ofl'  Patagonia.  The  number  of  ships  and  barks  now  iu  that  fishery  at  sea  is  forty- 
eight,  most  of  which  will  folio  wright  whaling  during  half  of  the  year.  The  con  tinned  low  price  of  oil  will  soon  prevent 
the  business  being  followed  to  any  great  extent. 

Right  whaling  has  been  unfortunate,  and  the  season  iu  the  North  Pacific,  owing  to  prevalence  of  ice  and  bad 
weather,  was  a  failure.  Thirty-eight  vessels  cruised  there,  three  of  which  were  lost,  aud  the  remaining  thirty-live 
averaged  274  barrels  nf  oil  aud  4,350  pounds  of  whalebone  to  each.  The  southern  right  whalers  were  not  as  fort  una  te- 
as iu  the  previous  year,  and  their  general  success  was  moderate. 

The  price  of  sperm  oil  from  96  cents  per  gallon  on  January  1  rose  to  $1.05  iu  April  and  May,  and  from  that  time 
steadily  declined,  closing  the  year  at  90  cents. 

Whale  oil  from  55  ceuts  in  January  continued  at  about  the  same  price,  with  the  exception  of  a  rise  to  594  (cuts 
in  April,  until  December,  when  on  account  of  the  demand  at  San  Francisco  it  advanced,  closing  the  year  at  00  cents 
per  gallon  asked. 

Whalebone  opened  the  year  at  $2  per  pound  for  Arctic,  and  with  a  few  variations  steadily  advanced,  until  at  tin- 
close  of  the  year  it  sold  at  $4.75  per  pound. 

The  purchases  of  sperm  oil  for  consumption  during  the  year  have  amounted  to  32,200  barrels;  the  purchases  of 
whale  oil  to  23,600  barrels,  and  of  whalebone,  376,000  pounds ;  all  the  above  being  bought  at  Atlantic  ports,  besides 
the  purchases  at  San  Francisco  of  all  their  importations,  and  quite  an  amount  of  oil  aud  bone  belonging  to  New  Bed- 
ford vessels. 

Our  figures  of  imports  for  1883  do  uot  include  the  oil  and  bone  purchased  at  Sau  Francisco,  it  being  difficult  for 
us,  at  this  distance,  to  obtain  the  information  with  accuracy. 


166 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 


TRADE    REVIEW    FOR    1S.-4. 

Hcrieiv  of  the  whale-fishery  for  1884. — Another  year  has  passed,  and  its  results,  like  us  predecessors,  have  been 
unsatisfactory  and  discouraging  to  those  who  have  coutinu<  d  to  risk  their  capital  in  the  whale-fishery.  With  two  or 
three  exceptions  the  larger  el  ass  of  vessels  that  arrived  during  the  year  made  losing  voyages,  and  with  the  discouraging 
features  which  still  exist  it  is  doubtful  if  they  are  soon  fitted  out  agaiu.  Of  the  vessels  in  port  one-half  at  least  are 
known  to  be  for  sale,  and  of  those  expected  to  arrive  during  this  year  it  is  now  intended  that  a  number  will  be  offered 
for  sale. 

The  North  Atlantic  fleet  was  more  fortunate  on  the  whole  than  during  the  year  previous,  the  smaller  vessel* 
doing  the  best.  Some  good  catches  of  sperm  oil  were  made  on  the  west  coa,st  of  South  America  during  the  months 
from  April  to  October,  seven  vessels  averaging  TOn  barrels,  one  taking  l.'.'NH  barrels,  and  three  or  four  vessels  did 
quite  well  on  New  Holland. 

The  season  in  the  Arctic  was  better  than  that  of  1883,  but  not  fully  satisfactory,  except  to  some  having  steamers 
that  penetrated  the  ice,  which  the  sailing  vessels  considered  unsafe  to  enter,  thereby  obtaining  good  catches.  Thirty- 
nine  vessels  cruised  there,  and  the  only  loss  was  the  steamer  Bowhead,  of  San  Francisco,  the  first  one  built  by  the 
Pacific  Whaling  Company,  and  a  fine  vessel.  Her  catchings  had  been  previously  shipped  home.  The  fleet  averaged 
527  barrels  whale  oil  and  8,380  pounds  whalebone. 

Three  vessels  on  New  Zealand  did  well  right  whaling,  taking  an  average  of  7110  barrels. 

The  total  number  of  vessels  ol'  all  classes  engaged  in  the  business  is  one  hundred  and  thirty-three,  of  which  nine- 
teen hail  from  San  Francisco,  and  all  but  one  engaged  in  Arctic  whaling.  The  decrease  of  the  catching  p<  >W.T  during 
the  year  was  1,912  tons,  the  greater  portion  of  which  had  been  engaged  in  sperm  whaling. 

The  present  tonnage  of  the  entire  fleet  is  31,207,  of  which  3,432  is  at  home  ports.  Of  the  remaining  27,775  tons, 
about  one-half  is  exclusively  engaged  in  Arctic  whaling,  one-quarter  exclusively  sperm  whaling,  and  the  remaining 
one-quarter  sperm  and  right  whaling;  showing  the  tonnage  engaged  in  sperm  whaling  to  be  about  10,400  tons,  which 
is  about  20  per  cent,  less  than  last  year. 

The  consumption  of  sperm  oil  was  well  maintained,  notwithstanding  the  depressed  condition  of  business  all  over 
the  country  during  the  year. 

The  consumption  of  whale  oil  was  curtailed  in  consequence  of  lack  of  stock,  but  very  little  of  the  Northern  catch 
of  1883  having  been  sent  to  the  Eastern  market. 

In  consequence  of  the  high  price  of  whalebone,  the  consumption  was  not  as  large'  as  the  previous  year. 

The  exports  were  less  than  previous  years,  especially  of  sperm  oil,  a  large  stock  having  been  carried  over  in  Lon- 
don January  1,  1884.  The  consumption  in  Europe  of  sperm  oil  reached  13,0)50  barrels,  anil  the  stock  remaining  on 
hand  January  1,  1885,  426  tons,  is  about  one-ball' of  that  on  January  1,  l.<>4. 

Sperm  oil  began  the  year  at  90  cents,  touched  76  cents  in  November,  and  closed  at  77  cents  in  December. 

Whale  oil  began  the  year  at  liOU  cents,  touched  57  cents  in  November,  and  closed  at  54  cents  in  Decembn 

Whalebone  began  the  year  at  $4.75,  touched  $2  in  October,  and  closed  at  w2.:;5  in  December. 

Our  figures  of  imports  include  that  imported  into  San  Francisco  by  vessels  owned  there,  which  in  former  years 
were  omitted. 

We  estimate  the  import  of  sperm  oil  for  1NS5  at  17,000  to  20,000  barrels;  that,  of  whale  oil  and  whalebone  will 
depend  on  the  success  of  the  Arctic  fleet. 

(6)  STATISTICAL  TABLES  OF  PRODUCTS  AND  VALUES. 

Table  showing  the  receipts  from  the  American  fleet,  the  exports,  and  the  home  consumption  of  sperm  and  whale  oil  from  1860 

to  1884. 


Tear. 

Sperm  oil. 

Whale  oil. 

Tear. 

Sperm  nil. 

Wliiile  oil. 

S 

"a 

& 

Exports. 

Home  cou 
sumption. 

Keceipts. 

Exports. 

H 
if 

o  a 
W" 

Receipts. 

Exports. 

gg 

°.2 
„& 

a  8 

0  P 

M" 

Receipts. 

Exports. 

Home  con- 
sumption. 

I860  
1861  
1862  

1863 

Bbls. 

73,  708 
68,  932 
55,  641 
65,  055 
64,  372 
3.!,  242 
36,  663 
43,433 
47,  174 
47,  930 
55,  183 
41,  534 
45,  201 

Bbls. 
32,  792 
37,  547 
27,  976 
18,  366 
45,  000 
20,  158 
10,  630 
25,  147 
18,  916 
18,  645 
22,  733 
22,  156 
24,344 

Bbls. 
38,  507 
31,091 
27,  759 
32,  527 
30,  190 
27,  606 

in,  1:3 

22,  986 
23,  258 
17,  239 
28,  812 
33,  528 
24,  052 

Bbls. 
140,005 

133,717 
100,  478 
62,  974 
71,  863 
76,  238 
74,  302 
89,  289 
65,  575 
85,  Oil 
72,  091 
75,  152 
31,075 

SMs. 
13,  007 
49,  969 
68,  583 
11,297 
13,  000 
1,660 
618 
18,  253 
9,885 
3,842 
9,872 
18,141 
1,528 

Bbls. 
143,  009 
105,  839 
67,  254 
t)5,  352 
62,  528 
64,  107 
69,  534 
58,  836 
72,  390 
56,  236 
68,  452 
63,  Oil 
42,  852 

1873  

fbla. 
42,  053 
32,  203 
42,617 
39,811 
41,119 
;  ;.  508 
41,  308 
37,  614 
30,  600 
29,884 
24,  595 
22,  099 

Bbls. 

18,  67.r. 
22,  HI-J 
23,600 
18,047 

11,843 
13,283 
16,600 
13,  006 
13,  996 
5,143 

SbU. 

21,  1:111 
21,768 
18,45! 
14.4?:i 
31,737 
11,  U'4 
23,315 
13,750 
25,  27.', 
13,  053 
17,324 
ir>,  4S1 

Bbls. 
40,  014 
37,  782 
:i4.  r.!)4 
33,010 
27,  191 
33,  77* 
23,  334 
34,776 

23,371 

24,  170 
24,  670 

Bbls. 
2,153 
3,  300 
5,  424 
10,  300 
i.    
14,371 
7,374 
4.  395 
(i  r.n 
4,421 
4,543 
2,343 

Bbls. 

33,  881 
44,  357 
31,  860 
22,  620 
20,  501 
1-J,  r.r.7 
24,885 
23,  858 
32,000 
21,425 
19,  052 
23,777 

1874  

1875  

1876 

1864 

1877 

1865 

1878 

1866 

1879 

1867 

1880 

1868 

1881 

1869 

1882 

1870 

1883 

1871 

1884 

1872 

TIIK  \\IIALI;  nsiiKi;v. 


1G7 


Table  showing  tin  mri/i/.< //•<»«  tin-  American  fleet,  the  home  consumption,  <uul  tin-  r.rjiin  •/»  uf  «•/«(/<  //<n/.  jnnn  l.-i;.",  in  |,-,- 1 


Received. 

Consumed. 

Exported. 

Tear. 

K«'i  eivril. 

Consumed. 

Exported. 

1865 

Pov 

Pounds. 

ii  •  ii    i 

1875 

Pound* 
372  303 

Pou, 
1  !'•  Ilh7 

J'ounds. 

•'()'>  4' 

i  ;;:.-, 

4''ll   17"> 

5"!  400 

1876 

150  6°8 

1867 

1  001  397 

181  631 

717  7Mt> 

1877 

100  °°0 

67  8°0 

70  8( 

1888 

"4G  '181; 

704  882 

1878 

MI;  .-,','1 

113  4( 

1S69 

603  603 

197  101 

311  605 

1879 

286  280 

i. 

75  71 

1^7(1 

-155  347 

347  *>18 

1880 

4lil   fl"S 

176  770 

171  '7^ 

1871    .    . 

600  655 

319  856 

387  199 

1SX1                       

202  000 

106,  0( 

. 

193  793 

74  141 

177  :i:;-j 

1S82       

•J.71   null 

L'll   oil) 

175,4' 

206  396 

155.  351 

120  545 

1883  

L'.M  037 

198  423 

175,  61 

345  560 

200,  807 

165  553 

1884          

426  968 

109,144 

1  13,  OS 

Table  shotting  the  value  of  oil  and  i>anc  lumli  d  lii/  l/n-  .liitiricnii  irlmlintj  fleet,  the  value  of  tli?  proportion  consumed  in  the 
I  ~ni  lid  Slates,  and  the  ralue  of  the  proportion  is]><»-t<-d  during  the  years  1865  to  1880. 


Tear. 

Value  of  oil  and 
buno  landed. 

Value  of  oil  and 
bone  consumed 
in  the  United 
States. 

Value  of  oil  and 
bone  exported. 

Tear. 

Value  of  oil  and 
bone  landed. 

Value  of  oil  and 
boneconsumed 
in  the  United 
States. 

Value  of  oil  ana 
bone  exported. 

1865 

$6,  906,  650  51 
7,  037,  891  23 
6,  356,  772  51 
5  470  157  43 

$5,  564,  786  26 
4,766,  5!>7  B8 
3,189,220  19 
3,  568,  082  30 
3,  013,  426  34 
2,896,883  19 
2,  798,  408  97 
2,  081,  468  87 

$1,8»8,  399  75 
1,591,727  82 
:i,ll34,9?7  12 
2,  106,  985  72 
1..V.4,  956  25 
1,  1711,864  85 
1,479,153  69 
1,  374,  098  37 

1873     

82,  962,  106  96 
2,  713,  034  51 
3,314,800  24 
2,  639,  463  31 
2,  309,  569  69 
..',  029  55 
2,  056,  069  08 
2,  659,  725  03 

$1,  947,  037  50 
2,  154,  638  63 
1,  700,  823  45 
1,  346,  828  00 
1,113,681  00 
849,  043  12 
1,  345,  582  05 
1,  165,  944  00 

$929,  247  94 
1,179,286  32 
1,494,727  64 
1,  487,  533  00 
'.124,  175  CO 
1,357,162  34 
582,  994  17 
795,  657  78 

1866 

1874 

1867 

1875          

1868 

1876 

1869 

6,  205,  244  32 
4,  529,  126  02 
3,  091,  469  18 
2.  1)54,  783  00 

1877 

1870 

1878  

1871 

1879  

1872 

1880 

Table  showing  the  average  prices  of  sperm  and  irltttle  oil  per  gallon  and  whalebone  each  month  from  1868  to  1880. 


1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

January  : 

$**  00 

$1  S5 

$1   '"Ti 

$1  55 

$1  50 

$1  50 

$1  69J 

$1  60 

$1  04,«, 

$0  90 

$1  04,. 

64 

1  10 

69 

65 

66 

61 

66J 

67*. 

$0  70 

55 

35 

1  113 

1  10 

1  15 

1  0~i 

1!   Mil 

2  39 

February  : 

2  00 

1  5IJ 

1  32 

1  54 

1  53 

1  60 

1  78 

I    .'i4 

1  31 

1  Olft 

no 

1  04 

Whale  oil  

66 

1   U 

74 

GO 

73 

64 

CO 

65 

65 

70 

52 

37 

57 

1   14 

1  DO 

1  40 

1  69* 

3  00 

2  26 

March  : 

2  00 

1  93 

1   54* 

i  :M 

1  00 

1  52* 

1  111! 

1  84 

1  50 

I  26 

1  03 

85 

1  06 

Whale  oil  .... 

70 

1  13 

62 

71 

08 

63 

6G 

62J 

68 

50 

37 

52 

1  28 

1  OG 

1   6  i 

2  10 

2  10 

April: 

2  00 

1  40 

1  28J 

1  56 

1  52 

1  80 

1  43 

81 

1  02 

Whale  oil                   ... 

73 

1  05 

69 

58 

69 

66 

63 

65 

621. 

65 

50 

36 

48 

1    ''I! 

1   10 

1  75 

2  65 

2  82 

2  02 

May: 

2  00 

1  93 

III 

1  "ii 

1  53 

1  48 

1  55 

1  711 

1  ::7 

1  20 

H4 

77 

1  02} 

Whole  oil 

77 

1  03 

66} 

55 

69 

62 

60 

65 

55 

63 

45 

35 

47 

1  55 

1  10 

2  50 

L'   :.l) 

2  00 

June: 

2  00 

1  85 

1  38 

1  22J 

1  40 

1  42 

1  52 

4  55 

I  35 

1  19 

87* 

75 

93) 

Wbale  oil                            

80 

1  03 

C3i 

54 

62 

61 

60 

B2 

58 

53 

41 

36 

45 

Whalebone  .  . 

1  -J5 

1  09 

2  00 

2  40 

2  50 

2  18 

*  The  followiu^  additional  data  have  been  received  since  the  above  w»s  compiled  :  Average  price  of  sperm  oil  per  gallon  in  1881, 
in  1882,  $1.00;  in  18.-:).  !(7  cenls;  in  1884,  85  cents.    Whale  oil  in  1881,  48 cents ;  in  1882,  58i  cents;  in!883,  54  cents;  in  1884,  56  i-.-uI*. 
bone  per  pound  in  1881,  $1.63  j  in  1882,  $1.71 ;  in  1883,  $2.87  ;  in  1884,  $3.55. 


5  cents ; 

U'lialo. 


168  HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 

.!  iihlr  showing  the  </nr<f//f  ju'i<  i  *  <>l  .syir;  in  u  ml  trlmh'  <m  y..r  <i>illini  <i  ml  u-Jmli  fnmr  t  <t<  I    >,,'»•  ill  I'm  in  1HIS  to  16^4.1 — C  OH  tinned. 


* 

1808. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

187S. 

1879. 

1880. 

July: 

$1  89J 

$l'79 

$1  33 

$1  23 

$1  38 

$1  40 

$1  55 

$1  50  J 

$1  31 

$1  16 

$0  88 

:-'•  i    7". 

i  i   -  - 

Whale  oil 

80 

1  04 

G6i 

55 

61 

62 

58 

i  I 

50 

•"tLI-J 

1  "8 

1  18 

1  10 

2  00 

August  : 

1  80 

1  76 

1  33 

1   24 

1  S8 

1  47 

1  57 

1  40 

1   28 

1  15 

91  A 

90 

"Whale  oil 

85$ 

or. 

694 

84 

64 

i;:> 

58 

70 

55 

51 

43 

35 

1  "4 

1  15 

1  15 

2  00 

2    '>« 

•>   qrt 

September: 

1  86 

1  77 

1  "0 

1  24J 

1   35 

1  50 

1  61 

1    IS 

1  '>7i 

1   1  1 

87  ^ 

7| 

94 

"Whale  oil 

1  OOj 

1  00 

64 

55 

64 

61 

57i 

67 

55 

51 

39 

37 

5>>i 

1  32 

1  15 

1   1" 

2  15 

0  (15 

•'  "". 

i  i,  tobei  . 

1    !l."i 

1  7."> 

1  23 

26 

1  35 

1  4" 

1  M 

1  48 

1  40 

1   ll'l 

8'V- 

98 

"Whale  oil 

i  i":; 

1  00 

OCJ 

661 

r>2 

60 

1  u 

IT 

58 

51 

;;s-7 

i  35 

1  20 

1  10 

"   5(1 

•i  <J5 

l    OU 

1  75 

November: 

1  80 

1  7" 

1  "3J 

1  50 

1  47 

1  42 

i  t;~> 

i  :.i 

1  40 

1  08 

1   i'ii 

98 

Wliale  oil 

90 

!l" 

63* 

66 

7l) 

.~>1 

37* 

5ll 

1  30 

1  20 

3  00 

11  (Hi 

1  ::u 

December: 

1  75 

1    .VI 

1  °2 

1  57 

1  50 

1  50 

i  IH 

l  604 

'    HI 

1  03 

83A 

i- 

Whale  oil 

85 

84 

64 

67 

62 

64 

70 

65 

55 

35 

50 

1  10 

1  18 

1    D2 

:;  tit; 

"    III! 

1  30 

Yearly  avei.i  ; 

i  »2 

1   78 

1  35 

1  35 

1  45i 

1  48 

1  59 

1     Hi   ' 

1  411* 

1  13 

91* 

84  j 

09 

Whale  oil 

82 

1  01J 

67i 

60 

65A 

6'' 

60J 

65j 

56 

52 

44 

39 

51 

1  24 

70 

1  L'sj 

1  08 

1  10 

1    l 

1   96 

•  r.ii 

2  46 

2  34 

2  00 

Tabli  xliijiti»;i  muiiHiJi/  receipts  nl'  "/'  mill  irlnili'lioin-  from  lite  whaliiii/  Jlci'l  nf  tin-  '  (i  •  J'nun  1>I>8  to  18^(1. 


1871. 

1S72. 

1873. 

1874. 

1870. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

January  : 

"  713 

182 

1    08  "> 

•  •  1  '  s 

588 

Whale  oil                         <!<» 

396 

201 

U4f, 

73 

4  III 

893 

in 

1   857 

449 

(;-, 

26  73  ' 

47  195 

"  l"j 

•Tl  4.-1 

60  605 

"1   '144 

•']    "    s 

i  •  r  ;{ 

February: 

1   HII4 

1  086 

595 

•>  7Q1 

Whale  oil                      .do 

400 

217 

1   100 

115 

2  037 

1   208 

17 

3  014 

22 

893 

'  815 

3  361 

124  000 

9  967 

March  : 

720 

7118 

1,817 

48G 

1  014 

86  1 

:- 

899 

1  °41 

373 

2  Ms 

7  !I97 

2  174 

8,975 

2  980 

1   1S2 

"  507 

l'J0 

117 

353 

3  078 

3  095 

350 

1  396 

Whalebone  ll<s 

i 

17,  sun 

'.14,  d'.ic, 

1  •  ir.ii 

.,  .,]., 

395 

2  225 

April  : 

'.',    l"4 

5    11' 

4  730 

o  373 

2  "4  n 

2  791 

960 

''  179 

o  074 

1  789 

443 

^  "46 

85 

Whale  oil                       <lo 

16  664 

22  610 

5  717 

33  G14 

1  155 

3  788 

11   l  Tp  1 

lit    (T)S 

L5   li.M 

2  307 

4  ii::7 

1   ->75 

7  S60 

"Whalebone  Ibs.  . 
May: 
Sperm  oil  bbls.  . 
Whale  oil  do... 

257,  5i;.". 

4,305 
19,  609 

3,  131 
22,  043 
25  736 

105,  7S5 

13,481 

20,  537 
fiO  170 

319,967 

3,453 
9,407 

37  045 

2,855 

7,007 
5,001 

4,850 

(i,  133 
10,109 

;;  *'77 

IS.  7U!) 

1.  303 

2  940 

5,740 
12,  086 

14,  M'll 

3,383 
3,  13tl 
300 

2,351 
4,602 
4  189 

2,335 

4,587 
2,872 

4,ii4i; 
1,956 

1  "74 

c.  '.!::; 

5,  102 
4,149 

"•I  U46 

June: 

5  3°4 

6  301 

7  4')S 

4  900 

11  369 

4  ir'4 



';  4i;s 

3  954 

8  693 

8  °31 

-  1  32 

Whale  oil  do  .. 

5,  745 
7  401 

5,684 
19  830 

17,  2o:i 

""  71  ; 

7,  642 
8  904 

8,839 
4  16° 

7,298 
3  59° 

7,068 
1  'J30 

1,905 
595 

3,228 
5*il 

4,915 

•'n  1  17 

2,  709 
14  384 

1,460 

6,  877 

llj    4118 

July: 
Speiin  oil  bills.  . 
Whale  oil  do 

2,799 
l  382 

1,930 
8  '36 

7,  732 
4  798 

9,342 
5  414 

4,854 
1  °13 

2,  273 
487 

3,  078 
1    4  08 

1"2 

7,  329 
558 

5,  062 
1  310 

6,861 
f  59S 

5,  2114 
809 

3,484 
1  089 

WhalfliKH.    ...            ...Ibs. 

9.698 

13.000 

250 

10.798 

1.  !I51 

1.6SO 

3.  141 

22.  442 

5.018 

4.881 

TIIK   \\IIALK    KISMKKY.  1C,;) 

In  hi  !•  xii<iii-iiuj  monthly  receipt*  nf  nil  ninl  whalebone  from  ""•  «•//»// »</./'''<•'  <>i  ""•  '  'iitinl  ,S7«  .'(•.>,•  t'lnm  I  MIS  to  1880 — Conl'd. 


1868. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

1875. 

1876. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

An^nst: 

Sperm  oil  bbls  -  - 

7,742 

6,620 

4,203 

8,557 

!>,  557 

4,811 

4,599 

5,293 

3,441 

4,409 

2,226 

2,918 

Whale  oil                       do 

ti,  iu:> 

'.!,  251.'. 

3,  04  1 

3,862 

5,662 

3,501 

2,  547 

804 

816 

1,  911 

4,  459 

1    '.Hi!! 

1  6  "4 

Whalebone  Ibs.  . 

21,042 

28,  008 

17,  720 

14,  475 

•>.  !K>4 

22,  719 

8,334 

1,044 

11.1)27 

September: 

Sperm  oil  1.1.  Is. 

0,903 

9,213 

7,012 

4,535 

2,293 

4,  225 

7,001 

8,813 

5,140 

4,017 

5,1  5:1 

3,971 

4,  592 

Whale  oil  do.. 

4,779 

4,399 

3,841 

4,855 

2,  434 

7,  103 

1,274 

4,499 

1,061 

1,691 

2,147 

2,  427 

1,485 

Whalebone  Ibs.  . 

29,  006 

20,  365 

4,149 

2,  200 

25,422 

:;,  sic.7 

18,  652 

14,011 

350 

13,  549 

5,  19:{ 

Ortnl.i-i-  : 

Sperm  oil  bbls.  . 

6,  690 

3.444 

7,366 

2,017 

5,  1K2 

3,295 

3,646 

3,395 

3,  *44 

4,279 

3,520 

3.695 

4.  22K 

Whole  oil                       do 

1,972 

5,  401 

3,  237 

1,  950 

4,  013 

1,  604 

4,383 

1,  858 

L'  (is:; 

3  576 

1  555 

210 

3  501 

Whalebone  Ibs  .  . 

2,932 

22,  795 

41.  105 

27,  244 

9,877 

10,  009 

1,  4im 

18,411 

]5,  290 

59,  0511 

19,  150 

November: 

S|iel  [U  Oil  bills. 

2,  440 

4,717 

961 

1,177 

1,455 

4,318 

79 

3,215 

4,740 

2,  H74 

3,519 

Whale  oil  do 

8GG 

3,  194 

3,  953 

3,589 

704 

1.00 

772 

2,344 

1,  4:;i 

75(1 

1,  982 

5,  308 

605 

Whalebone    Ibs.. 

13,  630 

29,  336 

60,  000 

7,696 

2,  092 

28,  295 

':  300 

1  '  ii"'i 

31,  534 

135,  lino 

1  '.-ri  mber: 

- 

Sperm  oil  bMs. 

485 

3,  284 

330 

1,712 

?,  758 

3,  577 

6,739 

2,  iii-j 

l',910 

1,345 

6,394 

4,  3*3 

Whale  oil                      do 

1,  413 

524 

33 

684 

1  .  210 

1,270 

344 

377 

739 

1  977 

1,  270 

2,  704 

Whalebone  Ibs.  . 

112,  000 

5,000 

66,  000 

133,  900 

20,  300 

99,  009 

142,  396 

14,920 

on,  77:: 

59,  633 

105,453 

240,512 

RECAPITULATION.— (Total  receipts  earli  year.) 


Sperm  oil  hbls.  . 
Whale  oil  do 

47,  174 
65  575 

47,  936 
85  Oil 

55,  183 
72  691 

41,  534 

75  152 

45,  201 
31  075 

42,  033 
40  014 

:;;  782 

42,  Ci]  7 
34  594 

39,811 
33  010 

41,  11!) 
27  191 

43,  508 
33  778 

41,  308 
23  3'14 

37,  614 
34  770 

W  halebone  Ibs.  . 

900,  850 

603,  603 

708,  365 

600,  055 

193,  793 

2iiii,  ::no 

345,  560 

372,  HI.:: 

150,  028 

Kill,  2211 

207,  259 

286,  280 

404,  c-.'K 

The  following  statement  shows  the  quantities  of  oil  and  bone  lauded  by  the  American  Heet  and 
the  total  value  of  the  same  from  1804  to  1880.*  The  statistics  are  compiled  from  Starbuck's  His 
tory  of  the  Whale  Fishery  nud  from  the  Whalemen's  Shipping  List.  The  total  \  it-Id  «>f  this  fishery 
for  the  entire  period  is  seen  to  be  166,604,496  gallons  of  sperm  oil,  270,727,205  gallons  of  whale  oil, 
and  76,386,148  pounds  of  whalebone,  having  a  total  value  of  8340,204,873. 

Scammoi)  estimates  that  sperm  whales  will  average  25  and  right  whales  60  barrels  of  oil,  and 
of  the  former  10  and  of  the  latter  20  per  cent,  of  those  killed  are  lost.  Upon  that  basis  the  above 
amounts  of  oil  would  represent  the  slaughter  of  about  232,790  sperm  and  196,0112  right  whales. 

*The  following  additional  statistics  have  lieen  received  since  tins  statement  \v.is  compiled  : 


Tear. 

Gallons 
sperm  oil. 

Gallons 
whale  oil. 

Pouu 

\\  h;il<-l. 

1881 

963  900 

096,  975 

368 

1882             

941  340 

736,  186 

271 

1883 

774  742 

761,355 

254 

1884  . 

096  118 

777,  105 

£6 

! 
ir 

Total  value. 

00 

$1,  92U,  G20 

'.19 

1,801,779 

137 

1,891,716 

168 

2,  542,  614 

170 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OF  THE  FISHERIES. 


Production  of  oil  nml  Imni'  Inj  the  American  wliaJini/Jli'it  <in<l  lulnl  r/iliic  nf  xnmr  from  1804  to  !"<>. 


Tear. 

Callous 
.1  oil. 

Average 
price 
per  gallon. 

Gallons 
whale  oil. 

Average 
price 
per  gallon. 

Pounds 
whalebone. 

Average 
price 
per  pound. 

Total  value. 

7  983  110 

IS,  159,836 

841,  940 

$16,941,493  57 

1821 

1,357,618 

67* 

1,213,506 

33 

62,  893 

12 

1,324,396  29 

l.V"                                                       ...  ,  

.1,350 

65 

1,619,951 

32 

50,  799 

12 

1,402,857  70 

1823                                         -  .    

938,351 

43 

1,  697,  440 

32 

103,  404 

13 

1,820,114  25 

1824                                      

:  1,091,064 

45* 

1,  833,  237 

30 

133,  472 

13 

1,  973,  756  58 

IS^S                                 

1,0-4,303 

70J 

1,  666,  413 

32 

152,  534 

15 

1,  912,  765  87 

1826                            .             

019,  800 

75 

1,  108,  233 

30 

79,  368 

16 

1,  035,  018  78 

1827                                 

2,  958,  480 

72i 

1,119,037 

30 

106,  255 

18 

2,499,735  00 

1828                               

2,  475,  176 

62*. 

1,  591,  790 

26 

137,  323 

25 

1,995,181  15 

1829                              

2,  350,  152 

61J 

2,  256,  502 

26 

563,  654 

25 

2,  172,  947  50 

1830                                 

3,  482,  042 

65J. 

2,  831,  315 

39 

514,  991 

20 

3,  487,  949  56 

1831                                   

3,  636,  738 

'  71 

3,  609,  774 

30 

279,  279 

17 

4,  139,  790  61 

1832                                   

2,  299,  563 

85 

5,  703,  894 

442,  881 

13 

3,352,618  17 

1833                            

~0,  765 

85 

5,  153,  148 

26 

266,  432 

13 

4,  170,  754  89 

1834                                 .            

3,  891,  573 

72* 

4,14 

27J 

343,  324 

21 

4,033,317  55 

1835                                   

5,  181,  523 

84 

3,  950,  289 

39 

965,  192 

21 

6,095,787  :i;i 

1836                             

4,  200,  021 

89 

4,  301,  892 

44 

1,  028,  773 

25 

5,  888,  044  42 

1837                               

129,138 

82J 

6,  389,  995 

35 

1.753,104 

20 

6,983,  ii."i7  '.in 

1838                             

4,  076,  100 

86 

7,  204,  365 

32 

1,200,000 

20 

6,  250,  842  80 

1839                                         

4,  408,  866 

1  05 

7,  040,  975 

36 

2,  00(1,  OUO 

18 

7,524,0110  30 

1840                                         

4.928,017 

1  00 

6,  408,  391 

30 

2,  1100,  OCO 

19 

7,230,534  30 

1841                                            

156,304 

94 

6,459,510 

32 

2,  000,  000 

20 

7,  125,  970  88 

1842                                        

>G,  105 

73 

4,  876,  232 

34 

2,  500,  000 

23 

4,379,812  03 

1  -4:;                                            

5,  260,  027 

63 

6,511,900 

34 

1,127,270 

36 

6,  293.  680  21 

1844                                         

4,239,711 

III!.' 

8,  254,  481 

36,', 

2,  532,  445 

40 

7,  875,  970  38 

1845                                 

4,  967,  550 

88 

8,  593,  483 

33 

2,  195,  054 

34 

8,283,611  75 

1846                                 

3,  155,  481 

87J 

6,  589,  737 

33J 

3,  252,  939 

34 

6,203,115  43 

1847                                         

3,  803,  719 

I  00} 

9,86 

36 

3,  341,  680 

31 

8,419  288  49 

1848                                 

3,401,274 

1  00 

8,  840,  663 

33 

3,  003,  000 

25 

6,  81?  442  78 

1849                                         

3,  179,  736 

1  08? 

7,  827,  498 

39}} 

2,281,100 

21] 

7,  069  953  74 

1850                                        -  - 

2,  926,  098 

1  20/5 

(i,  319,  152 

49ft 

2,  869,  200 

7,  564,  124  72 

1851                                       

3,  137,  llti 

1  27i 

10,  347,  214 

45,\ 

2,  916,  500 

344 

10,  031.  744  0.1 

1852                                       

2,  484.  468 

1  23J 

•2,  652,  647 

68J 

1,  259,  900 

50  1 

5,505,4119  i-'J 

1853                                     

10,  925 

1  24J 

8,  193,  591 

58} 

5,  652,  300 

34A 

10,  760.  521  2(1 

1854                               

2,  315,  924 

1  4SJ 

10,  074,  866 

59$ 

3,  445,  200 

]0,  S02,  594  'JO 

1855                                     

2  288,443 

1  77=,- 

5,  796,  472 

71ft 

3,  707,  500 

45i 

9,  413,  14X  93 

1856                                        

2,  549,  642 

1  62 

6,  233,  535 

79i 

2,  592,  700 

58 

9,  589,  846  36 

1857                                         

2  470,860 

1  28J 

7,  274,  641 

73J 

2,  058,  850 

90S 

10,  491,  548  90 

1858                                       

2,  581,  142 

1  21 

:>,  740,  025 

54 

2,  571,  200 

92} 

7,  672,  227  31 

1859                                       

2  879,  352 

1  36J 

5,  997,  946 

48.'. 

1,9 

68 

8,  525,  108  91 

I860 

•>  306,  934 

1  41* 

4,  410,  158 

49} 

1,  337,  650 

80J 

6,  520,  135  12 

1861                     .             

2,171,358 

1  31ft 

4,212,085 

441 

1,  038,  45 

6G 

5,415,090  59 

1862                                 

1  42} 

3,  165,  057 

59J 

763,  500 

88 

5,051,781  64 

1SC3                                       

2,  049,  232 

1  01 

1,  983,  681 

9",J 

488,  750 

1  53 

5,  936,  507  17 

1SU4                               

1  1)27,718 

1  891 

2,  203,  685 

1  28 

760,  450 

i  «"•; 

8,113,922  07 

1805                                          

1,04-7,123 

2  25ft 

2,  401.  497 

1  4f> 

619,  350 

1  71} 

6,906,650  51 

1866                               

1,154,885 

2  55 

2,  340,  513 

1  21 

920,  375 

1  37 

7,037,891  23 

1867                               

1,368,139 

2  27 

2,  812,  603 

73J 

1,  001,  397 

i  17; 

6,356,772  51 

1868        

1,485,981 

1  92 

2,  065,  613 

82 

900.  850 

1  02?, 

5,  470,  157  43 

1869    

1,509,984 

1  S1J 

2,  677,  846 

1  01J 

603,  603 

1  23 

6,  205,  2J4  32 

1870  

1,738,265 

1  36} 

2,  289,  767 

67} 

708,  365 

85 

4,  529,  120  02 

1871  

1,308,321 

1  31 

2,367,288 

64 

600,  655 

77 

3,691,469  18 

1872 

1  423.832 

1  4-'iJ 

973,  OS4 

05* 

1  28J 

2,954,783  00 

1873 

1   324  6i'i9 

1  47J 

1.  200,  441 

621 

1  OSi 

2.  '.ir.2,  10G  96 

1874 

1  014,395 

1  59 

1,190.133 

CO* 

843,  500 

1  10 

2,713,034  51 

1875 

1,342,435 

i  I;H\ 

1,089,711 

65i 

372,  30.'! 

1  20 

3,314,800  24 

1876 

1,254,047 

i   in'. 

1,  039,  815 

56 

1  96 

2,639 

1877 

1  295,249 

i  l:: 

856,  510 

52 

"          100,  220 

2,  3u9.  509  69 

1878                   

1,  370,  502 

914 

1,  064,  007 

44 

207,259 

2  40 

2  232.  029  55 

1870                                                  

1,  301,  202 

84J 

39 

286,  280 

2  34 

2,050,060  in 

1880  

1,184,841 

99 

1,  395,  414 

51 

164,028 

2  00 

2,659,725  (i:: 

l>  i    004  496 

•'70  7"7,  2ll'i 

76,  380,  148 

340,  204,  873  86 

'  Year  ended  December  31, 18SO 


TIIK  \\IIAI, i, 


171 


(c)  STATISTICS    UK    TUB   WHALING    I  LKF.T. 

.\iiHilrrnf  irliitliiKj  I'tsni'ls  lirloiiiiiiii/  In  Ilir  wri-nil  ports  of  tin    1'nili  il  >'/«/<» •  in    .laiiunnj  I  <•/  nn7i  _//•«)•  I'rom 1640  to  1880. 

|  \Vi-fla  liltcil  fur  Antniviii- fi'.ilini'  .in •  mnittril.    They  belong  mostly  al  Slimm^t'in  .mil    NOT   I  .<i.,li,n   ami  number  I'MOU  ton  tu  twenty  in 
each  year.     Tlio  ddtfftla  "I'  tlio  st-almi:  flrer  art-  ^ivin  in  a  subsr.jui';  t  rbaptiT  nf  Ibis  volume.] 


L840. 

1841. 

1842. 

1843. 

1K41. 

1845. 

1846. 

1847. 

!    1848. 

1849. 

I-  iO 

1851. 

1852. 

L853. 

l'.:il  nst:i!i!r.   Mass  

1 

1 

I'.atli    Mr 

J 

I'.rv.-rlv,    M:ISH 

1 

2 

3 

3 

1 

2 

•' 

5 

3 

1 

3 

1 

\ 

1 

inn  r,  i  '.nin     -  

:t 

:i 

3 

3 

;i 

:i 

•  i 

hi'Miul,  R.  I  

i; 

r> 

5 

10 

7 

r. 

0 

Q 

1 

1 

1 

<Vld  Sprint   V    V 

• 

2 

-• 

4 

7 

g 

g 

g 

„ 

_ 

;j 

: 

2 

1 

1 

1 

" 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1  'or  rlirstt'l1,  Mass       _  

•j 

2 

•> 

Duxlilll'V,    Mu,ss     

1 

1 

1 

Eil-aitowu,  Mass   
tven,  Mass      ...   . 
F.ilnmtith,  Mass  

s 

41 
g 

8 
44 
8 

9 

4:. 
7 

13 

49 

7 

10 
45 
5 

11 

4.-, 
5 

10 

48 

4 

9 
48 
4 

8 
50 

8 
4!l 

:i 

c 

46 

6 
45 
3 

9 

."u 
3 

;i 
49 
3 

l-'i-  •<  tnwn,  Mass  

1 

1 

•j 

2 

1 

~ 

iport,  \.  Y    

-  Hcli-,   Ma>s  

Hudson,  X.  Y  

s 

I 
8 

4 
4 
g 

3 

•) 

8 
3 

2 

Hi 
3 
I 

11 
4 

11 
4 

11 
3 

10 

a 

HI 
3 

11) 
3 

9 

II 
4 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

2 

-> 

2 

3 

3 

2 

•' 

•> 

2 

•  i 

2 

Mattapoisett,  Mass    

ii 

8 

s 

5 

i.i 

HI 
8 

'.1 

1" 

in 
is 

11 

11 
15 

in 

16 

11 
11 

0 

10 

13 

10 

15 
9 

81 

78 

s;j 

88 

CO 

77 

71 

71 

60 

62 

5C 

Nr\v  Bedford,  Mass  

177 
:t 

IT4 

;; 

1711 
2 

211 

2 

•J19 
1 

239 

t 

IX 

254 

248 

250 

238 
] 

*i49 

282 

311 

Xew  Suffolk,  X.  Y  

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

» 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

New  London,  Couu  

:;;i 

3  ; 
10 

31 

42 
L2 

46 
12 

61 
11 

70 
11 

7 
9 

5» 

48 

44 

4-2 
4 

41 

45 

X«w  York,  X.  Y  

3 

3 

2 

3 

2 

1 

1 

Xrwark,  X.  J 

1 

1 

1 

•J 

1 

1 

2 

3 

Plymouth,  Mass  

:i 

3 

6 

9 

7 

5 

4 

., 

1 

1 

Portland,  Me 

1 

1 

1 

Portsmouth,  N.  H    

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Ponghkeepsie,  X.  Y  

6 

i; 

G 

4 

1 

g 

3 

•j 

g 

R 

9 

<t 

8 

G 

4 

3 

2 

•i 

2 

I'rn\  incetown,  Mass    ... 

1 

13 

1C 

; 

17 

19 

23 

IS 

15 

10 

10 
] 

27 

30 

27 

Iin<  In  ster,  Mass    

15 

Sag  Harlmr   X.  Y 

3] 

31 

30 

44 

49 

60 

63 

62 

50 

41 

23 

15 

18 

19 

1  i 

14 

1" 

12 

6 

5 

2 

2 

2 

1 

Sandwich,  M,i  - 

1 

2 

Sippii/an,  Mass    

6 

g 

g 

7 

4 

5 

5 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

2 

1 

i 

1 

1 

Stimington,  Conn 

11 

8 

:i 

14 

13 

20 

26 

27 

24 

•M 

18 

L6 

1 

17 
1 

16 
1 

Wareham,  Ma^s 
Warren,  R.  I 

21 

19 

i  - 

"1 

4 
10 

6 

20 

6 

25 

4 

1 

1 
15 

1 
15 

1 
17 

1 
10 

g 

g 

In 

15 

11 

11 

11 

13 

14 

15 

15 

16 

19 

22 

Wilmington,  Del 

, 

5 

-, 

3 

3 

1 

•  -set,  Me 

i 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Total  

512 

535 

554 

654 

tU7 

683 

722 

651 

647 

608 

539 

546 

611 

648 

172 


HISTORY  AND  METHODS  OP  THE  FISHERIES. 

iniln  r  »/'  ii'liitliiii/  ii  .::•<  In  l><  luii;/  iiiy  to  tlie  sereral  JIOI-/K  of  l>n    t'ni:cil  .»>'«,  Y.S-,  .('-<•  —  Con!  innril. 


1854. 

1855. 

1856. 

1857. 

1858. 

1859. 

1860. 

1861. 

18G2. 

18iH. 

18G4. 

1865. 

1866. 

1867. 

5 

5 

4 

2 

2 

3 

3 

9 

1 

2 

2 

2 

2 

*> 

1 

5 

3 

3 

Cold  Spring  N.  Y  

7 

7 

5 

5 

5 

4 

4 

9 

2 

3 

6 

9 

1U 

10 

10 

9 

6 

5 

4 

4 

4 

3 

3 

10 

12 

13 

17 

19 

18 

18 

16 

12 

8 

7 

6 

6 

o 

49 

45 

48 

40 

40 

45 

42 

39 

29 

18 

9 

7 

g 

9 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

4 

4 

3 

2 

9 

9 

2 

1 

1 

1 

Greenport,  N.  Y  .  

10 

10 

11 

9 

7 

4 

2 

1 

4 

4 

5 

4 

2 

2 

-) 

1 

1 

1 

1 

j 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Itattapoisett,  Mass  

15 

If. 

15 

18 

19 

19 

19 

18 

9 

5 

3 

2 

9 

11 

7 

0 

5 

4 

4 

9 

47 

4:. 

1" 

41 

S8 

34 

18 

13 

1.1 

10 

7 

•> 

c 

Xcw  B.fllc.nl,  Mass  

::i-l 

:ni 

329 

M4 

316 

301 

291 

260 

L'l'i  i 

197 

175 

164 

181 
2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

46 

4.'. 

44 

54 

51 

45 

36 

•"I 

Hi 

13 

1C 

19 

15 

18 

5 

5 

4 

:i 

3 

2 

XVw  York,  X.  Y  

1 

Orleans,  Mass  

5 

5 

4 

4 

4 

4 

3 

3 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Provincetowu.  Mass     . 
Sas  Ilarbor.  N.  Y  

87 
20 

] 

18 
19 

1 

20 
16 
1 

22 
18 

28 
20 
1 

26 
20 
1 

26 
19 

1 

;r, 

17 

i 

28 
11 

30 

9 
1 

25 
6 
1 

23 
8 
[ 

33 
8 

4". 

7 

Sandwich,  Mass  

2 

2 

1 

1 

] 

I 

i 

1 

1 

2 

9 

3 

5 

6 

(} 

5 

4 

3 

3 

o 

2 

Stmiinjiton,  Conn  

15 

14 

16 

6 

5 

4 

4 

1 

1 

Warebara,  Mass  

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

Warren,   R.  I   ... 
Wt'lltleet,  Mass  

17 

1C 

14 

15 

15 

13 

10 

4 

3 

2 

2 

1 

"Westport,  Mass                . 

22 

21 

21 

19 

20 

L'O 

17 

15 

15 

11 

10 

!) 

9 



Co'-' 

131 

6.'5 

642 

6:16 

lit.  9 

561 

504 

416 

;}02 

301 

271 

25S 

307 

]  Mis. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

is;:;. 

1874. 

]K7,-,. 

187C. 

1877. 

1878. 

1879. 

1880. 

1'"    *  <'l  IV,    M:I.SS  

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

a 

10 

8 

7 

.  6 

5  ' 

4 

<j 

7 

3 

3 

3 

3 

9 

7 

7 

6 

4 

3 

1 

9 

2 

3 

6 

13 

12 

XI 

g 

6 

1 

1 

1 

4 

6 

5 

9 

3 

3 

NaDtncket,  Mass  

7 

8 

8 

6 

3 

1 

1*1 

178 

176 

176 

143 

113 

XuAvburyport,  Mass   

3 

3 

3 

New  London,  Conn  

14 

15 

15 

14 

10 

10 

9 

_ 

Xi-w  York,  N.  T  

2 

5 

5 

3 

9 

53 

54 

49 

97 

16 

San  Harbor,  N.Y.     

7 

5 

4 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

Salem,  Masa  

4 

4 

3 

3 

1 

5 

Tisburv,  Mass  

1 

1 

1 

1 

"Wellfleet.  Mass  

1 

1 

1 

10 

10 

9 

9 

Total 

3°3 

31!1 

' 

_ 

TIIM  \VHALK  FISHERY. 


173 


fi  i  mix  i.liilislii'n  iij'  tin1  ii-lniliii:i  Jlirl  for  1880.* 


Port. 

Xumlirr 

lit'  Yi'SSi    Is. 

Tmina^i'. 

Numlu't 
of  crew. 

vessels. 

Value  of 

outfit. 

Q 

,    . 

131 

$34  000 

20 

l  *i:;s  "i" 

331 

68  800 

2 

17,'p  ;ts 

34 

G  500 

1  446  32 

211 

48  000 

80  000 

r 

8G6.41 

03 

17  000 

'i 

408  3:t 

... 

h,  MIHI 

1 

"'H    r)0 

,2 

:;i  "ics  >:; 

;;    !20 

M     i) 

, 

98  '   i  ' 

1  1  f 

,   • 



Tut    1 

171 

::s  i;;;:;  :;s 

I     1MX 

)    i  in  3i  ii 

1,775,330 

*Sinee  Hie  \ear  1SCO  tlio  fbct  lias  been  meatl.v  rcdnrcd.     Aeeonling  to  an  annual  review  of  the  \\halr  Qsbcry,  inililisbed  by  I.  II.  Bart- 

li  It  A  Si  MI,,  pf  NY\\-  r.idl'iird,  I  ho  lie.  t  on  .Taimaiy  1,  1M-5,  numbered  '.>:;  *hi],s  :md    bail.  H,  I)  Ini^s,  and  114  sell -is,  a;:uiei;atin;;  ill,'-""  tuin. 

The  S.:n  I'VaneiM-n  lire!  lias  ineie:iM-il  t"  17  M'ssels,  this  port  liavhiL:  benmie  I  be  headquarters  of  must  "f  I  In-  Xurlli  Pacific  fleet.      Slalislies 
nl  the  Xni  t  h  1'aeilic  llei  t  I    r  eai  h  \  ear  sim  e  t  hi'  tie^iunini;  of  Hie  lislie.lv  ale  .iiiven  en  iirei'etliny;  pages. 

'i'lic  names  and  other  details  of  each  vessel  in  the  fleet  are  jjiven  in  Section  VI  of  this  report. 
The  total  capital  invested  in  the  whaling  fleet,  wharves,  store-houses,  and  whale  nil  relinei  ies  in 
1880,  was  $4,(»2J,(M». 

Xlittniicitt  xlioiriiii/  Ilif  liiiiiiili/i-  nf  n-xsi'tii  I'liqilniji'il  in  tin-  1'iii/ftl  Xtn.ti*  irini/r  ji^/n  ri/  I'ruin  IT'.M  1»  !•--  1. 

[Compiled  I'lKin  the  Report  of  tbe  Commissioner  of  Navigation  for  1884.     The  years,  eseeptiDg  1835  and  KS43,  wbic-b  end  September  :;(i  and 

June  30,  respectively,  elose  witb  Deecmber  :;l  | 


Vra 

Tons. 

Tear. 

Tons. 

Year. 

Tons. 

1794 

4,129 

is'jr. 

;c.  1179 

1856 

1J-9  4111 

179-, 

3  103 

i-  ii 

41  984 

1857 

195  842 

1796 

2  364 

1827 

45  992 

1858 

198  594 

1797 

1  104 

1828 

54  801 

1859 

185  728 

1798 

763 

1829 

r>7  ->.4 

I860 

1G6  841 

1799 

5  647 

1830 

39  705 

1861 

145  734 

1800 

3  466 

1831 

82  797 

1862 

11